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Rapid and noninvasive quality control of anhydrous milk fat by PTR-MS : The effect of storage time and packaging
Pedrotti, M. ; Khomenko, I. ; Cappellin, L. ; Fontana, M. ; Somenzi, M. ; Falchero, L. ; Arveda, M. ; Fogliano, V. ; Biasioli, F. - \ 2018
Journal of Mass Spectrometry 53 (2018)9. - ISSN 1076-5174 - p. 753 - 762.
Anhydrous milk fat - Industrial quality control - Packaging - PTR-MS - Shelf life - VOCs
In this study, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled with a time-of-flight mass analyzer and a multipurpose automatic sampler, was evaluated as a rapid and nondestructive tool for the quality control of anhydrous milk fat. Anhydrous milk fats packed in cardboard and bag-in-box were compared during refrigerated shelf life at 4°C for 9 months. Anhydrous milk fat samples were taken at 120, 180, and 240 days and measured by PTR-MS during storage at 50°C for 11 days. Uni-variate and multivariate data analysis were performed in order to classify samples according to the packaging type and compare aromatic profiles. Markers related to both packaging and storage duration were identified, and all stored samples were clearly distinguishable from reference fresh samples. Significant differences in some key butter aroma compounds such as 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, 2/ 3-methylbutanal, acetoin, and butanoic acid were observed between different types of packaging. During the refrigerated storage, differences related to packaging are more evident, while during the storage at 50°C, the fat oxidation induced by the high temperature becomes the most relevant phenomenon independently of the packaging type. These results indicate the importance of avoiding anhydrous milk fat storage at 50°C for long times during industrial production processes. All together data demonstrated the viability of PTR-MS as a rapid and high-sensitivity tool in agroindustry quality control program.
EnvPack an LCA-based tool for environmental assessment of packaging chains. Part 1 : scope, methods and inventory of tool
Ligthart, Tom N. ; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U. ; Brouwer, Marieke - \ 2018
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2018). - ISSN 0948-3349 - 15 p.
Beverage - Circular economy - Environmental design tool - Packaging - Product loss - Shower gel - Soup
Purpose: The environmental impact, resource use and waste generation of packaging has been a topic of worldwide debate. This resulted in founding the Netherlands Institute for Sustainable Packaging (KIDV), which aims to facilitate the reduction of these impacts. Within KIDV’s scientific programme, an LCA-based tool was developed to show packaging design students the underlying causes of this impact. Researchers can assess packaging chain alternatives with the tool, which is presented in the first part of the paper. Methods: The LCA-based tool, EnvPack, encompassed three consumer products: non-carbonated beverage, shower gel and ready-to-eat soup. Each product had three to four different packaging alternatives. The packaging cradle-to-grave life cycles were defined in terms of materials and processes and included detailed parametrisation of the end-of-life. Packaging-related product losses have been included in EnvPack. For the impact assessment of the product-packaging combinations, four methods were included, each with a different perspective. These were a modified ReCiPe midpoint method, ReCiPe endpoint, cumulative energy demand and a Circular Economy method based on ReCiPe. Packaging for material analysis was collected at Dutch supermarkets. For establishing packaging-related product losses, explorative measurements were made. Microsoft Excel was used to construct EnvPack. Results and discussion: Researchers and design students can select up to four different packaging alternatives per product, including one self-designed packaging. Packaging-related product losses can be included or not in the assessment. For the beverage, an out-of-home consumption situation can be selected, which affects the end-of-life of the packaging. The contribution of several life cycle stages and of impact categories are presented as graphs for the design students; detailed tables are available for researchers. The tool compares two assessment methods at a time. The effect of different methods on the ranking of the packaging alternatives is a topic of the second part paper. Conclusions: In comparison with existing LCA-based packaging tools, EnvPack includes four different assessment methods that all offer a single score comparison of alternatives. EnvPack is freely available for participating Dutch universities.
Sensory expectation, perception, and autonomic nervous system responses to package colours and product popularity
Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Goedegebure, Robert P.G. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Betina ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 62 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 60 - 70.
Autonomic nervous system - Descriptive social norm - Heart rate - Packaging - Skin conductance - Taste
Consumers’ perception of, and behaviour towards, products are influenced by extrinsic cues, including packaging and social norms. However, the understanding of this process is unsatisfactorily captured by questionnaires. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses can be used to measure implicit consumer responses. The aim of this work was to assess how packaging cues and social norms influence product expectation, product perception, and ANS responses. Ninety-eight adults (age: 23.3 ± 3.2 years; BMI: 21.3 ± 2.2 kg/m2) first viewed four images of a yogurt package modified in hue (blue/red), brightness (high/low), and saturation (high/low) and two dummies alongside a fictitious product popularity score. After each image presentation, participants rated their expectations of the yogurt, tasted, and rated their perception of it. Expectations and the perception of liking, healthiness, sweetness, and flavour intensity were rated on 100-unit VAS scales. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR) to the image and tasting were measured. The darker, saturated red package elicited the lowest expectation of healthiness and the highest expectation of flavour intensity and sweetness. Red packages increased SCR while blue packages decreased them. During yogurt tasting, low product popularity was associated with a stronger decrease in SCR than a high popularity. Overall, the measured ANS responses were small. In conclusion, this study was the first to look at the effect of expectations elicited by a product's packaging colour and popularity on explicit ratings and ANS responses. We found differences in SCR to package colour and product popularity, suggesting their importance in affecting consumer responses.
Organics unpacked : The influence of packaging on the choice for organic fruits and vegetables
Herpen, Erica van; Immink, Victor ; Puttelaar, Jos van den - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 53 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 90 - 96.
Choice - Fruit - Organics - Packaging - Produce - Unpacked - Vegetables
In many supermarkets throughout Europe, it has become common practice in the fruit and vegetable department to offer options in plastic packaging. Recent trends, however, move towards the removal of packaging. The current study examines whether offering fruit and vegetables without primary packaging increases the likelihood that consumers choose these products. This is especially relevant for organic fruit and vegetables, given that plastic may be perceived as contrary to the sustainable nature of these products. A first experiment, using a student sample and an immersive 3D virtual supermarket environment, shows that choice for organic fruit and vegetables indeed increases when organics are offered without packaging. A second experiment with the virtual supermarket generalizes these findings to a sample of supermarket patrons, additionally showing that unpacked fruit and vegetables are preferred over packed options overall, both for organic and non-organic products. We conclude that removing the primary packaging of organic fruit and vegetables appears to be a promising intervention in attempts to increase organic sales.
Micro- and Nanoengineering : Relevance in Food Processing
Schroen, C.G.P.H. - \ 2015
In: Reference Module in Food Sciences / Smithers, Geoffrey, Elsevier - ISBN 9780081005965 - 8 p.
Controlled release - Emulsification - Emulsion - Encapsulation - Food processing - Food production - Microfluids - Microtechnology - Nanotechnology - Packaging - Process design - Sensors
There are two overall themes, micro- and nanotechnology, which are capable of changing the future of food considerably. In microtechnology, production of foods and food ingredients is investigated at small scale; the results are thus that larger scale production is considered through operating many microfluidic devices in parallel. In the nanotechnology field, the development of packaging materials with improved barrier and antimicrobial function, and the use of sensors for early detection are important. Besides, encapsulates for controlled release of specific components are in the focus of attention. Various examples from the micro- and nanotechnology field will be discussed in this article.