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Self-reported measures in health research for people with intellectual disabilities : An inclusive pilot study on suitability and reliability
Vlot-van Anrooij, Kristel ; Tobi, Hilde ; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M. ; Leusink, Geraline L. ; Naaldenberg, Jenneken - \ 2018
BMC Medical Research Methodology 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2288
Inclusive research - Intellectual disability - Methodology - Physical activity - Sedentary behaviour - Self-report - Self-reported health - Surveys and questionnaires - Test-retest reliability
Background: The lack of suitable and reliable scales to measure self-reported health and health behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is an important methodological challenge in health research. This study, which was undertaken together with co-researchers with ID, explores possibilities for self-reported health scales by adjusting, testing, and reflecting on three self-reported health scales. Methods: In an inclusive process, the researchers and co-researchers with ID adjusted the SBQ (sedentary behaviour), SQUASH (physical activity), and SRH (self-reported health) scales, after which a test-retest study among adults with ID was performed. Test outcomes were analysed on suitability and test-retest reliability, and discussed with the co-researchers with ID to reflect on outcomes and to make further recommendations. Results: Main adjustments made to the scales included: use easy words, short sentences, and easy answer formats. Suitability (N = 40) and test-retest reliability (N = 15) was higher for the adjusted SQUASH (SQUASH-ID), in which less precise time-based judgements are sought, than in the adjusted SBQ (SBQ-ID). Suitability and test-retest reliability were fair to moderate for the SRH-ID and CHS-ID. The main outcome from the reflection was the recommendation to use SQUASH-ID answer options, in which less precise time-based judgements were sought, in the SBQ-ID as well. Conclusions: This study served as a pilot of an inclusive process in which people with ID collaborated in adjusting, testing, and reflecting on self-reported health scales. Although the adjusted self-reported measurements may be reliable and suitable to the target group, the adjustments needed may impair measurement precision. This study's results contribute to informed decision making on the adaptation and use of self-reported health scales for people with ID.
Marginal abatement cost curves for agricultural climate policy : State-of-the art, lessons learnt and future potential
Eory, Vera ; Pellerin, Sylvain ; Carmona Garcia, Gema ; Lehtonen, Heikki ; Licite, Ieva ; Mattila, Hanna ; Lund-Sørensen, Thøger ; Muldowney, John ; Popluga, Dina ; Strandmark, Lisbeth ; Schulte, Rogier - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 182 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 705 - 716.
Agriculture - Greenhouse gas emissions - Marginal abatement cost curves - Methodology
Combatting climate change has risen to the top of the international policy discourse. Effective governance necessitates the generation of concise information on the costs-effectiveness of policy instruments aimed at reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) approach is a framework commonly used to summarise information of potential mitigation effort, and can help in identifying the most cost-effective managerial and technological GHG mitigation options. Agriculture offers key opportunities to mitigate GHG emissions and utilise carbon (C) sink potentials. Therefore, a number of countries have developed national agricultural MACCs in the last decade. Whilst these MACCs have undoubtedly been catalysers for the information exchange between science and policy, they have also accentuated a range of constraints and limitations. In response, each of the scientific teams developed solutions in an attempt to address one or more of these limitations. These solutions represent ‘lessons learned’ which are invaluable for the development of future MACCs. To consolidate and harness this knowledge that has heretofore been dispersed across countries, this paper reviews the engineering agricultural MACCs developed in European countries. We collate the state-of-the-art, review the lessons learnt, and provide a more coherent framework for countries or research groups embarking on a trajectory to develop an agricultural MACC that assesses mitigations both within the farm gate and to the wider bioeconomy. We highlight the contemporary methodological developments, specifically on 1) the emergence of stratified MACCs; 2) accounting for soil carbon sequestration 3) accounting for upstream and downstream emissions; 4) the development of comprehensive cost-calculations; 5) accounting for environmental co-effects and 6) uncertainty analyses. We subsequently discuss how the mitigation potential summarised by MACCs can be incentivised in practice and how this mitigation can be captured in national inventories. We conclude that the main purpose of engineering MACCs is not necessarily the accurate prediction of the total abatement potential and associated costs, but rather the provision of a coherent forum for the complex discussions surrounding agricultural GHG mitigation, and to visualise opportunities and low-hanging fruit in a single graphic and manuscript.
A review of human thermal comfort experiments in controlled and semi-controlled environments
Craenendonck, Stijn Van; Lauriks, Leen ; Vuye, Cedric ; Kampen, Jarl - \ 2018
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 82 (2018). - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 3365 - 3378.
Climate chamber - Experiment - Methodology - Questionnaire - Survey - Thermal comfort
There are three main methods to improve thermal comfort in existing buildings: modeling, experiments and measurements. Regarding experiments, no standardized procedure exists. This article provides an answer to the question: “What is the most common practice for human thermal comfort experiments in (semi-)controlled environments?”. A total of 166 articles presenting results on 206 experiments were collected and analyzed to extrapolate the most common practice. The results are arranged in five main themes: subjects (e.g. number and age), climate chamber (e.g. surface area), thermal environment, experimental procedure (e.g. phases and duration), and questionnaire. A typical experiment was found to employ 25 subjects and to take place in a permanent climate chamber with a floor area of 24 m2 During the experiment, 3 air temperature variations are used. The test itself takes 115 min, but is preceded by a preconditioning and conditioning phase. The subject is given a questionnaire at regular intervals of 15 min, with questions highly dependent on topic, but including thermal sensation and comfort vote rated on a bipolar 7-level scale. Number of subjects, gender distribution, type and floor area of the climate chamber and utilization rate of the scale for rating thermal comfort and sensation are all linked to topic, as well as number of different air temperatures, whether conditioning is employed and questions in the questionnaire. Several links between experiment characteristics reciprocally are also identified.
Combining information on structure and content to automatically annotate natural science spreadsheets
Vos, Martine de; Wielemaker, Jan ; Rijgersberg, Hajo ; Schreiber, Guus ; Wielinga, Bob ; Top, Jan - \ 2017
International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 103 (2017). - ISSN 1071-5819 - p. 63 - 76.
Domain Model - Implicit knowledge - Methodology - Spreadsheets - Units of measure - Vocabularies
In this paper we propose several approaches for automatic annotation of natural science spreadsheets using a combination of structural properties of the tables and external vocabularies. During the design process of their spreadsheets, domain scientists implicitly include their domain model in the content and structure of the spreadsheet tables. However, this domain model is essential to unambiguously interpret the spreadsheet data. The overall objective of this research is to make the underlying domain model explicit, to facilitate evaluation and reuse of these data. We present our annotation approaches by describing five structural properties of natural science spreadsheets, that may pose challenges to annotation, and at the same time, provide additional information on the content. For example, the main property we describe is that, within a spreadsheet table, semantically related terms are grouped in rectangular blocks. For each of the five structural properties we suggest an annotation approach, that combines heuristics on the property with knowledge from external vocabularies. We evaluate our approaches in a case study, with a set of existing natural science spreadsheets, by comparing the annotation results with a baseline based on purely lexical matching. Our case study results show that combining information on structural properties of spreadsheet tables with lexical matching to external vocabularies results in higher precision and recall of annotation of individual terms. We show that the semantic characterization of blocks of spreadsheet terms is an essential first step in the identification of relations between cells in a table. As such, the annotation approaches presented in this study provide the basic information that is needed to construct the domain model of scientific spreadsheets.
Cómo mejorar su relación con su futuro yo
Bowers, Jake ; Voors, Maarten - \ 2016
Revista de Ciencia Politica 36 (2016)3. - ISSN 0716-1417 - p. 829 - 848.
Methodology - Reproducible research - Research transparency - Workflow
This essay provides practical advice about how to do transparent and reproducible data analysis and writing. We note that doing research in this way today will not only improve the cumulation of knowledge within a discipline, but it will also improve the life of the researcher tomorrow. We organize the argument around a series of homilies that lead to concrete actions. (1) Data analysis is computer programming. (2) No data analyst is an island for long. (3) The territory of data analysis requires maps. (4) Version control prevents clobbering, reconciles history, and helps organize work. (5) Testing minimizes error. (6) Work *can* be reproducible. (7) Research ought to be credible communication.
Post-positivist microclimatic urban design research : A review
Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Brown, Robert D. - \ 2016
Landscape and Urban Planning 153 (2016). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 111 - 121.
Landscape architecture - Methodology - Microclimate - Research through designing - Urban design
'Research Through Designing' (RTD) is a research method that is based on the active employment of designing in the research process. Often, RTD is necessary to generate knowledge that is relevant for design such as design guidelines or prototypes. A broad range of RTD methods can be used to produce such results: post-positivist, constructivist, participatory and pragmatist approaches. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the post-positivist RTD methods through the discussion of examples. The examples represent microclimate responsive design research and were derived from an extensive literature review. The typical issues to be dealt with in such studies are discussed: complexity, scale, testing methods and their mutual relations. A distinction is made between RTD methods and other design research for microclimatic improvement. Three studies occurred to be RTD in the literal sense and they provide a methodological model for further research to generate evidence that supports urban microclimate responsive design.
Influence of applying different units of measurement on reporting antimicrobial consumption data for pig farms
Taverne, F.J. ; Jacobs, J.H. ; Heederik, D.J.J. ; Mouton, J.W. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Geijlswijk, I.M. van - \ 2015
BMC Veterinary Research 11 (2015). - ISSN 1746-6148 - 9 p.
Antimicrobial consumption monitoring - Daily dosages - International - Livestock - Methodology - Veterinary medicine
Background: Antimicrobial use in livestock is one of the factors contributing to selection and spread of resistant microorganisms in the environment. National veterinary antimicrobial consumption monitoring programs are therefore in place in a number of countries in the European Union. However, due to differences in methodology, results on veterinary antimicrobial consumption from these national monitoring programs cannot be compared internationally. International comparison is highly needed to establish regulations on veterinary antimicrobial use and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to assess differences in the outcomes on veterinary antimicrobial consumption by applying three different sets of nationally established animal defined daily dosages to the same antimicrobial drug delivery dataset of Dutch pigs in 2012. Methods: Delivery information for the complete Dutch pig sector for the year 2012 reported to the Netherlands Veterinary Medicines Authority (SDa) was analysed with three differently and nationally established animal defined daily dosages from the Netherlands and Denmark: the Defined Daily Dosage AnimalNL (DDDANL), the Animal Daily DosageDK (ADDDK) and Defined Animal Daily DosageDK (DADDDK). For each applied Dutch product equivalent, Danish products were identified based on authorization for pigs, active substance (including form), administration route, concentration and dosage regimen. Results: Consumption in number of ADDDK/Y was lower than in number of DDDANL/Y for sows/piglets and finisher pigs, with proportions of 83.3 % and 98.3 %. Use in number of DADDDK/Y was even lower, 79.7 % for sows/piglets and 88.1 % for finisher pigs compared to number of DDDANL/Y. At therapeutic group level proportions of number of DADDDK/Y to number of DDDANL/Y were 63.6-150.4 % (sows/piglets) and 55.6-171.0 % (finisher pigs). Proportions were > 100 % for the polymyxines (sows/piglets 150.4 % and finisher pigs 149.9 %) and the macrolides/lincosamides (finisher pigs 171.0 %). Conclusions: Differences between nationally established animal defined daily dosages caused by different correction factors for long-acting products and national differences in authorized dosages, have a substantial influence on the results of antimicrobial consumption in pigs. To enable international comparison of veterinary antimicrobial consumption data, harmonized units of measurement, animal weights and animal (sub) categories are needed.