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Feeding mitochondria : Potential role of nutritional components to improve critical illness convalescence
Wesselink, E. ; Koekkoek, W.A.C. ; Grefte, S. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Zanten, A.R.H. van - \ 2018
Clinical Nutrition (2018). - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 1 - 14.
ATP - Bio-energetic failure - Electron chain complex - Enzyme Q10 - Melatonin - Micronutrients
Persistent physical impairment is frequently encountered after critical illness. Recent data point towards mitochondrial dysfunction as an important determinant of this phenomenon. This narrative review provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of mitochondrial function during and after critical illness and the role and potential therapeutic applications of specific micronutrients to restore mitochondrial function. Increased lactate levels and decreased mitochondrial ATP-production are common findings during critical illness and considered to be associated with decreased activity of muscle mitochondrial complexes in the electron transfer system. Adequate nutrient levels are essential for mitochondrial function as several specific micronutrients play crucial roles in energy metabolism and ATP-production. We have addressed the role of B vitamins, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, selenium, zinc, coenzyme Q10, caffeine, melatonin, carnitine, nitrate, lipoic acid and taurine in mitochondrial function. B vitamins and lipoic acid are essential in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, while selenium, α-tocopherol, Coenzyme Q10, caffeine, and melatonin are suggested to boost the electron transfer system function. Carnitine is essential for fatty acid beta-oxidation. Selenium is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Notwithstanding the documented importance of several nutritional components for optimal mitochondrial function, at present, there are no studies providing directions for optimal requirements during or after critical illness although deficiencies of these specific micronutrients involved in mitochondrial metabolism are common. Considering the interplay between these specific micronutrients, future research should pay more attention to their combined supply to provide guidance for use in clinical practise. Revision number: YCLNU-D-17-01092R2.
Managing the interactions between soil abiotic factors to alleviate the effect of Fusarium wilt in bananas
Segura, R.A. ; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Samuels, J.Z. ; Sandoval, J.A. - \ 2018
In: 10th International Symposium on Banana. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611924 - p. 163 - 168.
Biomass - Micronutrients - Panama disease - Plant disease - Soil fertility
Soil management offers various options to alleviate the effects of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) in bananas. Nevertheless, it receives little attention as a strategy in Fusarium wilt management. Literature provides ample evidence linking soil conditions such as soil texture and fertility to the spread and severity of plant diseases. However, the inconsistency of results between case studies limits the attention of soil management in crop disease management. The present study aimed at unravelling the role of soil abiotic factors on nutrient concentrations in plant tissue, biomass production and the incidence of Fusarium wilt (Foc race 1) in bananas (‘Gros Michel’, AAA) under field conditions. A large field trial was established in which the effects of soil pH and nutrients (N, Ca, Mg and Mn) were studied. Around 30% of the plants showed symptoms of Fusarium wilt at flowering in the first season. However, Fusarium wilt incidence did not vary between treatments. Soil pH showed significant interactions with soil N and Mn concentrations resulting in a lower bunch weight and increased micronutrient concentrations in the pseudostem. With a higher pH, bunch weight increased, although higher Mn concentrations suppressed this positive effect. Interactions between a high soil pH and Ca and Mg resulted in a higher bunch weight and lower micronutrient concentrations in the pseudostem. The results can be used to develop soil management strategies for improving banana productivity in infected plantations.
Scaling-up biofortified beans high in iron and zinc through the school-feeding program : A sensory acceptance study with schoolchildren from two departments in southwest Colombia
Beintema, Joni J.S. ; Gallego-Castillo, Sonia ; Londoño-Hernandez, Luis F. ; Restrepo-Manjarres, José ; Talsma, Elise F. - \ 2018
Food Science and Nutrition 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2048-7177 - p. 1138 - 1145.
Beans - Biofortification - Colombia - Micronutrients - Sensory acceptability
Iron and zinc deficiencies are global health problems, affecting mostly pregnant women and young children. In 2016, biofortified iron and zinc beans were introduced in Colombia. The incorporation of biofortified beans into the national school-feeding program could facilitate adoption and potentially improve the nutritional status of large populations. However, biofortified beans have to be accepted in order to be consumed by populations. We therefore studied the sensory acceptability of two biofortified beans, BIO-101 and BIO-107, and local beans at schools with free feeding services in two departments of southwest Colombia. Measured on a five-point Likert scale, the mean overall scores were 3.88 ± 0.64, 3.79 ± 0.74, and 3.81 ± 0.76, for BIO-101, BIO-107, and the local bean varieties, respectively, without significant differences. The children in Piendamó (Cauca) slightly preferred BIO-107 over the local bean (p < .05) based on color, smell, and taste. The children in Caicedonia (Valle del Cauca) slightly favored the local bean over BIO-107 (p < .05), regarding size, smell, and taste. Overall acceptability in schoolchildren was good for all beans without significant differences. This study advocates incorporation of accepted biofortified beans in the school-feeding program, in order to reach large groups of schoolchildren and potentially improve their nutritional statuses.
Unlocking the multiple public good services from balanced fertilizers
Bindraban, Prem S. ; Dimkpa, Christian O. ; Angle, Scott ; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 273 - 285.
Food loss - Human health - Innovative fertilizers - Micronutrients - Plant health - Resilience - Sector transformation
Fertilizers produce over half of the world’s food and permit less encroachment into pristine lands. Yet, the low uptake efficiency by crop plants causes nutrient losses that drive global change. Mitigating measures have been insufficient to address the problems, and policy interventions, NGO involvement, and R&D investments have been too insignificant to transform the fertilizer sector. Here, we discuss the contribution of balanced mineral fertilizers to increasing the nutritional value of crop produce to improve human nutrition and health; healthier plants to reduce biocide use; plant robustness to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses; and increased metabolite production to improve taste and shelf-life. We reflect on raising awareness about these multiple fertilizer-based public good services for realizing several Sustainable Development Goals which can be achieved through a comprehensive nutrient assessment to catalyze transformation in research, policy and industry.
Seagrass leaf element content : A global overview
Vonk, J.A. ; Smulders, Fee O.H. ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Govers, Laura L. - \ 2018
Marine Pollution Bulletin 134 (2018). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 123 - 133.
Environmental adaptation - Evolutionary history - Micronutrients - Plant physiology - Seagrass - Successional stage
Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries. The overall order of average element values in seagrass leaves was Na. >. K. >. Ca. >. Mg. >. S. >. Fe. >. Al. >. Si. >. Mn. >. Zn. Although we observed differences in leaf element content between seagrass families, high intraspecific variation indicated that leaf element content was more strongly determined by environmental factors than by evolutionary history. Early successional species had high leaf Al and Fe content. In addition, seagrass leaf element content also showed correlations with macronutrients (N and P), indicating that productivity also depends on other elements. Expected genomes of additional seagrass species in combination with experiments manipulating (micro)nutrients and environmental drivers might enable us to unravel the importance of various elements to sustain productive and flourishing meadows.
Decrease in ionized and total magnesium blood concentrations in endurance athletes following an exercise bout restores within hours-potential consequences for monitoring and supplementation
Terink, Rieneke ; Balvers, Michiel G.J. ; Hopman, Maria T. ; Witkamp, Renger F. ; Mensink, Marco ; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T. - \ 2017
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 27 (2017)3. - ISSN 1526-484X - p. 164 - 170.
Blood analysis - Micronutrients - Status monitoring
Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO2max, 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO2max) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p <.001) while no significant decline was observed during that time-interval on control days. Both, iMg and tMg, returned to baseline, on average, 2.5 hr after exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.
Optimal nutrition and the ever-changing dietary landscape : a conference report
Shao, A. ; Drewnowski, A. ; Willcox, D.C. ; Krämer, L. ; Lausted, C. ; Eggersdorfer, M. ; Mathers, J. ; Bell, J.D. ; Randolph, R.K. ; Witkamp, R. ; Griffiths, J.C. - \ 2017
European Journal of Nutrition 56 (2017)suppl.1. - ISSN 1436-6207 - 21 p.
Aging - Big data - Bioactives - Biomarkers - Dietary patterns - Dietary supplements - Longevity - Micronutrients - Obesity - Overfed - Phytonutrients - Sarcopenic obesity - Systems approaches - Undernourished - Wellness
The field of nutrition has evolved rapidly over the past century. Nutrition scientists and policy makers in the developed world have shifted the focus of their efforts from dealing with diseases of overt nutrient deficiency to a new paradigm aimed at coping with conditions of excess—calories, sedentary lifestyles and stress. Advances in nutrition science, technology and manufacturing have largely eradicated nutrient deficiency diseases, while simultaneously facing the growing challenges of obesity, non-communicable diseases and aging. Nutrition research has gone through a necessary evolution, starting with a reductionist approach, driven by an ambition to understand the mechanisms responsible for the effects of individual nutrients at the cellular and molecular levels. This approach has appropriately expanded in recent years to become more holistic with the aim of understanding the role of nutrition in the broader context of dietary patterns. Ultimately, this approach will culminate in a full understanding of the dietary landscape—a web of interactions between nutritional, dietary, social, behavioral and environmental factors—and how it impacts health maintenance and promotion.
Drug-Nutrition Interactions in Older People
Orten-Luiten, A.C. van; Janse, A. ; Witkamp, R. - \ 2016
In: Food for the Aging Population: Second Edition Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780081003480 - p. 203 - 222.
Adverse drug reaction - Deficiency - Elderly - Food-drug interactions - Frail - Medication - Micronutrients - Minerals - Nutrients - Polypharmacy - Vitamins
Although both malnutrition and polypharmacy in elderly populations are relevant clinical issues, relatively little is known about their mutual relationship through drug-nutrition interactions (DNIs). To address this knowledge gap, DNIs are discussed, captured in a framework of five classes: the impact of food, nutrients, and nutrition status on drug action, and vice versa, the impact of drug use on nutrition status.