Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in the Orinoco River basin : Inferring fog interception from through-fall dynamics
Ramírez, Beatriz H. ; Melsen, Lieke A. ; Ganzeveld, Laurens ; Leemans, Rik ; Teuling, Adriaan J. - \ 2018
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 260-261 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 17 - 30.
Eastern Andes - Forest succession - Hydrology - Interception - Rutter model
The interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere is highly complex in fog affected ecosystems like Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs). Despite acknowledging fog effects on the canopy's water balance, quantifying their influence remains challenging. While the reduction in potential evaporation that is caused by fog presence, is largely independent of land cover, fog interception itself strongly depends on the land-cover's vegetation characteristics. A better understanding of how these two fog related processes affect the water balance is highly relevant under current land-use and climate-change pressures. In this study we evaluate the different fog effects on TMCFs’ canopy interception combining model simulations and high temporal resolution (10 min) observations that were collected in different TMCF regeneration stages: early succession, secondary and old-growth TMCFs. We also analyse the difficulties in closing catchment water balances caused by limitations on the interpretation of throughfall data to properly represent these fog effects. Results show that different fog frequencies along elevation affect potential evaporation. The higher elevation old-growth TMCFs have a lower simulated evaporation and a lower dry canopy frequency than the low elevation secondary and early succession forests. Furthermore, we show that fog water inputs during fog-only events, even though higher at the higher elevation, are irrelevant as water inputs (from 0.8% to 1.6% of measured rainfall), but fog's contribution to through-fall during foggy rainfall events can be more relevant (from 5.8%–12.8% of measured rainfall). Additional to the fog trends along the elevation, we also uncover variable fog-vegetation interactions controlled by differences in canopy water storages as a function of forest cover. Each evaluated process has associated uncertainties, which together cumulatively explain why closing a water budget in TMCF catchments is limited by data collection methods that probably do not capture all relevant fog effects. In addition, this study also indicates that the temporal resolution of measured rainfall and through-fall and compensating effects of canopy parameters that are estimated by the commonly used Rutter canopy-rainfall interception model, pose an additional challenge to understand and quantify fog effects in the water budgets of TMCFs.
Geomorphological control on podzolisation – An example from a tropical barrier island
Martinez, Pedro ; Buurman, Peter ; Lopes-Mazzetto, Josiane Millani ; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca ; Schellekens, Judith ; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo - \ 2018
Geomorphology 309 (2018). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 86 - 97.
Hydrology - Ilha Comprida - Landscape evolution - Tropical Podzol
We investigated how the geomorphology of coastal barrier islands impacts soil hydrology and drainage at the landscape scale. Ilha Comprida is a Holocene barrier island with a 2.5 km-long cliff that is perpendicular to the coastal shore which provides an ideal condition to study the relation between age, relief, hydrology, and podzol morphology. Five geomorphic units were identified that differed in surface morphology and alignment of ridges and swales. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating showed that these geomorphic units had growth phases that decreased in age from west to east (Units I-V, from 5250 ± 820 to 325 ± 31 years ago, respectively). The geomorphic units were studied in two parallel 3 km transects on the southern part of the island. Along transect A-B, about 1 km from the southern shore, deep augerings were used to study sedimentary sequence and soil development, while on transect C-D on the southern shore, the continuous cliff exposure allowed more detailed morphological investigation. On all geomorphic units excluding the youngest, podzolisation has been the main soil-forming process. Groundwater level was monitored monthly for two years in 14 deep wells along transect A-B. Groundwater level during the formation of the B horizon was ascertained by determination of Fe. Podzol morphology (color of B horizon and its boundary with the E horizon) generally showed correlation to groundwater levels for both transects, except for the podzols in southwestern part of the island (Unit II). The podzols of Unit II showed an extremely thick (3 m) Bhm horizon devoid of Fe, indicating that they were formed under poor drainage conditions. However, soil morphology (undulating EB horizon boundary) and measured groundwater levels (below the B horizons) demonstrated that drainage has been improved. The extremely thick B horizon (3 m) in those podzols, which was formed in approximately 3000 years, and its genesis is explained by concentrated lateral flow of DOM-loaded groundwater due to the converging ridge alignments found in these units, in combination with a gradual uplift of the southwestern part of the island.
Projected vegetation changes are amplified by the combination of climate change, socio-economic changes and hydrological climate adaptation measures
Knaap, Yasmijn A.M. van der; Bakker, Martha M. ; Alam, Shah Jamal ; Witte, Jan Philip M. ; Aerts, Rien ; Ek, Remco van; Bodegom, Peter M. van - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 72 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 547 - 562.
Coupled modelling - Ecology - Hydrology - Interdisciplinary approach - Plant traits - Set-aside
Climate change is projected to strongly affect the hydrological cycle, altering water availability and causing successive shifts in vegetation composition and distribution. To reduce potential negative effects on vegetation, policymakers may implement hydrological climate adaptation measures, which may -in turn- require land use changes to be successful. Policy driven land use changes should therefore be taken into account when evaluating climate change and adaptation effects on the water-vegetation system, but this is rarely done. To support such policy interventions, we applied a coupled land use – hydrology – vegetation model to simulate effects of (i) climate change, (ii) socio-economic change, (iii) hydrological measures and (iv) policy driven land use change, alone and in interaction, on vegetation communities in the Netherlands. We simulated two climate scenarios for 2050 that differed in predicted temperature (+0.9 °C and +2.8 °C) and precipitation changes (groundwater recharge +4% or −14%). The associated socio-economic scenarios differed in the increase of gross margins per agricultural class. The land use changes concerned agricultural changes and development of new nature areas from agricultural land. Individually, land use changes had the biggest effect on vegetation distribution and composition, followed by the hydrological measures and climate change itself. Our results also indicate that the combination of all four factors triggered the biggest response in the extent of newly created nature areas (+6.5%) and the highest diversity in vegetation types, compared to other combinations (max. +5.4%) and separate factors. This study shows that an interdisciplinary, coupled modelling approach is essential when evaluating climate adaptation measures.
Habitat and management preference of Bromus racemosus L., a rare species in mesic meadows of Northwest Europe
Simmelink, Max R. ; Janssen, John ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Weeda, Eddy J. - \ 2017
Tuexenia 37 (2017). - ISSN 0722-494X - p. 289 - 312.
Aftermath grazing - Alluvial landscape - Alopecurion pratensis - Grassland management - Hydrology - Meadows - Molinio-Arrhenatheretea - Soil nutrients - Winter annual

Bromus racemosus L. is a rather rare grass species of moist meadows. It has strongly decreased in the course of the 20th century due to intensification of agricultural grassland management, and is therefore included in Red Lists of several European countries. Its winter annual life-cycle is remarkable for a species of permanent grasslands. The aim of this study is to determine the habitat preference and optimal management of B. racemosus in the Netherlands and surrounding countries. Vegetation, soil and hydrological data from 28 sites in the Netherlands have been compared with B. racemosus cover, and with vegetation data from surrounding countries. The results indicate that B. racemosus is characteristic of Molinio- Arrhenatheretea meadows with good mineralisation and aftermath grazing. The optimum lies in grasslands of the alliance Alopecurion pratensis (Deschampsion cespitosae), but the species ranges from wetter Calthion palustris meadows to drier Arrhenatherion elatioris and Cynosurion cristati grasslands. It prefers intermediate nutrient levels and hydrological conditions (mesic sites), but within this range the highest cover is found in relatively nutrient rich and dry sites. Because of the absence of a seedbank and a low dispersal capability, B. racemosus is vulnerable to changes in grassland management. A management of mowing after 15 June and aftermath grazing is most suitable, since it enables fruit ripening and the maintenance of an open sward, needed for germination and development. The risk of extinction is likely to be higher in flat polders than in floodplain sites with natural relief, where the species may shift between belts in different years.

An integrated algorithm to evaluate flow direction and flow accumulation in flat regions of hydrologically corrected DEMs
Zhang, Hongming ; Yao, Zhihong ; Yang, Qinke ; Li, Shuqin ; Baartman, Jantiene E.M. ; Gai, Lingtong ; Yao, Mingtian ; Yang, Xiaomei ; Ritsema, Coen J. ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2017
Catena 151 (2017). - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 174 - 181.
Channel networks - Flat area - Flow accumulation - Flow direction - Hydrology

In order to conduct an accurate hydrological analysis of a watershed, certain conditions need to be understood. Flow direction and flow accumulation are important watershed characteristics that need to be determined before an analysis can be made. Other important characteristics which can be gleaned from analysing the digital elevation model (DEM) of a watershed include channel networks, stream lengths and watershed boundaries. Determining flow direction and flow accumulation is usually carried out in separate steps. Flat regions are types of terrain in raster DEMs without local elevation gradients. Evaluating flow direction and flow accumulation in flat regions using DEMs is a well-known problem in watershed analysis because of the occurrence of problematic parallel flow lines. Calculations also tend to be time-consuming. We have developed an efficient and comprehensive integrated approach to assign flow directions and flow accumulation in flat regions. This approach uses values for non-flat flow accumulation and a maze algorithm with a weight value (MW method) to determine several things: a main flow line through the flat area to the local outlet, an octree tree, and first-in first-out queue structures to calculate flow accumulation. The MW method can be applied to hydrologically corrected DEMs and a single flow path can be provided to resolve all flat areas. To investigate the influence on the topological properties of the channel networks, we used this integrated algorithm to extract three sets of flow accumulation areas from existing DEMs. Using this new integrated method was faster than using the two existing methods and produced continuous channel networks without the occurrence of problematic parallel flow lines.

Importance of soil-water to the Caatinga biome, Brazil
Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Everton ; Metselaar, Klaas ; Jong van Lier, Quirijn de; Araújo, José Carlos de - \ 2016
Ecohydrology 9 (2016)7. - ISSN 1936-0584 - p. 1313 - 1327.
Evaporation - Evapotranspiration - Hot spots - Hydrology - Semi-arid - SWAP - Water balance

Northeastern Brazil is hydrologically characterized by recurrent droughts leading to a highly vulnerable natural water resource system. The region contains the Caatinga biome, covering an area of approximately 800000km2. To increase insight in water balance components for this sparsely studied ecosystem, hydrology simulations were performed with the SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) model for a Caatinga basin of 12km2. SWAP model was developed to simulate hydrology under short-cycle crops, and its parameterization and validation to a diverse ecosystem is a novelty. The validation of the simulations was performed using a dataset of daily soil water content measurements taken at 0.2m depth in three sites in the basin in the period from 2004 to 2012. Average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for these simulations was 0.57 and root mean square error of prediction was 4.3%. The results of the simulations suggest that water components do not diverge statistically among different sites of the biome. The Caatinga biome returns 75% (±17%) of the annual precipitation to the atmosphere, whereas the partitioning of total evapotranspiration into its components (transpiration, evaporation and interception) on annual basis accounts for 41% (±7%), 40% (±6%) and 19% (±3%) respectively. Regarding water availability, the surface soil layer (0.0-0.2m) is the most important layer in the rooted profile, supplying up to 90% of atmospheric water demand. According to our analysis performed on daily basis, evapotranspiration and air temperature are most sensitive to soil moisture during the periods June-September and December-January.

Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards
Keesstra, Saskia ; Pereira, Paulo ; Novara, Agata ; Brevik, Eric C. ; Azorin-Molina, Cesar ; Parras-Alcántara, Luis ; Jordán, Antonio ; Cerdà, Artemi - \ 2016
Science of the Total Environment 551-552 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 357 - 366.
Agriculture land management - Hydrology - Mediterranean - Rainfall simulation - Soil water erosion

Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55 mm h-1 in the summer of 2013 (2 circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91 Mg ha-1 h-1 of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51 Mg ha-1 h-1. Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02 Mg ha-1 h-1. These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide treatment should be avoided.

Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models : a community perspective
Janssen, A.B.G. ; Arhonditsis, G.B. ; Beusen, Arthur ; Bolding, Karsten ; Bruce, Louise ; Bruggeman, Jorn ; Couture, Raoul Marie ; Downing, Andrea S. ; Alex Elliott, J. ; Frassl, M.A. ; Gal, Gideon ; Gerla, Daan J. ; Hipsey, M.R. ; Hu, Fenjuan ; Ives, S.C. ; Janse, J.H. ; Jeppesen, Erik ; Jöhnk, K.D. ; Kneis, David ; Kong, Xiangzhen ; Kuiper, J.J. ; Lehmann, M.K. ; Lemmen, Carsten ; Özkundakci, Deniz ; Petzoldt, Thomas ; Rinke, Karsten ; Robson, B.J. ; Sachse, René ; Schep, S.A. ; Schmid, Martin ; Scholten, Huub ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Trolle, Dennis ; Troost, T.A. ; Dam, A.A. Van; Gerven, L.P.A. Van; Weijerman, Mariska ; Wells, S.A. ; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2015
Aquatic Ecology 49 (2015)4. - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 513 - 548.
Ecology - Geochemistry - Hydraulics - Hydrodynamics - Hydrology - Linking - Model availability - Physical environment - Socio-economics - Standardization - Water quality

Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models publicly available through open-source policies, to standardize documentation and technical implementation of models, and to compare models through ensemble modelling and interdisciplinary approaches. We end with our perspective on how the field of aquatic ecosystem modelling might develop in the next 5–10 years. To strive for clarity and to improve readability for non-modellers, we include a glossary.

Continental runoff into the oceans (1950-2008)
Clark, E.A. ; Sheffield, J. ; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Nijssen, Bart ; Lettenmaier, D.P. - \ 2015
Journal of Hydrometeorology 16 (2015)4. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 1502 - 1520.
Hydrologic cycle - Hydrology - Land surface model - Rivers - Water budget

A common term in the continental and oceanic components of the global water cycle is freshwater discharge to the oceans. Many estimates of the annual average global discharge have been made over the past 100 yr with a surprisingly wide range. As more observations have become available and continental-scale land surface model simulations of runoff have improved, these past estimates are cast in a somewhat different light. In this paper, a combination of observations from 839 river gauging stations near the outlets of large river basins is used in combination with simulated runoff fields from two implementations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model to estimate continental runoff into the world's oceans from 1950 to 2008. The gauges used account ~58% of continental areas draining to the ocean worldwide, excluding Greenland andAntarctica. This study estimates that flows to the world's oceans globally are 44 200 (±2660) km3 yr-1 (9% from Africa, 37% from Eurasia, 30% from South America, 16% from North America, and 8% from Australia-Oceania). These estimates are generally higher than previous estimates, with the largest differences in South America and Australia-Oceania. Given that roughly 42% of ocean-draining continental areas are ungauged, it is not surprising that estimates are sensitive to the land surface and hydrologic model (LSM) used, even with a correction applied to adjust for model bias. The results show that more and better in situ streamflow measurements would be most useful in reducing uncertainties, in particular in the southern tip of South America, the islands of Oceania, and central Africa.

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