Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Comment on “barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management”1
Wellstead, Adam ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Cairney, Paul ; Davidson, Debra ; Dupuis, Johann ; Howlett, Michael ; Rayner, Jeremy ; Stedman, Richard - \ 2018
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48 (2018)10. - ISSN 0045-5067 - p. 1241 - 1245.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mechanisms - Mitigation - Policy

We comment on the recent comprehensive review “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management” by Williamson and Nelson (2017, Can. J. For. Res. 47: 1567–1576, doi:10.1139/cjfr-2017-0252). They employ the popular barriers analysis approach and present a synthesis highlighting the numerous barriers facing Canadian forest managers. The underlying functionalist assumptions of such an approach are highly problematic from both a scholarly and a practical policy perspective. We argue that social scientists engaged in climate change research who want to influence policy-making should understand and then empirically apply causal mechanisms. Methods such as process tracing and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) are promising tools that can be employed in national-or local-level assessments.

The role of industrial biorefineries in a low-carbon economy
Kwant, Kees W. ; Pelkmans, Luc ; Ree, Rene van; Berntsson, Thore - \ 2018
In: 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings. - Florence : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - ISBN 9788889407189 - p. 1258 - 1263.
Biobased economy - Biorefineries - Industry - Policy

This paper shows opportunities of biorefineries in different sectors and presents recommendations for research, industry and policy, based on a joint interactive workshop of IEA Bioenergy and IETS. Efficient use of the available biomass, with combined production of renewable fuels, chemicals and materials will be key and uptake of biorefineries at industrial level will be required to achieve the required greenhouse gas reduction by 2050. The biorefinery sector needs to build up over the next decades and a major transition in industry will be required to realise a low-carbon economy. Industrial symbioses and increased integration with a versatile production of added-value biobased products and bioenergy products can have highest impact both for climate goals and economic growth. Current developments in biorefineries are building on the long success of several industries, such as sugar and starch processing, paper and pulp as well as biotechnology and also developments in conventional and advanced biofuels. Governments can facilitate the deployment of biorefineries through different mechanisms highlighted in the paper. It is crucial to have involvement and commitments of industry sectors and cooperation of different stakeholders, as well as multidisciplinary research, communication and education.

The technological trajectory of Integrated Pest Management for rice in Cambodia
Flor, Rica Joy ; Chhay, Kry ; Sorn, Vichet ; Maat, Harro ; Ratna Hadi, Buyung Asmara - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Cambodia - Extension - Integrated pest management - Policy - Technological systems - Technological trajectory

For the past two decades, while the efficacy of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been successfully demonstrated in Cambodia, its dissemination and sustained adoption among farmers have not met similar success. This study moves away from simplistic analyses about constraints in extension methods for IPM. Instead, we take a broader look into technological systems and the trajectory for pest management, which affected the spread and uptake of IPM in the country. Through a review of the wider context in policies and programs, and a survey of farmers from five provinces in Cambodia (N = 400), we examined the connections between options for pest management at the farmer level and conditions in the technological system. Using the Cambodian case study, we show that the technological system predisposes to pesticide use and as such hinders a trajectory of IPM. Systemic conditions, including interrelated agronomic practices, ecological conditions in farming communities, governance mechanisms, structures around the spread of knowledge and the industry around the technological options, have created mutual socio-technical dependencies. Although programs targeted change through knowledge of IPM, much of the systemic conditions sustain the trajectory of pesticide reliance. Hence, promoting an innovation environment that is supportive of IPM requires extension beyond knowledge dissemination, addressing these varied elements of the technological system.

Pesticide registration, distribution and use practices in Ghana
Onwona Kwakye, Michael ; Mengistie, Belay ; Ofosu-Anim, John ; Nuer, Alexander Tetteh K. ; Den Brink, Paul J. van - \ 2018
Environment, Development and Sustainability (2018). - ISSN 1387-585X - p. 1 - 25.
Actors - Ghana - Implementation - Pesticides - Policy - Registration

Ghana has implemented regulation on the registration, distribution and usage of pesticides in order to evaluate their environmental and human health effects. However, environmental monitoring and certified laboratories for pesticide analysis are lacking. Pesticide misuse, misapplication, contamination of the environment and human exposure still continue, and little is known to what extent pesticide registration, distribution and use is properly implemented in Ghana. This study aimed at investigating how the pesticide policy operates in Ghana, how state (policy; national/local) and non-state (importers, dealers’ and farmers) stakeholders function, what their challenges are, and to which extend the policy objectives are achieved. A conceptual framework based on the contextual interaction theory (CIT) was developed, and a review of Ghana’s pesticide policy implementation with two empirical field studies on state policy and non-state policy actors was conducted, supplemented with secondary data, and a number of interviews conducted with stakeholders and informants were used. Results indicate that pesticides are registered in compliance with the law. Non-state actors scored low with respect to their mandate which likely results in environmental and human health risks. Significant association existed between educational level attained and knowledge (χ2 = 3.614; P ≤ 0.05). Work experience or duration of farming also significantly influenced the knowledge of respondents (P < 0.001), as well as attitude (χ2 = 15.328; P < 0.05). Work experience/duration of farming also significantly influenced attitude at 95% confidence level (P < 0.001), and duration of farming was significantly associated with farm management practices at 5% level of significance (P ≤ 0.05), while state actors are not motivated and resourced. It is recommended to perform preliminary risk assessment to the aquatic environment, to derive threshold levels which are protective of communities, to screen farmers for pesticide exposure and poisoning, to develop well-targeted training programmes for pesticide retailers and farmers on pesticide use, personal protective device use, as well as pesticide management and law. Additionally, pesticide policy implementers have to be motivated and resourced to carry out their mandate, being to execute the pesticide legislation.

Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI : Results of the EuroDISH project
Snoek, Harriëtte M. ; Eijssen, Lars M.T. ; Geurts, Marjolein ; Vors, Cecile ; Brown, Kerry A. ; Bogaardt, Marc Jeroen ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M. ; Evelo, Chris T. ; Fezeu, Leopold K. ; Finglas, Paul M. ; Laville, Martine ; Ocké, Marga ; Perozzi, Giuditta ; Poppe, Krijn ; Slimani, Nadia ; Tetens, Inge ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Zimmermann, Karin ; ’t Veer, Pieter van - \ 2018
Trends in Food Science and Technology 73 (2018). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 58 - 66.
Governance - Nutrition - Policy - Public health - Research infrastructures - Roadmap
Background: Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges more effectively. Approach: In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings: The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder RI that overarches the research domains. A DISH-RI should bring services to the research community that facilitate network and community building and provide access to standardised, interoperable, and innovative data and tools. It should fulfil the scientific needs to connect within and between research domains and make use of current initiatives. Added value can also be created by providing services to policy makers and industry, unlocking data and enabling valorisation of research insights in practice through public-private partnerships. The governance of these services (e.g. ownership) and the centralised and distributed activities of the RI itself (e.g. flexibility, innovation) needs to be organised and aligned with the different interests of public and private partners.
Major challenges of integrating agriculture into climate change mitigation policy frameworks
Fellmann, T. ; Witzke, P. ; Weiss, F. ; Doorslaer, B. van; Drabik, D. ; Huck, I. ; Salputra, G. ; Jansson, T. ; Leip, A. - \ 2018
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23 (2018)3. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 451 - 468.
Agriculture - Climate change - Emissions - Mitigation - Policy
Taking the European Union (EU) as a case study, we simulate the application of non-uniform national mitigation targets to achieve a sectoral reduction in agricultural non-carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Scenario results show substantial impacts on EU agricultural production, in particular, the livestock sector. Significant increases in imports and decreases in exports result in rather moderate domestic consumption impacts but induce production increases in non-EU countries that are associated with considerable emission leakage effects. The results underline four major challenges for the general integration of agriculture into national and global climate change mitigation policy frameworks and strategies, as they strengthen requests for (1) a targeted but flexible implementation of mitigation obligations at national and global level and (2) the need for a wider consideration of technological mitigation options. The results also indicate that a globally effective reduction in agricultural emissions requires (3) multilateral commitments for agriculture to limit emission leakage and may have to (4) consider options that tackle the reduction in GHG emissions from the consumption side.
Smallholder Agriculture and Climate Change
Cohn, Avery S. ; Newton, Peter ; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana ; Kuhl, Laura ; Samberg, Leah ; Ricciardi, Vincent ; Manly, Jessica R. ; Northrop, Sarah - \ 2017
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42 (2017). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 347 - 375.
Adaptation - Governance - Impacts - Mitigation - Policy - Spatial analysis
Hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people directly depend on smallholder farming systems. These people now face a changing climate and associated societal responses. We use mapping and a literature review to juxtapose the climate fate of smallholder systems with that of other agricultural systems and population groups. Limited direct evidence contrasts climate impact risk in smallholder agricultural systems versus other farming systems, but proxy evidence suggests high smallholder vulnerability. Smallholders distinctively adapt to climate shocks and stressors. Their future adaptive capacity is uncertain and conditional upon the severity of climate change and socioeconomic changes from regional development. Smallholders present a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation paradox. They emit a small amount of CO2 per capita and are poor, making GHG regulation unwarranted. But they produce GHG-intensive food and emit disproportionate quantities of black carbon through traditional biomass energy. Effectively accounting for smallholders in mitigation and adaption policies is critical and will require innovative solutions to the transaction costs that enrolling smallholders often imposes. Together, our findings show smallholder farming systems to be a critical fulcrum between climate change and sustainable development.
The development of biodiversity conservation measures in China's hydro projects : A review
Bai, Ruiqiao ; Liu, Xuehua ; Liu, Xiaofei ; Liu, Lanmei ; Wang, Jianping ; Liao, Sihui ; Zhu, Annah ; Li, Zhouyan - \ 2017
Environment International 108 (2017). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 285 - 298.
Biodiversity conservation - China - Hydropower - Policy - Research

The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews research concerning potential mitigation measures to enhance aquatic biodiversity conservation in hydro projects in China. Based on the academic attention such research has attracted, three technical measures for aquatic biodiversity conservation are considered: (1) fish passages, (2) restocking efforts and (3) river and lake renovations. This article provides a historical comparison of these three practices in China to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The article also reviews the relevant legislation, regulations and technical guidelines concerning China's hydro projects dating back to 1979. The dynamics in research, publications, and patents concerning these three mitigation measures are summarized to demonstrate their technological developments in the context of legislative and policy advances. Data were gathered through the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Based on the analysis provided, the article recommends an expansion of China's environmental certification system for hydro projects, more robust regional legislation to bolster the national framework, the cooperation between upstream and downstream conservation mechanisms, and better monitoring to determine the efficacy of mitigation measures.

MOOCs : Introducing flexibility in Academia
Wild, Ulrike ; Gimbrère, Michèle - \ 2017
CEUR Workshop Proceedings 1841 (2017). - ISSN 1613-0073 - p. 133 - 138.
Campus education - Credits - Elective - MOOCs - Policy

The number of high level MOOCs produced by top universities can contribute to an increasing flexibility in academia but we seem somewhat hesitant in offering them to our students. When Wageningen university decided to integrate its own MOOCs in the electives for the campus students, we discovered that most obstacles were caused by academic beliefs and systems, anchored in our face to face education. Our policy to treat the MOOCs as a normal course with the parameters of the study guide and by organizing an on campus examination, most problems were solved. For the next step, the exchange of MOOCs between HEI's, we predict that our administrative and quality assurance systems will be the limiting factor to exploit the scalability of the MOOCs.

Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making to support Emergency Disease Management
Webb, Colleen T. ; Ferrari, Matthew ; Lindström, Tom ; Carpenter, Tim ; Dürr, Salome ; Garner, Graeme ; Jewell, Chris ; Stevenson, Mark ; Ward, Michael P. ; Werkman, Marleen ; Backer, Jantien ; Tildesley, Michael - \ 2017
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 138 (2017). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 124 - 133.
Disease management - Ensemble modelling - Foot and mouth disease - Policy - Structured decision-making
Epidemiological models in animal health are commonly used as decision-support tools to understand the impact of various control actions on infection spread in susceptible populations. Different models contain different assumptions and parameterizations, and policy decisions might be improved by considering outputs from multiple models. However, a transparent decision-support framework to integrate outputs from multiple models is nascent in epidemiology. Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making integrate the outputs of multiple models, compare policy actions and support policy decision-making. We briefly review the epidemiological application of ensemble modelling and structured decision-making and illustrate the potential of these methods using foot and mouth disease (FMD) models. In case study one, we apply structured decision-making to compare five possible control actions across three FMD models and show which control actions and outbreak costs are robustly supported and which are impacted by model uncertainty. In case study two, we develop a methodology for weighting the outputs of different models and show how different weighting schemes may impact the choice of control action. Using these case studies, we broadly illustrate the potential of ensemble modelling and structured decision-making in epidemiology to provide better information for decision-making and outline necessary development of these methods for their further application.
PLATFORM policy brief No. 3. The role of the ERA-NET instrument in fostering inclusiveness
Turk, K. ; Greimel, M. ; Bunthof, C.J. ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, B. - \ 2017
H2020 Platform of bioeconomy ERA-NET Actions (PLATFORM) - 4 p.
platform - policy brief - policy - ERA-NET instrument - ERA-NET - inclusiveness - PLATFORM - Policy
The determinants of food choice
Leng, Gareth ; Adan, Roger A.H. ; Belot, Michele ; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M. ; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 76 (2017)3. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 316 - 327.
Appetite - Brain imaging - Food choice - Hypothalamus - Policy - Satiety

Health nudge interventions to steer people into healthier lifestyles are increasingly applied by governments worldwide, and it is natural to look to such approaches to improve health by altering what people choose to eat. However, to produce policy recommendations that are likely to be effective, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social pressures, cognitive-affective factors (perceived stress, health attitude, anxiety and depression), and familial, genetic and epigenetic influences on personality characteristics. In addition, our choices are influenced by an array of physiological mechanisms, including signals to the brain from the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue, which affect not only our hunger and satiety but also our motivation to eat particular nutrients, and the reward we experience from eating. Thus, to develop the evidence base necessary for effective policies, we need to build bridges across different levels of knowledge and understanding. This requires experimental models that can fill in the gaps in our understanding that are needed to inform policy, translational models that connect mechanistic understanding from laboratory studies to the real life human condition, and formal models that encapsulate scientific knowledge from diverse disciplines, and which embed understanding in a way that enables policy-relevant predictions to be made. Here we review recent developments in these areas.

Sustainable Development: New Thoughts, New Policy, New Law?
Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2016
In: Legal Aspects of Sustainable Development / Mauerhofer , Volker, Zwitserland : Springer - ISBN 9783319260198 - p. 535 - 548.
Ecosystem services - EU law - European nature conservation law - Spatial planning law - Policy - Sustainable development
New thoughts and new policy on sustainable development have been brought forward and widely discussed and accepted, but law is still lagging behind. This paper aims to fill up that gap and tries to put some new light on how legislation and jurisprudence could meet up with modern sustainability insights. Much nature and planning legislation predates our common understandings of sustainability and might be able to obstruct sustainable development. However, sustainable growth, usually seen in terms of development for which assets and impacts for ecology, economy and society are brought in balance, should be facilitated by future law rather than being obstructed. The paper will focus on European and domestic nature and planning law and their shortcomings and possibilities in terms of sustainable development. The concept of ecosystem services will show the likely obstructions of current law and will help to alter these law provisions as some new improvement directions will be presented.
International experience of green development in Western China : An overall review of policy and practice
Zhen, Lin ; Hu, Jie ; Du, Bingzhen ; Liu, Jiyuan ; Sun, Chuanzhun ; Wu, Ruizi ; Long, Xin ; Zhang, Qiang - \ 2015
Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment 13 (2015)4. - ISSN 1004-2857 - p. 281 - 290.
Green development - OECD experience - Policy - Stakeholders

Green development emphasizes co-development between economic and environmental dimensions, and is a peoplecentered sustainable development approach. Western China demands green development, and international experience could provide necessary, unique and important help and support for Western China to achieve its green development goals. This paper has made a comprehensive overall review and analysis of international experience in green development policy and its implementation, in particular, OECD countries’ (mostly Australia and Canada) experience have been analyzed following the major policy foci defined by the Task Force on Strategy and Policies on Environment and Development in Western China initiated by China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED). Data and information were gathered from the field surveys and investigations, expert meetings, as well as literature review. The main sessions include policy framework and road map establishment, implementation and performance assessment, co-development between economic development and environmental protection, as well as green employment and poverty alleviation. The paper has addressed five policy considerations for the future promotion of green development in Western China.

Transitions in European land-management regimes between 1800 and 2010
Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Müller, Daniel ; Erb, Karlheinz ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Haberl, H. ; Vesterager, Jens Peter ; Andrič, Maja ; Antrop, Marc ; Austrheim, Gunnar ; Björn, Ismo ; Bondeau, Alberte ; Bürgi, Matthias ; Bryson, Jessica ; Caspar, Gilles ; Cassar, Louis F. ; Conrad, Elisabeth ; Chromý, Pavel ; Daugirdas, Vidmantas ; Eetvelde, Veerle Van; Elena-Rosselló, Ramon ; Gimmi, Urs ; Izakovicova, Zita ; Jančák, Vít ; Jansson, Ulf ; Kladnik, Drago ; Kozak, Jacek ; Konkoly-Gyuró, Eva ; Krausmann, Fridolin ; Mander, Ülo ; McDonagh, John ; Pärn, Jaan ; Niedertscheider, Maria ; Nikodemus, Olgerts ; Ostapowicz, Katarzyna ; Pérez-Soba, Marta ; Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Ribokas, Gintaras ; Rounsevell, Mark ; Schistou, Despoina ; Schmit, Claude ; Terkenli, Theano S. ; Tretvik, Aud M. ; Trzepacz, Piotr ; Vadineanu, Angheluta ; Walz, Ariane ; Zhllima, Edvin ; Reenberg, Anette - \ 2015
Land Use Policy 49 (2015). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 53 - 64.
Institutional change - Land-management regimes - Land-use change - Long-term socio-ecological research - Path dependency - Policy - Technological innovation

Land use is a cornerstone of human civilization, but also intrinsically linked to many global sustainability challenges-from climate change to food security to the ongoing biodiversity crisis. Understanding the underlying technological, institutional and economic drivers of land-use change, and how they play out in different environmental, socio-economic and cultural contexts, is therefore important for identifying effective policies to successfully address these challenges. In this regard, much can be learned from studying long-term land-use change. We examined the evolution of European land management over the past 200 years with the aim of identifying (1) key episodes of changes in land management, and (2) their underlying technological, institutional and economic drivers. To do so, we generated narratives elaborating on the drivers of land use-change at the country level for 28 countries in Europe. We qualitatively grouped drivers into land-management regimes, and compared changes in management regimes across Europe. Our results allowed discerning seven land-management regimes, and highlighted marked heterogeneity regarding the types of management regimes occurring in a particular country, the timing and prevalence of regimes, and the conditions that result in observed bifurcations. However, we also found strong similarities across countries in the timing of certain land-management regime shifts, often in relation to institutional reforms (e.g., changes in EU agrarian policies or the emergence and collapse of the Soviet land management paradigm) or to technological innovations (e.g., drainage pipes, tillage and harvesting machinery, motorization, and synthetic fertilizers). Land reforms frequently triggered changes in land management, and the location and timing of reforms had substantial impacts on land-use outcomes. Finally, forest protection policies and voluntary cooperatives were important drivers of land-management changes. Overall, our results demonstrate that land-system changes should not be conceived as unidirectional developments following predefined trajectories, but rather as path-dependent processes that may be affected by various drivers, including sudden events.

Untapped Potential : Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainable Bioenergy Production from Marginal Lands in the Northeast USA
Stoof, C.R. ; Richards, B.K. ; Woodbury, P.B. ; Fabio, E.S. ; Brumbach, A.R. ; Cherney, Jerry ; Das, Srabani ; Geohring, Larry ; Hansen, Julie ; Hornesky, Josh ; Mayton, Hilary ; Mason, Cedric ; Ruestow, Gerry ; Smart, L.B. ; Volk, T.A. ; Steenhuis, T.S. - \ 2015
Bio Energy Research 8 (2015)2. - ISSN 1939-1234 - p. 482 - 501.
Impacts - Marginal land - Northeast USA - Perennial grass - Policy - Production - Second-generation bioenergy feedstocks - Short-rotation woody crops

Over two million hectares of marginal land in the Northeast USA no longer used for agriculture may be suitable and available for production of second-generation cellulosic bioenergy crops, offering the potential for increased regional bioenergy production without competing with food production on prime farmland. Current yields of perennial bioenergy grasses and short-rotation woody crops range from 2.3 to 17.4 and 4.5 to 15.5 Mg/ha, respectively, and there is great potential for increased yields. Regional advantages for bioenergy development include abundant water resources, close proximity between production and markets, and compatibility of bioenergy cropping systems with existing agriculture. As New York and New England (a subset of the Northeast region) account for ~85 % of the nation’s heating oil consumption, production of bioheat, biopower, and combined heat and power could substantially reduce the region’s dependence on imported petroleum. While numerous grassroots efforts are underway in the region across supply chains, bioenergy development faces several challenges and unknowns in terms of environmental impact, production, yields, socioeconomics, and policy. We explore the opportunities for second-generation bioenergy production on the unused marginal lands of the Northeast USA and discuss the challenges to be addressed to promote sustainable bioenergy production on the region’s underutilized marginal land base.

Seed systems support in Kenya : Consideration for an integrated seed sector development approach
Munyi, Peter ; Jonge, Bram De - \ 2015
Journal of Sustainable Development 8 (2015)2. - ISSN 1913-9063 - p. 161 - 173.
Agriculture - Crops - Kenya - Policy - Seed sector - Sustainable development

The threats of climate change and rising food prices have stirred renewed attention for seed and food security in Africa, inviting new thinking on the role of seed sector development in coping with these concerns. One conceptual framework that has gained attention is the Integrated Seed Sector Development (ISSD) approach. The ISSD approach has evolved as a response to the almost exclusive focus on formal seed systems in seed sector development programs. Instead, ISSD aims to recognize and support all the diverse seed systems that exist in a particular country. An analysis of the evolution of seed policies and regulatory frameworks in Kenya since independence indeed exposes a continuous support for the formal seed sector while support given to the informal sector has merely been intended to transform it into formal. In reality, however, the formal and informal sectors appear to be made up of a plurality of seed systems, with the informal seed systems being the main source of seed for most crops. The article continues with analysing some of Kenya's recent policy shifts in order to explore how its new seed policy and legislative framework may fit within ISSD principles, and concludes with some recommendations on how the variety of seeds systems that exists on the ground and in particular local seed systems can be supported.

The Effects of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity
Baron, J.S. ; Barber, M. ; Adams, M. ; Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2014
In: Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity / Sutton, Mark A., Mason, Kate E., Sheppard, Lucy J., Sverdrup, Harald, Haeuber, Richard, Hicks, W. Kevin, Dordrecht : Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789400779389 - p. 465 - 480.
Biodiversity - Flora - Fauna - Ecosystems - Nitrogen effects - Policy
This chapter reports the findings of a Working Group on how atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition affects both terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity. Regional and global scale impacts on biodiversity are addressed, together with potential indicators. Key conclusions are that: the rates of loss in biodiversity are greatest at the lowest and initial stages of N deposition increase; changes in species compositions are related to the relative amounts of N, carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in the plant soil system; enhanced N inputs have implications for C cycling; N deposition is known to be having adverse effects on European and North American vegetation composition; very little is known about tropical ecosystem responses, while tropical ecosystems are major biodiversity hotspots and are increasingly recipients of very high N deposition rates; N deposition alters forest fungi and mycorrhyzal relations with plants; the rapid response of forest fungi and arthropods makes them good indicators of change; predictive tools (models) that address ecosystem scale processes are necessary to address complex drivers and responses, including the integration of N deposition, climate change and land use effects; criteria can be identified for projecting sensitivity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to N deposition. Future research and policy-relevant recommendations are identified.
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