Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Systematic Review of Methods to Determine the Cost-Effectiveness of Monitoring Plans for Chemical and Biological Hazards in the Life Sciences
Focker, M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2018
Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 17 (2018)3. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 633 - 645.
Cost-effectiveness - Food safety - Hazards - Models - Monitoring
This study reviews the methods used to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans for hazards in animals (diseases), plants (pests), soil, water, food, and animal feed, and assesses their applicability to food safety hazards. The review describes the strengths and weaknesses of each method, provides examples of different applications, and concludes with comments about their applicability to food safety. A systematic literature search identified publications assessing the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans in the life sciences. Publications were classified into 4 groups depending on their subject: food safety, environmental hazards, animal diseases, or pests. Publications were reviewed according to the type of model and input data used, and the types of costs included. Three types of models were used: statistical models, simulation models, and optimization models. Input data were either experimental, historical, or simulated data. Publications differed according to the costs included. More than half the publications only included monitoring costs, whereas other publications included monitoring and management costs, or all costs and benefits. Only a few publications were found in the food safety category and all were relatively recent studies. This suggests that cost-effectiveness analysis of monitoring strategies in food safety is just starting and more research is needed to improve the cost-effectiveness of monitoring hazards in foods.
Highlights from the 2016 joint call for transnational projects
Keulen, H. van; Bunthof, C.J. ; Ní Choncubhair, Órlaith ; Kelly, Raymond - \ 2017
Zwolle : FACCE ERA-GAS - 16 p.
ERA-GAS - FACCE - Greenhouse gases - Agriculture - Silviculture - ERA-NET Cofund - Monitoring - Mitigation - Food security - Climate change
Report PLATFORM Workshop "Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment of P2P Networks and Projects", 8-9 June 2017, Copenhagen
Mogensen, P. ; Gøtke, N. ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, Brenda - \ 2017
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 28 p.
PLATFORM - Bioeconomy - ERA-NET - Impact assessment - Monitoring - Evaluation - p2p partnerships - P2P
PLATFORM Workshop on Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment of P2P Networks and Projects, 8-9 June 2017, Copenhagen
Bunthof, Christine - \ 2017
PLATFORM - P2P - Bioecnomy - Monitoring - Evaluation - Impact Assessment
To assist the bioeconomy ERA-NETs on their task on monitoring and evaluation of research projects, PLATFORM organised a lunch-to-lunch workshop on monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment. The question of monitoring and evaluation of the added value of ERA-NETs is gaining increased attention from funding organisations. For the ERA-NETs Cofund monitoring and evaluation of their funded research projects is a prerequisite in H2020. Furthermore an impact assessment is initiated by te European Commission through ERA-LEARN2020 and this pilot was set-up together with PLATFORM. The audience target group consisted of current and future ERA-NET monitoring and evaluation task leaders in bioeconomy ERA-NETs. Through these workshops, and through master classes and the annual events, the PLATFORM project brings together the bioeconomy P2P community to share knowledge, learn, network and to increase coherence.
The analysis of tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, pleuromutilins, and sulfonamides in chicken feathers using UHPLC-MS/MS in order to monitor antibiotic use in the poultry sector
Jansen, Larissa J.M. ; Bolck, Yvette J.C. ; Rademaker, Janneau ; Zuidema, Tina ; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A. - \ 2017
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409 (2017)21. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 4927 - 4941.
Antibiotics - Feathers - LC-MS/MS - Monitoring - Validation
In The Netherlands, all antibiotic treatments should be registered at the farm and in a central database. To enforce correct antibiotic use and registration, and to enforce prudent use of antibiotics, there is a need for methods that are able to detect antibiotic treatments. Ideally, such a method is able to detect antibiotic applications during the entire lifespan of an animal, including treatments administered during the first days of the animals’ lives. Monitoring tissue, as is common practice, only provides a limited window of opportunity, as residue levels in tissue soon drop below measurable quantities. The analysis of feathers proves to be a promising tool in this respect. Furthermore, a qualitative confirmatory method was developed for the analyses of six major groups of antibiotics in ground chicken feathers, aiming for a detection limit as low as reasonably possible. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. All compounds comply with the criteria and, as a matter of fact, 58% of the compounds could also be quantified according to regulations. Additionally, we demonstrated that a less laborious method, in which whole feathers were analyzed, proved successful in the detection of applied antibiotics. Most compounds could be detected at levels of 2 μg kg−1 or below with the exception of sulfachloropyridazine, tylosin, and tylvalosin. This demonstrates the effectiveness of feather analysis to detect antibiotic use to allow effective enforcement of antibiotic use and prevent the illegal, off-label, and nonregistered use of antibiotics.
Postregistration monitoring of pesticides is urgently required to protect ecosystems
Vijver, Martina G. ; Hunting, Ellard R. ; Nederstigt, Tom A.P. ; Tamis, Wil L.M. ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Bodegom, Peter M. van - \ 2017
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36 (2017)4. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 860 - 865.
Ecology - Environmental risk assessment - Monitoring - Pesticides - Water

Current admission policies for pesticides follow a controlled experimental tiered risk assessment approach, giving results that are difficult to extrapolate to a real-world situation. Later analyses of compounds such as DDT and neonicotinoid pesticides clearly show that the actual chemical impacts frequently affect many more components of an ecosystem than a priori suggested by risk assessment. Therefore, to manage the actual risks for ecosystems imposed by manufactured compounds, it is proposed that current admission policies for chemicals be enriched by using postregistration monitoring. Such monitoring is essential to identify unexpected direct and indirect impacts on organisms by accounting for multiple propagation routes and exposures. Implementation of postregistration monitoring could build on existing monitoring networks. This approach would tackle the current policy impasse of compartment-based regulations versus exposure-based regulations, and, more importantly, would provide a safety lock for risk assessment across compartments and more likely ensure the protection of our natural environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:860–865. © 2017 SETAC.

Current remote sensing approaches to monitoring forest degradation in support of countries measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD+
Mitchell, Anthea L. ; Rosenqvist, Ake ; Mora, Brice - \ 2017
Carbon Balance and Management 12 (2017)1. - ISSN 1750-0680
Above-ground biomass - Carbon emissions - Degradation - Disturbance - Forests - Measurement reporting and verification - Monitoring - REDD+ - Time-series

Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed. The review assesses two main approaches to monitoring forest degradation: first, where detection is indicated by a change in canopy cover or proxies, and second, the quantification of loss (or gain) in above ground biomass (AGB). The discussion only considers degradation that has a visible impact on the forest canopy and is thus detectable by remote sensing. The first approach encompasses methods that characterise the type of degradation and track disturbance, detect gaps in, and fragmentation of, the forest canopy, and proxies that provide evidence of forestry activity. Progress in these topics has seen the extension of methods to higher resolution (both spatial and temporal) data to better capture the disturbance signal, distinguish degraded and intact forest, and monitor regrowth. Improvements in the reliability of mapping methods are anticipated by SAR-optical data fusion and use of very high resolution data. The second approach exploits EO sensors with known sensitivity to forest structure and biomass and discusses monitoring efforts using repeat LiDAR and SAR data. There has been progress in the capacity to discriminate forest age and growth stage using data fusion methods and LiDAR height metrics. Interferometric SAR and LiDAR have found new application in linking forest structure change to degradation in tropical forests. Estimates of AGB change have been demonstrated at national level using SAR and LiDAR-assisted approaches. Future improvements are anticipated with the availability of next generation LiDAR sensors. Improved access to relevant satellite data and best available methods are key to operational forest degradation monitoring. Countries will need to prioritise their monitoring efforts depending on the significance of the degradation, balanced against available resources. A better understanding of the drivers and impacts of degradation will help guide monitoring and restoration efforts. Ultimately we want to restore ecosystem service and function in degraded forests before the change is irreversible.

Participatory Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation of Multi-Stakeholder Platforms in Integrated Landscape Initiatives
Kusters, Koen ; Buck, Louise ; Graaf, Maartje de; Minang, Peter ; Oosten, Cora van; Zagt, Roderick - \ 2017
Environmental Management (2017). - ISSN 0364-152X - 12 p.
Evaluation - Landscape approach - Monitoring - Multi-stakeholder platform - Planning

Integrated landscape initiatives typically aim to strengthen landscape governance by developing and facilitating multi-stakeholder platforms. These are institutional coordination mechanisms that enable discussions, negotiations, and joint planning between stak4eholders from various sectors in a given landscape. Multi-stakeholder platforms tend to involve complex processes with diverse actors, whose objectives and focus may be subjected to periodic re-evaluation, revision or reform. In this article we propose a participatory method to aid planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such platforms, and we report on experiences from piloting the method in Ghana and Indonesia. The method is comprised of three components. The first can be used to look ahead, identifying priorities for future multi-stakeholder collaboration in the landscape. It is based on the identification of four aspirations that are common across multi-stakeholder platforms in integrated landscape initiatives. The second can be used to look inward. It focuses on the processes within an existing multi-stakeholder platform in order to identify areas for possible improvement. The third can be used to look back, identifying the main outcomes of an existing platform and comparing them to the original objectives. The three components can be implemented together or separately. They can be used to inform planning and adaptive management of the platform, as well as to demonstrate performance and inform the design of new interventions.

A framework for habitat monitoring and climate change modelling : construction and validation of the Environmental Stratification of Estonia
Villoslada, Miguel ; Bunce, Robert G.H. ; Sepp, Kalev ; Jongman, Rob H.G. ; Metzger, Marc J. ; Kull, Tiiu ; Raet, Janar ; Kuusemets, Valdo ; Kull, Ain ; Leito, Aivar - \ 2017
Regional Environmental Change 17 (2017)2. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 335 - 349.
Climate - Clustering algorithm - Geomorphology - Monitoring - Stratified random sampling

Environmental stratifications provide the framework for efficient surveillance and monitoring of biodiversity and ecological resources, as well as modelling exercises. An obstacle for agricultural landscape monitoring in Estonia has been the lack of a framework for the objective selection of monitoring sites. This paper describes the construction and testing of the Environmental Stratification of Estonia (ESE). Principal components analysis was used to select the variables that capture the most amount of variation. Seven climate variables and topography were selected and subsequently subjected to the ISODATA clustering routine in order to produce relatively homogeneous environmental strata. The ESE contains eight strata, which have been described in terms of soil, land cover and climatic parameters. In order to assess the reliability of the stratification procedure for the selection of monitoring sites, the ESE was compared with the previous map of Landscape Regions of Estonia and correlated with five environmental data sets. All correlations were significant. The stratification has therefore already been used to extend the current series of samples in agricultural landscapes into a more statistically robust series of monitoring sites. The potential for applying climate change scenarios to assess the shifts in the strata and associated ecological impacts is also examined.

Analysis of fullerenes in soils samples collected in The Netherlands
Carboni, Andrea ; Helmus, Rick ; Emke, Erik ; Brink, Nico van den; Parsons, John R. ; Kalbitz, Karsten ; Voogt, Pim de - \ 2016
Environmental Pollution 219 (2016). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 47 - 55.
Fullerenes - Monitoring - Soil - Terrestrial environment - Transformation products

Fullerenes are carbon based nanoparticles that may enter the environment as a consequence of both natural processes and human activities. Although little is known about the presence of these chemicals in the environment, recent studies suggested that soil may act as a sink. The aim of the present work was to investigate the presence of fullerenes in soils collected in The Netherlands. Samples (n = 91) were taken from 6 locations and analyzed using a new developed LC-QTOF-MS method. The locations included highly trafficked and industrialized as well as urban and natural areas. In general, C60 was the most abundant fullerene found in the environment, detected in almost a half of the samples and at concentrations in the range of ng/kg. Other fullerenes such as C70 and an unknown structure containing a C60 cage were detected to a lower extent. The highest concentrations were found in the proximity of combustion sites such as a coal power plant and an incinerator, suggesting that the nanoparticles were unintentionally produced during combustions processes and reached the soil through atmospheric deposition. Consistent with other recent studies, these results show that fullerenes are widely present in the environment and that the main route for their entrance may be due to human activities. These data will be helpful in the understanding of the distribution of fullerenes in the environment and for the study of their behavior and fate in soil.

Improving the time efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare in a population
Vries, M. de; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Schaik, G. van; Engel, B. ; Dijkstra, T. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8282 - 8296.
Dairy cow - Health - Herd data - Housing - Management - Monitoring

Animal-based welfare assessment is time consuming and expensive. A promising strategy for improving the efficiency of identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare is to first estimate levels of welfare in herds based on data that are more easily obtained. Our aims were to evaluate the potential of herd housing and management data for estimating the level of welfare in dairy herds, and to estimate the associated reduction in the number of farm visits required for identification of herds with poorer welfare in a population. Seven trained observers collected data on 6 animal-based welfare indicators in a selected sample of 181 loose-housed Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22 to 211 cows). Severely lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, cows with a dirty hindquarter, and very lean cows were counted, and avoidance distance was assessed for a sample of cows. Occurrence of displacements (social behavior) was recorded in the whole barn during 120 min of observation. For the same herds, data regarding cattle housing and management were collected on farms, and data relating to demography, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from national databases. A herd was classified as having poorer welfare when it belonged to the 25% worst-scoring herds. We used variables of herd housing and management data as potential predictors for individual animal-based welfare indicators in logistic regressions at the herd level. Prediction was less accurate for the avoidance distance index [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.69], and moderately accurate for prevalence of severely lame cows (AUC = 0.83), prevalence of cows with lesions or swellings (AUC = 0.81), prevalence of cows with a dirty hindquarter (AUC = 0.74), prevalence of very lean cows (AUC = 0.83), and frequency of displacements (AUC = 0.72). We compared the number of farm visits required for identifying herds with poorer welfare in a population for a risk-based screening with predictions based on herd housing and management data and a full screening of herds. Compared with a full screening, the number of farm visits required for identifying almost all herds with poorer welfare reduced by 5% (avoidance distance index) to 37% (prevalence of severely lame cows) when using risk-based screening. For identifying 70% of herds with poorer welfare, the number of farm visits reduced by 43% to 67%. The number of farm visits required for identifying dairy herds with poorer welfare can be reduced when herds are first screened using herd housing and management data.

Exploring spatial indicators for biodiversity accounting
Remme, Roy P. ; Hein, Lars ; Swaay, Chris A.M. van - \ 2016
Ecological Indicators 70 (2016). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 232 - 248.
Biodiversity indicators - Criteria - Ecosystem accounting - Monitoring - SEEA-EEA - Spatial analysis

In the context of the System for Environmental-Economic Accounting, biodiversity accounting is being developed as a tool to monitor and increase the understanding of human impacts on biodiversity. Biodiversity accounting aims to structurally measure, monitor and map changes in multiple biodiversity components, as an integral part of a larger system of ecosystem accounts. Both indicators relevant for ecosystem functioning and indicators that reflect the non-use values of biodiversity can be included in biodiversity accounting. In this paper we focus on the latter, and we test the potential applicability of a set of species indicators for developing a biodiversity account in Limburg province, the Netherlands. In particular, we map and analyse a range of indicators reflecting species richness, the presence of rare and threatened species and species diversity. We test spatial correlation to identify the minimum set of indicators that would need to be included in the account. We also evaluate individual indicators using eight different criteria. We show that, in Limburg province, a set of indicators covering at least five species groups is required, and that it would be most meaningful to have indicators reflecting the occurrence of threatened species. However, data availability as well as the most suitable set of indicators are likely to differ between areas, and case studies in other countries are required to support the selection of indicators for biodiversity accounting in an international framework.

The potential of hyperspectral patterns of winter wheat to detect changes in soil microbial community composition
Almeida De Carvalho, Sabrina ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Hol, W.H.G. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Plant Science 7 (2016)June2016. - ISSN 1664-462X
Biodiversity - Land use - Monitoring - Serial dilution - Species loss - Triticum aestivum L

Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial communities yet due to its sensitivity high replication is necessary and a strict sampling design to exclude other ‘noise’ factors.

Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia
Teklu, Berhan M. ; Hailu, Amare ; Wiegant, Daniel A. ; Scholten, Bernice S. ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2016
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2016). - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 1 - 10.
Lake Ziway - Monitoring - Pesticides - Physicochemical parameters - Risk assessment - Water quality

The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water quality data was gathered to study the dynamics of pesticide concentrations and physicochemical parameters for the years from 2009 to 2015. Results indicate that for some physicochemical parameters, including pH, potassium and iron, over 50 % of the values were above the maximum permissible limit of the Ethiopian standard for drinking water. The insecticide spiroxamine poses a high chronic risk when the water is used for drinking water, while the estimated intake of diazinon was approximately 50 % of the acceptable daily intake. Higher-tier risk assessment indicated that the fungicide spiroxamine poses a high acute risk to aquatic organisms, while possible acute risks were indicated for the insecticides deltamethrin and endosulfan. Longer-term monitoring needs to be established to show the water quality changes across time and space, and the current study can be used as a baseline measurement for further research in the area as well as an example for other surface water systems in Ethiopia and Africa.

Tracking pan-continental trends in environmental contamination using sentinel raptors—what types of samples should we use?
Espín, S. ; García-Fernández, A.J. ; Herzke, D. ; Shore, R.F. ; Hattum, B. van; Martínez-López, E. ; Coeurdassier, M. ; Eulaers, I. ; Fritsch, C. ; Gómez-Ramírez, P. ; Jaspers, V.L.B. ; Krone, O. ; Duke, G. ; Helander, B. ; Mateo, R. ; Movalli, P. ; Sonne, C. ; Den Brink, N.W. van - \ 2016
Ecotoxicology (2016). - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 777 - 801.
Bird of prey - Contaminant - Matrix - Monitoring - Sample type

Biomonitoring using birds of prey as sentinel species has been mooted as a way to evaluate the success of European Union directives that are designed to protect people and the environment across Europe from industrial contaminants and pesticides. No such pan-European evaluation currently exists. Coordination of such large scale monitoring would require harmonisation across multiple countries of the types of samples collected and analysed-matrices vary in the ease with which they can be collected and the information they provide. We report the first ever pan-European assessment of which raptor samples are collected across Europe and review their suitability for biomonitoring. Currently, some 182 monitoring programmes across 33 European countries collect a variety of raptor samples, and we discuss the relative merits of each for monitoring current priority and emerging compounds. Of the matrices collected, blood and liver are used most extensively for quantifying trends in recent and longer-term contaminant exposure, respectively. These matrices are potentially the most effective for pan-European biomonitoring but are not so widely and frequently collected as others. We found that failed eggs and feathers are the most widely collected samples. Because of this ubiquity, they may provide the best opportunities for widescale biomonitoring, although neither is suitable for all compounds. We advocate piloting pan-European monitoring of selected priority compounds using these matrices and developing read-across approaches to accommodate any effects that trophic pathway and species differences in accumulation may have on our ability to track environmental trends in contaminants.

Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters : Research needs and direction
Sharpley, Andrew N. ; Bergström, Lars ; Aronsson, Helena ; Bechmann, Marianne ; Bolster, Carl H. ; Börling, Katarina ; Djodjic, Faruk ; Jarvie, Helen P. ; Schoumans, Oscar F. ; Stamm, Christian ; Tonderski, Karin S. ; Ulén, Barbro ; Uusitalo, Risto ; Withers, Paul J.A. - \ 2015
Ambio 44 (2015)Supplement 2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 163 - 179.
Implementation - Manure - Mitigation measures - Monitoring - P management - Transport pathways
The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.
Evaluation of sampling strategies for estimating ammonia emission factors for pig fattening facilities
Ulens, Tim ; Daelman, Matthijs R.J. ; Mosquera Losada, Julio ; Millet, Sam ; Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van; Volcke, Eveline I.P. ; Langenhove, Herman Van; Demeyer, Peter - \ 2015
Biosystems Engineering 140 (2015). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 79 - 90.
Ammonia - Animal housing - Emission factor - Monitoring - Pig husbandry - Sampling strategy

Determining ammonia emission factors (EF) for fattening pig facilities is important from both a regulatory and a research point of view. However, measurements to determine an EF can be time consuming and costly. Several reduced sampling strategies were developed in the past to reduce the costs and measuring time, by taking into account parameters that influence NH3 emissions. A methodology to evaluate the precision and accuracy of estimated EFs solely as a function of the sampling frequency and strategy is demonstrated. This evaluation was done by using two long-term, high frequency datasets which both contained measurements during two consecutive pig fattening periods. These datasets were subjected to simulated sampling strategies. Long-term, low-frequency grab sampling proved to be more accurate than short-term monitoring. Repetitive short-term sampling events result in increased precision, but as this entails higher investment in time and money it is imperative to strike the balance between desired precision and available resources. A method to help as set guidelines to decide upon the number of short-term sampling events or the length of a long-term, low-frequency monitoring strategy is presented.

Monetary accounting of ecosystem services : A test case for Limburg province, the Netherlands
Remme, R.P. ; Edens, Bram ; Schröter, Matthias ; Hein, Lars - \ 2015
Ecological Economics 112 (2015). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 116 - 128.
Ecosystem accounting - Mapping - Monetary valuation - Monitoring - SEEA - Spatial analysis

Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We pilot monetary ecosystem accounting in a case study in Limburg province, the Netherlands. Seven ecosystem services are modelled and valued: crop production, fodder production, drinking water production, air quality regulation, carbon sequestration, nature tourism and hunting. We develop monetary ecosystem accounts that specify values generated by ecosystem services per hectare, per municipality and per land cover type. We analyse the relative importance of public and private ecosystem services. We found that the SNA-aligned monetary value of modelled ecosystem services for Limburg was around €112 million in 2010, with an average value of €508 per hectare. Ecosystem services with the highest values were crop production, nature tourism and fodder production. Due to the exclusion of consumer surplus in SNA valuation, calculated values are considerably lower than those typically found in welfare-based valuation approaches. We demonstrate the feasibility of valuing ecosystem services in a national accounting framework.

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