- M.N. Alexiades (1)
- Esteban Alvarez (1)
- Atila Alves de Oliveira (1)
- J.L. Amaral (1)
- Alejandro Araujo-Murakami (1)
- E.J.M.M. Arets (1)
- Igor Bartish (1)
- Martin Brändle (1)
- Jérôme Chave (1)
- Jan Christoph Axmacher (1)
- K.G. Dexter (1)
- E.N. Honorio Coronado (1)
- Joaquin Hortal (1)
- Hervé Jactel (1)
- Ingolf Kühn (1)
- S.L. Lewis (1)
- Daniel Moen (1)
- Wim Ozinga (1)
- Sandrine Pavoine (1)
- R.T. Pennington (1)
- Andreas Prinzing (1)
- Oliver Purschke (1)
- Matthew R. Helmus (1)
- Ian S. Pearse (1)
- Weiguo Sang (1)
- Cyrille Violle (1)
- Eleanor Warren-Thomas (1)
- Evan Weiher (1)
- Marten Winter (1)
- Benjamin Yguel (1)
- Yi Zou (1)
The evolutionary legacy of diversification predicts ecosystem function
Yguel, Benjamin ; Jactel, Hervé ; Pearse, Ian S. ; Moen, Daniel ; Winter, Marten ; Hortal, Joaquin ; Helmus, Matthew R. ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Pavoine, Sandrine ; Purschke, Oliver ; Weiher, Evan ; Violle, Cyrille ; Ozinga, Wim ; Brändle, Martin ; Bartish, Igor ; Prinzing, Andreas - \ 2016
American Naturalist 188 (2016)4. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. 398 - 410.
Community ecology - Evolutionary history - Lineage-throughtime plots - Phylogenetic diversity - Productivity - Species coexistence
Theory suggests that the structure of evolutionary history represented in a species community may affect its functioning, but phylogenetic diversity metrics do not allow for the identification of major differences in this structure. Here we propose a new metric, ELDERness (for Evolutionary Legacy of DivERsity) to estimate evolutionary branching patterns within communities by fitting a polynomial function to lineage-through-time (LTT) plots. We illustrate how real and simulated community branching patterns can be more correctly described by ELDERness and can successfully predict ecosystem functioning. In particular, the evolutionary history of branching patterns can be encapsulated by the parameters of third-order polynomial functions and further measured through only two parameters, the “ELDERness surfaces.” These parameters captured variation in productivity of a grassland community better than existing phylogenetic diversity or diversification metrics and independent of species richness or presence of nitrogen fixers. Specifically, communitieswith small ELDERness surfaces (constant accumulation of lineages through time in LTT plots) were more productive, consistent with increased productivity resulting from complementary lineages combined with niche filling within lineages. Overall, while existing phylogenetic diversity metrics remain useful in many contexts, we suggest that our ELDERness approach better enables testing hypotheses that relate complex patterns of macroevolutionary history represented in local communities to ecosystem functioning.
Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China
Zou, Yi ; Sang, Weiguo ; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor ; Axmacher, Jan Christoph - \ 2016
Forest Ecology and Management 374 (2016). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 111 - 118.
Changbaishan - Donglingshan - Lepidoptera - Mature forest - Phylogenetic diversity
The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely unknown, particularly in relation to highly diverse invertebrate taxa that fulfil important ecosystem services. We aimed to address this knowledge gap, establishing the conservation value of secondary forests on Dongling Mountain, North China based on the diversity of geometrid moths - a species-rich family of nocturnal pollinators that also influences plant assemblages through caterpillar herbivory. Results showed that secondary forests harboured geometrid moth assemblages similar in species richness and phylogenetic diversity, but with a species composition distinctly different to assemblages in one of China's last remaining mature temperate forests in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve. Species overlap between these sites was about 30%, and species did not form separate phylogenetic clusters according to site. Species assemblages at Dongling Mountain were strongly differentiated according to forest type; a pattern not found at Changbaishan. Our results indicate that protected naturally regenerated secondary forests in northern China provide suitable habitats for species-rich and genetically diverse geometrid moth assemblages, highlighting the potential importance of these forests for conservation and ecosystem function provision across the wider landscape.
Phylogenetic diversity of Amazonian tree communities
Honorio Coronado, E.N. ; Dexter, K.G. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Chave, Jérôme ; Lewis, S.L. ; Alexiades, M.N. ; Alvarez, Esteban ; Alves de Oliveira, Atila ; Amaral, J.L. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2015
Diversity and Distributions 21 (2015)11. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 1295 - 1307.
Amazon basin - Eudicots - Magnoliids - Monocots - Phylogenetic diversity - Species richness
Aim: To examine variation in the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of tree communities across geographical and environmental gradients in Amazonia. Location: Two hundred and eighty-three c. 1 ha forest inventory plots from across Amazonia. Methods: We evaluated PD as the total phylogenetic branch length across species in each plot (PDss), the mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between species (MPD), the mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) and their equivalents standardized for species richness (ses.PDss, ses.MPD, ses.MNTD). We compared PD of tree communities growing (1) on substrates of varying geological age; and (2) in environments with varying ecophysiological barriers to growth and survival. Results: PDss is strongly positively correlated with species richness (SR), whereas MNTD has a negative correlation. Communities on geologically young- and intermediate-aged substrates (western and central Amazonia respectively) have the highest SR, and therefore the highest PDss and the lowest MNTD. We find that the youngest and oldest substrates (the latter on the Brazilian and Guiana Shields) have the highest ses.PDss and ses.MNTD. MPD and ses.MPD are strongly correlated with how evenly taxa are distributed among the three principal angiosperm clades and are both highest in western Amazonia. Meanwhile, seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) and forests on white sands have low PD, as evaluated by any metric. Main conclusions: High ses.PDss and ses.MNTD reflect greater lineage diversity in communities. We suggest that high ses.PDss and ses.MNTD in western Amazonia results from its favourable, easy-to-colonize environment, whereas high values in the Brazilian and Guianan Shields may be due to accumulation of lineages over a longer period of time. White-sand forests and SDTF are dominated by close relatives from fewer lineages, perhaps reflecting ecophysiological barriers that are difficult to surmount evolutionarily. Because MPD and ses.MPD do not reflect lineage diversity per se, we suggest that PDss, ses.PDss and ses.MNTD may be the most useful diversity metrics for setting large-scale conservation priorities.