- Peter Andrew Tamás (1)
- Rutgerd Boelens (2)
- Marieke Evelien Meesters (1)
- Robert Fletcher (1)
- Jelle Hendrik Behagel (1)
- Lena Hommes (1)
- Harro Maat (1)
- Fons Overbeek van (1)
- Edwin Rap (1)
- Carolina Valladares (1)
- Flip Wester (1)
Claim-making through subjectivation : A governmentality analysis of associational performance to claim land in the hybridity of peri-urban Bukavu
Overbeek, Fons van; Tamás, Peter Andrew - \ 2018
Geoforum (2018). - ISSN 0016-7185
Associations - Claim-making - DR Congo - Governmentality - Hybridity - Land governance
Those who have settled in Bukavu's periphery in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo cannot rely on statutory title or practices to secure their claims to land. Land is scarce, institutional competition rampant, and predation endemic. Land administration in Bukavu is a paradigmatic case of hybridity: there are a diversity of interpenetrating but competing governance structures, sets of rules, logics of behavior, and technologies by which claims to land may be secured. Motivated by hybridity's promise of moving beyond normative and often functionalist preoccupations, this study departs from the prevailing actor-oriented approaches on claim-making and instead focuses on the hybridizing, regulatory mechanisms through which subjects become able to make claims to land. For this study we use an ethnographic understanding of Foucault's Governmentality as that framework allows us to examine subjectivation of land claimants: the technologies, conditions, and effects of the processes of subject formation. In this paper we examine subjectivation within the urban associations which support their members’ claims to land. Each example discussed offers both a description of the technologies by which subjects able to author claims are formed and illuminates distinct aspects of our theoretical framework, governmentality. When looking at claim-making through subjectivation, we find that framework well-fitted to explore ways in which hybridity in land administration in Bukavu may restrict the progress of the most poor by making visible the costs of becoming a subject who may make a valid claim to land.
The Social Licence to Operate : Ambiguities and the neutralization of harm in Mongolia
Meesters, Marieke Evelien ; Behagel, Jelle Hendrik - \ 2017
Resources Policy 53 (2017). - ISSN 0301-4207 - p. 274 - 282.
Communities - Extractive industry - Governance - Governmentality - Oyu Tolgoi - SLO
The Social Licence to Operate (SLO) is increasingly used in extractive industries both as a response to calls for greater community engagement and as a corporate sustainability strategy. Given its current popularity as a policy instrument, critiques on the SLO deserve attention. Critiques mainly focus on ambiguities that surround the processes of granting and maintaining the SLO. This article explores the negative social and environmental impacts that these ambiguities may obscure from sight. It applies a critical research approach to a case study of the diversion of the river Undai as part of the Oyu Tolgoi mining project in Mongolia and the associated construction of a SLO. The results show that neutralising discourses obscured harmful impact on nature and society. Moreover, the SLO was intimately entwined with changes in the landscape and livelihood strategies that had a harmful effect on both the livelihoods and the social identity of herders. The analysis thus validates existing critiques on the SLO and calls for more authentic engagement with local communities that specifically includes the recognition of harm.
Environmentality unbound : Multiple governmentalities in environmental politics
Fletcher, Robert - \ 2017
Geoforum 85 (2017). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 311 - 315.
Environmentality - Foucault - Governmentality - Natural resources - Neoliberalism
This article reviews an emerging body of research applying a "multiple governmentalities" perspective derived from Michel Foucault to the study of environmental politics. Previous application of the popular governmentality concept to understand such politics had largely overlooked the multiple forms of governmentality, described in Foucault's later work, that may intersect in a given context. This paper outlines the evolution of Foucault's discussion of governmentality and its implications for the study of environmental politics. It then reviews recent research concerning environmental politics employing a multiple governmentalities perspective. It finishes by distilling overarching patterns from this literature and suggesting new directions for future research to explore.
Extractivism and the rights of nature : governmentality, ‘convenient communities’ and epistemic pacts in Ecuador
Valladares, Carolina ; Boelens, Rutgerd - \ 2017
Environmental Politics 26 (2017)6. - ISSN 0964-4016 - p. 1015 - 1034.
cultural politics - Ecuadorian Amazon region - epistemologies - extractivism - Governmentality - Rights of Nature
Ecuador’s recently adopted conflict resolution techniques have aggravated the always tense encounters between Amazonian indigenous communities, oil companies and the state. The state’s governmentality project portrays these socio-environmental conflicts as mere technical–managerial issues while societal coalitions re-politicize them through territorial defense struggles. The Cofán Dureno case highlights how the self-proclaimed ‘Citizen’s Revolution’ government seeks to redefine socio-natural relationships and territorial identities, devising ‘communities of convenience’. These correspond to the state’s own images, political structure and ideology, promoting ‘community participation’ to facilitate oil extraction. Ecuador’s constitutionally recognized Rights of Nature (paradoxically installed by the same government) are analyzed with a focus on their potential for resisting socio-environmental injustice. The internationally celebrated inclusion of these rights in the Constitution was advocated by nonindigenous intellectual activists but influenced and supported by the indigenous movement. Beyond legal implications, these rights might foster an epistemic pact between indigenous and nonindigenous society to defend territories from extractive industries.
Governing the water user : experiences from Mexico
Rap, Edwin ; Wester, Flip - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 19 (2017)3. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 293 - 307.
governmental technologies - Governmentality - Mexico - NRM - policy - power and knowledge - water governance
This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst retaining some ‘control at a distance’. The expectation is that individual subjects will incorporate control mechanisms and internalize norms and that this leads to new publicly auditable forms of self-regulation. The article questions the underlying assumption that policy necessarily accomplishes its strategic effects through governmentality. For this purpose, it draws on an ethnographic case study of how policy produced a new power/knowledge regime and how different societal actors and ‘user’ groups responded to that. The study specifically investigates the Mexican policy of irrigation management transfer during the 1990s, by which government transferred the public control over irrigation districts to locally organized water users’ associations (WUAs). The article argues that governmental technologies make and govern the ‘water user’ by discursively and materially constituting an organizational arrangement for user management (WUA), more than by directly acting on individuals’ self-regulated conduct. The analysis contributes to a broader reflection on the role of power/knowledge in natural resources management and decentralized resources governance.
Contested hydrosocial territories and disputed water governance : Struggles and competing claims over the Ilisu Dam development in southeastern Turkey
Hommes, Lena ; Boelens, Rutgerd ; Maat, Harro - \ 2016
Geoforum 71 (2016). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 9 - 20.
Conflicts - Dams - Governmentality - Hydrosocial territories - Turkey - Water governance
Dam development in southeastern Turkey is a highly-disputed issue, fanned by the Turkish-Kurdish conflict, socio-environmental and historical-cultural concerns, and international geopolitical interests. This paper focuses on discussions around the Ilisu Dam and shows how different actor coalitions imagine different hydrosocial territories regarding this mega-hydraulic project currently under construction. Imaginaries, counter-imaginaries and endeavours to materialize them go far beyond technical projects, portraying the dam to (re)configure the territory physically, ecologically, socio-economically, symbolically and discursively. The paper embeds competing hydro-territorial constructs and claims within an analysis of governmentality and the multi-scalar and multi-issue politics of dam opponents.