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The persistence of a broad range of antibiotics during calve, pig and broiler manure storage
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Lahr, J. ; Nibbeling, C. ; Jansen, L.J.M. ; Bongers, I.E.A. ; Wipfler, E.L. ; Schans, M.G.M. van de - \ 2018
Chemosphere 204 (2018). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 267 - 276.
Antibiotics - Dissipation - Environment - Fate - Manure - Persistence - Reviewer suggestions
After administration to livestock, a large fraction of antibiotics are excreted unchanged via excreta and can be transferred to agricultural land. For effective risk assessment a critical factor is to determine which antibiotics can be expected in the different environmental compartments. After excretion, the first relevant compartment is manure storage. In the current study, the fate of a broad scope of antibiotics (n = 46) during manure storage of different livestock animals (calves, pigs, broilers) was investigated. Manure samples were fortified with antibiotics and incubated during 24 days. Analysis was carried out by LC-MS. The dissipation of the antibiotics was modelled based on the recommendations of FOCUS working group. Sulphonamides relatively quickly dissipate in all manure types, with a DT90 of in general between 0.2 and 30 days. Tetracyclines (DT90 up to 422 days), quinolones (DT90 100–5800 days), macrolides (DT90 18–1000 days), lincosamides (DT90 135–1400 days) and pleuromutilins (DT90 of 49–1100 days) are in general much more persistent, but rates depend on the manure type. Specifically lincomycin, pirlimycin, tiamulin and most quinolones are very persistent in manure with more than 10% of the native compound remaining after a year in most manure types. For all compounds tested in the sub-set, except the macrolides, the dissipation was an abiotic process. Based on the persistence and current frequency of use, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, flumequine and tilmicosin can be expected to end up in environmental compartments. Ecotoxicological data should be used to further prioritize these compounds.
Animal manure use in vegetable production in the Netherlands
Haan, J. de; Geel, W. van - \ 2018
In: 5th International Symposium on Ecologically Sound Fertilization Strategies for Field Vegetable Production. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611887 - p. 73 - 80.
Manure - Nitrogen - Organic matter - Phosphate - Regulations - Vegetables
Application of animal manure in vegetables, when used right, can improve soil quality, crop production and financial returns on the long term. Use of animal manure closes nutrient and carbon cycles and contributes to several ecosystem services. The composition of animal manure varies considerably depending on animal species, housing system and feeding of animals. It is important to account for the composition of the manure when using it in vegetable production. Important aspects are the right selection of manure type, matching crop needs in nutrients and organic matter, and the right application of manure in time and place with minimum emissions. Animal manure is ample available in the Netherlands. It is widely used to cover nutrient needs and to sustain soil fertility in the intensive crop rotations in the Netherlands. Manure use in the Netherlands is severely restricted by legislation on nitrogen and phosphorus to prevent emissions to ground and surface water. Processing of animal manure is emerging to be able to use more manure in crop production efficiently next to other advantages for the animal farmer. Important processing techniques developed are 1) anaerobic digestion and 2) separation of manure in a liquid and a solid fraction combined with reversed osmosis making mineral concentrates. The value of animal manure for arable and vegetable crop production is difficult to calculate, especially for organic matter as it affects multiple processes in soil and plant growth. A first estimation of the value of animal manure for arable and vegetable farming on sandy soils is made based on a long-term experiment with different organic matter input treatments. Total value of slurry in the Netherlands is estimated between € 35 and 57 t-1 or € 430 and 2240 ha-1 based on input of 60 kg ha-1 of phosphate with slurry.
The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure : Description and illustrative analysis
Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Burchill, William ; Bussink, Wim ; Chantigny, Martin ; Carozzi, Marco ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Hunt, Derek ; Kupper, Thomas ; Lanigan, Gary ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Meisinger, John J. ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Pedersen, Simon V. ; Sintermann, Jörg ; Thompson, Rodney B. ; Vermeulen, Bert ; Voylokov, Polina ; Williams, John R. ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2018
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 258 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 66 - 79.
Ammonia - Cattle - Emission - Manure - Pig - Slurry
Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH3 emission from field-applied manure has been measured in many studies over the past few decades. In this work, we facilitate the use of these data by collecting and organizing them in the ALFAM2 database. In this paper we describe the development of the database and summarise its contents, quantify effects of application methods and other variables on emission using a data subset, and discuss challenges for data analysis and model development. The database contains measurements of emission, manure and soil properties, weather, application technique, and other variables for 1895 plots from 22 research institutes in 12 countries. Data on five manure types (cattle, pig, mink, poultry, mixed, as well as sludge and "other") applied to three types of crops (grass, small grains, maize, as well as stubble and bare soil) are included. Application methods represented in the database include broadcast, trailing hose, trailing shoe (narrow band application), and open slot injection. Cattle manure application to grassland was the most common combination, and analysis of this subset (with dry matter (DM) limited to <15%) was carried out using mixed- and fixed-effects models in order to quantify effects of management and environment on ammonia emission, and to highlight challenges for use of the database. Measured emission in this subset ranged from <1% to 130% of applied ammonia after 48 h. Results showed clear, albeit variable, reductions in NH3 emission due to trailing hose, trailing shoe, and open slot injection of slurry compared to broadcast application. There was evidence of positive effects of air temperature and wind speed on NH3 emission, and limited evidence of effects of slurry DM. However, random-effects coefficients for differences among research institutes were among the largest model coefficients, and showed a deviation from the mean response by more than 100% in some cases. The source of these institute differences could not be determined with certainty, but there is some evidence that they are related to differences in soils, or differences in application or measurement methods. The ALFAM2 database should be useful for development and evaluation of both emission factors and emission models, but users need to recognize the limitations caused by confounding variables, imbalance in the dataset, and dependence among observations from the same institute. Variation among measurements and in reported variables highlights the importance of international agreement on how NH3 emission should be measured, along with necessary types of supporting data and standard protocols for their measurement. Both are needed in order to produce more accurate and useful ammonia emission measurements. Expansion of the ALFAM2 database will continue, and readers are invited to contact the corresponding author for information on data submission. The latest version of the database is available at http://www.alfam.dk.
A model for estimating seasonal trends of ammonia emission from cattle manure applied to grassland in the Netherlands
Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Vermeulen, G.D. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2018
Atmospheric Environment 173 (2018). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 231 - 238.
Ammonia emission - Application techniques - Grassland - Manure - Model - Weather
Field data on ammonia emission after liquid cattle manure (‘slurry’) application to grassland were statistically analysed to reveal the effect of manure and field characteristics and of weather conditions in eight consecutive periods after manure application. Logistic regression models, modelling the emission expressed as a percentage of the ammonia still present at the start of each period as the response variable, were developed separately for broadcast spreading, narrow band application (trailing shoe) and shallow injection. Wind speed, temperature, soil type, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content and dry matter content of the manure, application rate and grass height were selected as significant explanatory variables. Their effects differed for each application method and among periods. Temperature and wind speed were generally the most important drivers for emission. The fitted regression models were used to reveal seasonal trends in NH3 emission employing historical meteorological data for the years 1991–2014. The overall average emission was higher in early and midsummer than in early spring and late summer. This seasonal trend was most pronounced for broadcast spreading followed by narrow band application, and was almost absent for shallow injection. However, due to the large variation in weather conditions, emission on a particular day in early spring can be higher than on a particular day in summer. The analysis further revealed that, in a specific scenario and depending on the application technique, emission could be reduced with 20–30% by restricting manure application to favourable days, i.e. with weather conditions with minimal emission levels.
Benefits of inoculation, P fertilizer and manure on yields of common bean and soybean also increase yield of subsequent maize
Rurangwa, Edouard ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 261 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 219 - 229.
Agro-ecological zone - Inoculation - Manure - P fertilizer - Yield
Common bean and soybean yield poorly on smallholder farms in Rwanda. We evaluated the benefits of inoculation combined with P fertilizer and manure on yields of common bean and soybean in three agro-ecological zones (AEZs), and their residual effects on a subsequent maize crop. In the first season, the treatments included inoculum, three rates of manure, and two rates of P fertilizer, with nine replications (three per AEZ). Both legumes responded well to inoculation if applied together with manure and P fertilizer. Grain yields varied from 1.0tha-1 to 1.7tha-1 in unamended control plots to 4.8tha-1 for common bean and 3.8tha-1 for soybean in inoculated plots with both P and manure addition. The response of common bean and soybean to inputs varied greatly between AEZs. In the AEZ with low and erratic rainfall (Bugesera), yields of both legumes and maize were low and maize after soybean failed to yield any grain due to drought. In this regard, early maturing legume varieties are advised in regions of low rainfall. Responses of maize to an input applied to the legumes strongly increased when other inputs were applied together to the legume. This allowed greater maize yields which ranged from 0.8tha-1 in control plots to 6.5tha-1 in treatments previously inoculated with P and manure added for maize grown after common bean and from 1.9tha-1 in control plots to 5.3tha-1 for maize grown after soybean. The amount of N2-fixed measured using the 15N-natural abundance method differed between the two legumes and varied between 15 and 198kgN2 ha-1 for common bean and between 15 and 186kgN2 ha-1 for soybean and differed enormously among treatments and AEZs. Application of inputs to the legumes also resulted in enhanced N and P uptake of the subsequent maize. The use of inoculum combined with manure and P fertilizer is a good option for smallholder farmers growing common bean and soybean in rotation with maize. We observed strong effects of environment and call for care when targeting crops and technologies for sustainable crop production.
Ammonia emissions from cattle slurries applied to grassland : Should application techniques be reconsidered?
Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Schroder, Jaap ; Mosquera, J. ; Vermeulen, G.D. ; Berge, H.F.M. Ten; Neeteson, J.J. - \ 2016
Soil Use and Management 32 (2016). - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 109 - 116.
Ammonia emission - Application techniques - Grassland - Manure - Meadow birds - Shallow injection - Slurry - Soil quality
Ammonia is easily lost after land spreading of livestock slurries. Low-emission techniques entailing injection and trailing shoes have therefore become compulsory in the Netherlands on grassland. There is an argument that the emission of ammonia after surface application is overestimated and that the emission of various other nitrogen (N) compounds, following the prescribed low-emission techniques, is underestimated. Opponents also claim that injection in particular decreases grassland yields due to its negative effect on soil quality and biodiversity. They state that a similar reduction in ammonia emissions could be realized via low-protein dairy cow diets and slurry spreading under favourable weather conditions. This study evaluates these claims and concludes that low-emission techniques reduce the loss of ammonia effectively and increase the availability of N to grassland. There are no indications that low-emission techniques per se have negative effects on soil quality, the productivity of crops and biodiversity. It has also been demonstrated that the efficacy of proposed alternatives is limited.
The effect of milk quota abolishment on farm intensity : Shifts and stability
Groeneveld, Anouschka ; Peerlings, Jack ; Bakker, Martha ; Heijman, Wim - \ 2016
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences (2016). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 25 - 37.
Agricultural policy - Dairy farming - Farm intensification - Manure - Milk quota abolishment - Netherlands - Shifts
We investigate whether milk quota abolition in the Netherlands is likely to lead to a shift towards more intensive farms, and whether the legislation introduced by the Dutch government to prevent this from happening is likely to be effective. To this end, a mathematical programming model is developed and applied to ten Dutch dairy farms of varying size. The mathematical programming model allows us to calculate shadow prices, which we use to evaluate the stability or likelihood of a shift in the farmer decisions in our model. Our results suggest a strong increase in intensity for the largest farm type when milk quotas are abolished, while further intensification is limited for the smaller farm types. Although most farm types increase the number of cows on the farm, for the smaller ones this can only be achieved when the costs of expanding decrease considerably. The new legislation introduced by the Dutch government to prevent strong intensification appears to be successful.
Best available technology for European livestock farms : Availability, effectiveness and uptake
Loyon, L. ; Burton, C.H. ; Misselbrook, T. ; Webb, J. ; Philippe, F.X. ; Aguilar, M. ; Doreau, M. ; Hassouna, M. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Dourmad, J.Y. ; Bonmati, A. ; Grimm, E. ; Sommer, S.G. - \ 2016
Journal of Environmental Management 166 (2016). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 1 - 11.
BAT evaluation - Emissions - IPPC directive - Livestock farming - Manure - Measurements
Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national and European initiatives remain. Uptake of the more cost-effective and environmentally-friendly farming methods (such as dietary control, building design and good manure management) is already widespread but unlikely to be enough in itself to ensure that current environmental targets are fully met. Some of the abatement options available for intensive pig and poultry farming are brought together under the European IPPC/IED directive where they are listed as Best Available Techniques (BAT). This list is far from complete and other methods including many treatment options are currently excluded. However, the efficacies of many of the current BAT-listed options are modest, difficult to regulate and in some cases they may even be counterproductive with respect to other objectives ie pollution swapping. Evaluation of the existing and new BAT technologies is a key to a successful abatement of pollution from the sector and this in turn relies heavily on good measurement strategies. Consideration of the global effect of proposed techniques in the context of the whole farm will be essential for the development of a valid strategy.
Climate-smart crop production in semi-arid areas through increased knowledge of varieties, environment and management factors
Murungweni, C. ; Wijk, M.T. van; Smaling, E.M.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2016
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 105 (2016)3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 183 - 197.
Cropping - Drought - Landscape position - Manure - Risk
In large regions of sub-Saharan Africa, semi-arid conditions are likely to increase with climate change, yet these regions are becoming more important to feed production zones due to increasing population pressure. A production system in the semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe was studied to assess different possible growth conditions of food crop in relation to seasonal differences, spatial rainfall distribution, use of organic nutrients and different position in the landscape. The growth and yield of four crops (maize, sorghum, millet and groundnut) were assessed with or without manure during two seasons (2008/2009 and 2009/2010) in different landscape positions. Daily rainfall, soil and manure nutrient levels, seed germination, crop establishment, grain yield and above-ground residue biomass were measured. Most important determining factors of crop yield were landscape position and the different within season rainfall distribution of the two seasons. Manure increased yield of sorghum grown in upland and maize grown in lower lowlands. Millet was affected by Quelea quelea birds, the reason why it is unpopular in south eastern Zimbabwe. Best-fit strategies can double total yield from 1.67 to 3.29 t/ha from the average 5.1 ha that farmers usually crop in south east Zimbabwe. Farmers in semi-arid areas can reduce risk of total crop failure by making a clever use of both the low lying and the upland areas depending on crops of their interest.
Feed use and nitrogen excretion of livestock in EU-27
Hou, Yong ; Bai, Zhaohai ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Sikirica, N. ; Ma, Lin ; Velthof, G.L. ; Oenema, Oene - \ 2016
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 218 (2016). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 232 - 244.
Animal feed - Cattle - Manure - Nitrogen excretion - Pigs - Poultry
Livestock excreta is a large source of nitrogen (N) in the European Union (EU), used to fertilize crops, and also a main source of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrate (NO3-) losses to the environment. The amount of N in excreta mainly depends on the animal category and productivity, and on feed use and management. National inventories of emissions to the environment are often based on different methodologies for the estimation of N excretion. Here, we present a transparent and uniform methodology for estimating annual feed use and N excretion per animal category for all countries of the EU-27, based on the energy and protein requirements of the animals and statistics of feed use and composition, animal number and productivity.The calculated total feed use in the EU-27 was 506Tg dry mass in 2010. Dairy cows used 29%, other cattle 34%, pigs 17%, chicken 9%, sheep and goats 8%, and other animal categories 3% of the total feed use. Grass and annual forages were mainly used by dairy cows (30 and 49%, respectively) and other cattle (55 and 44%); pigs used most of the feed cereals (53%); protein-rich feed (e.g., soybean meal) were mostly used by pigs (34%) and chicken (24%). Differences between countries in feed use were large, mainly related to variations in national feed supply and animal productivity. Total N excretion of the animals amounted to 9.7Tg in 2010, and varied between countries from 14 to 291kgha-1 of utilized agricultural land. The present study provides a uniform and transparent approach for evaluating feed use and N excretion in all countries of the EU-27. Our results underline the significant differences in N excretions between EU countries as a result of feed use variations, suggesting the need for basing N excretion estimations on feed use data. The dataset present in this study may serve as a basis for such efforts, also to improve national inventories of N emissions.
Identifying potential strategies in the key sectors of China’s food chain to implement sustainable phosphorus management : a review
Li, Guohua ; Huang, Gaoqiang ; Li, Haigang ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2016
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 104 (2016)3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 341 - 359.
Management strategies - Manure - Phosphate reserves - Phosphorus surplus - Wastewater
High extraction of phosphate reserves and low phosphorus utilization efficiency in the food chain in China result in large P losses and serious environmental pollution. The P fertilizer industry, soil P surplus, livestock manure P and wastewater P recycling have been identified as the priority sectors based on summarizing several systemic and in-depth reviews of P flows analysis. Mineral P fertilizer production has reached 7.4 Mt P in 2012, which is more than seven times the value in 1980. The large P surpluses in arable land resulted in soil P accumulation of up to 64 Mt during the period 1951–2010. Livestock numbers have increased dramatically (more than ten times) during the period 1949–2012 in China, especially pigs and poultry, and so has the quantity of manure that they produce. The average loading of manure P on arable land in China has increased significantly from 9.5 kg P ha−1 in 1980 to 20.4 kg P ha−1 in 2010. Up to 0.49 Mt of wastewater P discharged without treatment also exerted great pressure on the environment in 2012. Based on an understanding of P interactions in these key sectors, an integrated set of policy options and technical measures is proposed. Taking P flows in China in 2010 as an example, if all of the strategies recommended in this study are adopted in P management, about 4.3, 2.5, 1.6 and 0.3 Mt of P resources, respectively, will be saved in the P fertilizer industry, arable land production, livestock manure and wastewater sectors.
Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters : Research needs and direction
Sharpley, Andrew N. ; Bergström, Lars ; Aronsson, Helena ; Bechmann, Marianne ; Bolster, Carl H. ; Börling, Katarina ; Djodjic, Faruk ; Jarvie, Helen P. ; Schoumans, Oscar F. ; Stamm, Christian ; Tonderski, Karin S. ; Ulén, Barbro ; Uusitalo, Risto ; Withers, Paul J.A. - \ 2015
Ambio 44 (2015)Supplement 2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 163 - 179.
Implementation - Manure - Mitigation measures - Monitoring - P management - Transport pathways
The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.
Phosphorus management in Europe in a changing world
Schoumans, Oscar F. ; Bouraoui, Fayçal ; Kabbe, Christian ; Oenema, Oene ; Dijk, Kimo C. van - \ 2015
Ambio 44 (2015)Suppl. 2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 180 - 192.
Balance - Climate change - Manure - Phosphorus - Recovery - Resource cycle - Waste
Food production in Europe is dependent on imported phosphorus (P) fertilizers, but P use is inefficient and losses to the environment high. Here, we discuss possible solutions by changes in P management. We argue that not only the use of P fertilizers and P additives in feed could be reduced by fine-tuning fertilization and feeding to actual nutrient requirements, but also P from waste has to be completely recovered and recycled in order to close the P balance of Europe regionally and become less dependent on the availability of P-rock reserves. Finally, climate-smart P management measures are needed, to reduce the expected deterioration of surface water quality resulting from climate-change-induced P loss.