- BU Contaminants & Toxins (2)
- RIKILT - Business unit Contaminants & Toxins (2)
- VLAG (2)
- AGV Acrres (1)
- Animal Nutrition (1)
- BU Authenticity & Bioassays (1)
- BU Authenticity & Nutrients (1)
- BU Toxicology Bioassays & Novel Foods (1)
- BU Toxicology, Novel Foods & Agrochains (1)
- OT Acrres (1)
- PPO AGV Team Bodemkwaliteit (1)
- RIKILT - BU Authenticity & Nutrients (1)
- RIKILT - BU Toxicology Bioassays & Novel Foods (1)
- Team Acrres (1)
- WIAS (1)
- E. Heyndrickx (1)
- L.A.P. Hoogenboom (1)
- Tim Kleintjens (1)
- P. Lopez (1)
- Patricia Lopez Sanchez (1)
- J.L.M. Marchal (1)
- M.J.B. Mengelers (1)
- Špela Modic (1)
- H.G.J. Mol (1)
- Hans Mol (1)
- M. Nijs De (1)
- Monique Nijs de (1)
- Michalina Oplatowska-Stachowiak (1)
- Vasileios P. Vasileiadis (1)
- W.X. Peng (1)
- A.F.B. Poel van der (1)
- Jaka Razinger (1)
- Nermin Sajic (1)
- Martin Salden (1)
- Maurizio Sattin (1)
- Joyce Stoppelaar de (1)
- Christopher T. Elliott (1)
- Hester Top van den (1)
- Gregor Urek (1)
Strategies to prevent and reduce mycotoxins for compound feed manufacturing
Peng, W.X. ; Marchal, J.L.M. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der - \ 2018
Animal Feed Science and Technology 237 (2018). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 129 - 153.
Mycotoxins - Prevention - reduction - Feed additives - Compound feed
Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites of fungi, especially moulds. They have over 300 types and can be easily produced ubiquitously by moulds. Many mycotoxins have been found to be toxic to most farmed animals through the diets. With the globalization of feed ingredient trade and the rapid climate changes, occurrence of mycotoxins become increasingly difficult to be predicted. Thus, the unnoticeable mycotoxin hazards can directly impact the animal production systems. Preventing or minimizing mycotoxins in feed ingredients has become an important topic from the aspect of feed manufacturing industry. The aim of this literature review is to summarize the effective strategies for feed manufacturers to minimize the mycotoxin hazards. Prevention methods, including pre-harvest field management and post-harvest storage management, are still the most effective strategies, since mycotoxins are hardly to be eliminated once they are present in the ingredients. Moreover, mycotoxin reducing effects of several feed manufacturing technologies are also reviewed. In this review, the mycotoxin reducing methods are mainly categorized into 4 methodologies: physical methods, thermal methods, chemical methods, and mycotoxin controlling feed additives. The first three methodologies mainly focus on how to reduce mycotoxins in feed ingredients during processes, while the last one on how to compensate the adverse impacts of mycotoxin contaminated diets in animal bodies. The results showed that most of the methods reviewed show evident mycotoxin reducing effects, but of different consistencies. On the other hand, many practical factors that can affect the feasibility of each method in practical manufacturing are also discussed in this review. In conclusion, mycotoxin prevention management and the processing stage of cleaning and sorting are still the most efficient strategies to control mycotoxin hazards in current feed manufacturing.
T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin and ochratoxin A ELISAs development and in-house validation in food in accordance with the commission regulation (EU) no 519/2014
Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina ; Kleintjens, Tim ; Sajic, Nermin ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Campbell, Katrina ; Elliott, Christopher T. ; Salden, Martin - \ 2017
Toxins 9 (2017)12. - ISSN 2072-6651
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - Immunoassay - Mycotoxins - Screening
T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin (T-2/HT-2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins that can contaminate a variety of agricultural commodities. To protect consumers’ health, indicative limits for T-2/HT-2 and maximum limits for OTA have been set by the European Commission, requiring food business operators and controlling agencies to conduct routine checks for the presence of these harmful contaminants. Screening methods are increasingly used for monitoring purposes. Due to the demand for new and improved screening tools, two individual detection methods, T-2/HT-2 and OTA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), were developed in this study. The T-2/HT-2 ELISA was based on a T-2 monoclonal antibody with an IC50(50% inhibitory concentration) of 0.28 ng/mL and 125% cross-reactivity with HT-2. As regards the OTA ELISA, a new sensitive monoclonal antibody specific to OTA with an IC50 of 0.13 ng/mL was produced. Both developed ELISA tests were then validated in agricultural commodities in accordance with the new performance criteria guidelines for the validation of screening methods for mycotoxins included in Commission Regulation (EU) No 519/2014. The T-2/HT-2 ELISA was demonstrated to be suitable for the detection of T-2/HT-2 in cereals and baby food at and above the screening target concentration (STC) of 12.5 μg/kg and 7.5 μg/kg, respectively. The OTA ELISA was shown to be applicable for the detection of OTA in cereals, coffee, cocoa and wine at and above the STC of 2 μg/kg, 2.5 μg/kg, 2.5 μg/kg and 0.4 ng/mL, respectively. The accuracy of both ELISAs was further confirmed by analysing proficiency test and reference samples. The developed methods can be used for sensitive and high-throughput screening for the presence of T-2/HT-2 and OTA in agricultural commodities.
Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food
Nijs, M. De; Mengelers, M.J.B. ; Boon, P.E. ; Heyndrickx, E. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Lopez, P. ; Mol, H.G.J. - \ 2016
World Mycotoxin Journal 9 (2016)5. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 831 - 845.
Duplicate diet study - Exposure assessment - Food consumption - Food monitoring - Human biomonitoring - Mycotoxins - Total diet study
In this review, five strategies to estimate mycotoxin exposure of a (sub-)population via food, including data collection, are discussed with the aim to identify the added values and limitations of each strategy for risk assessment of these chemicals. The well-established point estimate, observed individual mean, probabilistic and duplicate diet strategies are addressed, as well as the emerging human biomonitoring strategy. All five exposure assessment strategies allow the estimation of chronic (long-Term) exposure to mycotoxins, and, with the exception of the observed individual mean strategy, also acute (short-Term) exposure. Methods for data collection, i.e. food consumption surveys, food monitoring studies and total diet studies are discussed. In food monitoring studies, the driving force is often enforcement of legal limits, and, consequently, data are often generated with relatively high limits of quantification and targeted at products suspected to contain mycotoxin levels above these legal limits. Total diet studies provide a solid base for chronic exposure assessments since they provide mycotoxin levels in food based on well-defined samples and including the effect of food preparation. Duplicate diet studies and human biomonitoring studies reveal the actual exposure but often involve a restricted group of human volunteers and a limited time period. Human biomonitoring studies may also include exposure to mycotoxins from other sources than food, and exposure to modified mycotoxins that may not be detected with current analytical methods. Low limits of quantification are required for analytical methods applied for data collection to avoid large uncertainties in the exposure due to high numbers of left censored data, i.e. with levels below the limit of quantification.
Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking
Nijs, Monique de; Top, Hester van den; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Mol, Hans - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 213 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 763 - 767.
Deoxynivalenol - Enniatins - Fate of mycotoxins - LC–MS/MS - Mycotoxins - Pasta - Processing
The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10 μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5 μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83–100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).
On-farm evaluation of inundative biological control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) by Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in three European maize-producing regions
Razinger, Jaka ; Vasileiadis, Vasileios P. ; Giraud, Marion ; Dijk, Willem van; Modic, Špela ; Sattin, Maurizio ; Urek, Gregor - \ 2016
Pest Management Science 72 (2016)2. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 246 - 254.
Biological control - Economic sustainability - European corn borer - Integrated pest management - Mycotoxins - Pesticide risk reduction
BACKGROUND: A 2 year study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of biological control with optimally timed Trichogramma brassicae releases as an integrated pest management tool against the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), in on-farm experiments (i.e. real field conditions) in three European regions with dissimilar geoclimatic conditions and ECB pressure and conventional management (i.e. insecticide treated and untreated). RESULTS: Biological control with Trichogramma (1) provided ECB protection comparable with conventional management, (2) in all cases maintained mycotoxin levels below the EU threshold for maize raw materials destined for food products, (3) was economically sustainable in southern France and northern Italy, but not in Slovenia where it resulted in a significant decrease in gross margin, mainly owing to the cost of Trichogramma product, and (4) enabled avoidance of detrimental environmental effects of lambda-cyhalothrin use in northern Italy. CONCLUSION: Optimally timed mass release of T. brassicae could be considered a sustainable tool for IPM programmes against ECB in southern France and northern Italy. Better involvement of regional advisory services is needed for the successful dissemination and implementation of biological control. Subsidy schemes could also motivate farmers to adopt this IPM tool and compensate for high costs of Trichogramma product.