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Isothiocyanates from Brassica Vegetables-Effects of Processing, Cooking, Mastication, and Digestion
Oliviero, Teresa ; Verkerk, Ruud ; Dekker, Matthijs - \ 2018
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 62 (2018)18. - ISSN 1613-4125
Digestion - Glucosinolates - Isothiocyanates - Mastication - Processing
The formation of health-beneficial isothiocyanates (ITCs) from glucosinolates depends on a wide variety of plant-intrinsic factors (e.g., concentration of glucosinolates, activity of myrosinase, and specifier proteins) and on a multitude of extrinsic postharvest factors such as the conditions used during industrial processing, domestic preparation, mastication, and digestion. All of these factors contribute to a large variability in the formation of ITCs (and other breakdown products), as well as their intake and absorption upon consumption of Brassica vegetables. This uncertainty in ITC intake and absorption is a barrier for the determination of an optimal Brassica vegetable consumption pattern. In this review, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect the formation, intake, and absorption of ITCs are described according to the most recent findings. The focus of this review includes the hydrolysis reaction mechanisms, the elucidation of the primary factors that play a role in the hydrolysis reaction, the influence of processing and cooking conditions, the effect of chewing, and the roles of the gastric and upper intestinal phases, including the effect of the meal composition (e.g., the effect of other meal compounds present during digestion) on the potential formation of ITCs.
Role of the food matrix and digestion on calculation of the actual energy content of food
Capuano, Edoardo ; Oliviero, Teresa ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Pellegrini, Nicoletta - \ 2018
Nutrition Reviews 76 (2018)4. - ISSN 0029-6643 - p. 274 - 289.
Digestibility - Energy content of food - Food structure - Nutrition fact - Processing
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition. As a consequence, the actual energy content of food may differ from what is theoretically calculated with the Atwater factors. In this review, the relationship of macronutrient digestibility with food structure, macronutrient structure, and food composition is examined, and the implications for the amount of energy achievable through diet are highlighted. Estimates of the discrepancy between calculated energy content and actual energy content are provided for different diets. The findings may have implications for consumer purchasing decisions as well as for the design of dietary interventions.
Leaching and degradation kinetics of glucosinolates during boiling of Brassica oleracea vegetables and the formation of their breakdown products
Hanschen, Franziska S. ; Kühn, Carla ; Nickel, Marie ; Rohn, Sascha ; Dekker, Matthijs - \ 2018
Food Chemistry 263 (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 240 - 250.
Brassica - Epithionitriles - Epithiospecifier protein - Glucosinolates - Isothiocyanates - Modeling - Nitriles - Processing
Domestic processing methods, such as boiling, significantly affect the glucosinolate content and the formation of breakdown products in Brassica vegetables. Here, we comprehensively describe the effect of aqueous heat treatment on the degradation and leaching kinetics of glucosinolates on the formation of their enzymatic and non-enzymatic hydrolysis and breakdown products. The results were correlated with the inactivation kinetics of myrosinase and epithiospecifier protein activity in the Brassica oleracea vegetables kohlrabi, white cabbage, and red cabbage. Short-term heating increased isothiocyanate formation due to inactivation of the epithiospecifier protein. Myrosinase was inactivated shortly after that. Boiling led to leaching of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products into the boiling water. Heating to 99 °C resulted in thermally-induced glucosinolate breakdown and nitrile formation, both in vegetables and boiling water. Finally, kinetic modeling not only revealed differences in myrosinase inactivation among the vegetables, but also glucosinolate leaching and degradation kinetics differed between individual glucosinolates and vegetables.
Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce : Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants
Tomas, Merve ; Beekwilder, Jules ; Hall, Robert D. ; Sagdic, Osman ; Boyacioglu, Dilek ; Capanoglu, Esra - \ 2017
Food Chemistry 220 (2017). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 51 - 58.
Antioxidant - Bioavailability - In vitro gastrointestinal digestion - Processing - Tomato sauce
The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC–QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants.
Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli
Sarvan-Kruse, Irmela ; Kramer, E. ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Verkerk, R. - \ 2017
Food Chemistry 214 (2017). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 580 - 586.
Enzymatic hydrolysis - Glucoraphanin - Myrosinase - Processing
Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown products are affected by steaming (raw, 1 min, 2 min and 3 min steamed) and meal composition (protein or lipid addition) was studied with an in vitro digestion model (mouth, stomach, intestine, but not colonic digestion). The main formation of SF and SFN occurred during in vitro chewing. The contents of GR, SF and SFN did not change after further digestion, as the irreversible inactivated myrosinase under gastric conditions caused no further GR hydrolysis. SF concentrations were up to 10 times higher in raw and 1 min steamed broccoli samples after digestion compared to longer-steamed broccoli. Protein or lipid addition had no influence on the formation and bioaccessibility of SF or SFN.
Health and functions of the gastrointestinal tract in pigs : Effects of functional ingredients and feed and ingredient processing
Jansman, A.J.M. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)7 supplement 3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 12 - 21.
Functional ingredients - Gastrointestinal tract health - Pigs - Processing
This paper provides a review on the effects of functional ingredients and processing of ingredients and diets on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and health of the GIT in pigs. There is increasing attention for these topics since the ban of in-feed growth promoting antibiotics in many parts of the world and due to the pressure on the use of antibiotics in animal production. A prime function of the GIT is to digest and absorb nutrients. In addition, it has a complex barrier function of which the intestinal microbiota and the residing local immune system are important components. The health of the GIT is related to the capacity of the GIT to exert these functions. Ingredient and nutrient composition of the diet affect the various functions of the GIT and, therefore, also influence GIT health. Feed and feed ingredient processing can affect the extent and site of enzymatic nutrient digestion within the small intestine but can also induce changes in the extent of fermentation of dietary constituents by intestinal microbiota and induce changes in microbiota composition in various segments of the GIT. Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the complex interactions among the diet, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal tissue can assist in supporting functions of the GIT and health of the GIT via targeted modifications of the diet.
Predicting the standardized ileal protein digestibility of processed soybean meal and rapeseed meal in growing pigs using two in vitro methods
Salazar-Villanea, S. ; Hulshof, T.G. ; Poel, Thomas van der; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Bikker, P. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)7 supplement 3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 202 - 206.
Growing pigs - In vitro digestibility - PH-STAT - Processing - Standardized ileal digestibility - Two-step enzymatic method
A study was conducted to compare protein digestibility of processed ingredients using 2 in vitro methods with known standardized ileal digestibility of CP (SIDCP) measured in growing pigs. The SIDCP in soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), and both ingredients retoasted in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM), was determined in a trial with growing pigs surgically fitted with a steered ileocecal valve cannula. Toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate was performed to induce protein damage. Initial pH and degree of hydrolysis after 10 min (DH10) and 120 min (DH120) were determined using the pH-STAT method. Hydrolysis was performed using trypsin, chymotrypsin, and peptidase at pH 8. Size-exclusion profiles of the resulting peptides after hydrolysis were also determined. Crude protein digestibility was determined using a 2-step enzymatic method, with pepsin at pH 2 and pancreatin at pH 6.8. The SIDCP in SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM were 83.9, 71.6, 74.9, and 64.6%, respectively. Initial pH of ingredient solutions measured at constant N concentration was 6.9, 5.9, 6.1, and 5.5, respectively, and was highly positively correlated to SIDCP (r = 0.99, P <0.01). The DH10 using the pH-STAT method was 10.8, 7.3, 8.7, and 7.0%, respectively, and was positively correlated to SIDCP (r = 0.95, P = 0.046). There was no correlation between DH120 and SIDCP. Similarly to the SIDCP, the size distribution of peptides in the 120-min hydrolysates were affected (P <0.001) by the type of ingredient and processing. Digestibility of CP with the 2-step enzymatic method was 89.6, 83.4, 78.9, and 68.8% for SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM, respectively, and tended to be correlated to SIDCP (r = 0.91, P = 0.092). In conclusion, both in vitro methods gave correlations similar to SIDCP, indicating that both might be used as indication for the SIDCP of thermally processed SBM and RSM in growing pigs.
Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking
Nijs, Monique de; Top, Hester van den; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Mol, Hans - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 213 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 763 - 767.
Deoxynivalenol - Enniatins - Fate of mycotoxins - LC–MS/MS - Mycotoxins - Pasta - Processing
The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10 μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5 μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83–100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).
Protein structural changes during processing of vegetable feed ingredients used in swine diets : Implications for nutritional value
Salazar-Villanea, S. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Gruppen, H. ; Poel, A.F.B. Van Der - \ 2016
Nutrition Research Reviews 29 (2016)1. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 126 - 141.
Processing - Protein digestibility - Protein structure - Secondary structure
Protein structure influences the accessibility of enzymes for digestion. The proportion of intramolecular β-sheets in the secondary structure of native proteins has been related to a decrease in protein digestibility. Changes to proteins that can be considered positive (for example, denaturation and random coil formation) or negative (for example, aggregation and Maillard reactions) for protein digestibility can occur simultaneously during processing. The final result of these changes on digestibility seems to be a counterbalance of the occurrence of each phenomenon. Occurrence of each phenomenon depends on the conditions applied, but also on the source and type of the protein that is processed. The correlation between denaturation enthalpy after processing and protein digestibility seems to be dependent on the protein source. Heat seems to be the processing parameter with the largest influence on changes in the structure of proteins. The effect of moisture is usually limited to the simultaneous application of heat, but increasing level of moisture during processing usually increases structural changes in proteins. The effect of shear on protein structure is commonly studied using extrusion, although the multifactorial essence of this technology does not allow disentanglement of the separate effects of each processing parameter (for example, heat, shear, moisture). Although most of the available literature on the processing of feed ingredients reports effects on protein digestibility, the mechanisms that explain these effects are usually lacking. Clarifying these mechanisms could aid in the prediction of the nutritional consequences of processing conditions.
Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products
Hulshof, T.G. ; Bikker, P. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1020 - 1030.
Feed efficiency - Growing pigs - O-methylisourea-reactive Lys - Processing - Protein quality - Standardized ileal digestibility
An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, o-methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM (P = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM (P <0.001), and SID of AA (P <0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.
Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing
Zhang, Lina ; Boeren, Sjef ; Smits, Marcel ; Hooijdonk, Toon van; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2016
Food Research International 82 (2016). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 104 - 111.
Bovine - Camel - Caprine - Milk serum protein stability - Processing - Proteomics
Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and dimethyl labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 129, 125, and 74 proteins were quantified in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera, respectively. The milk serum protein content decreased significantly after freezing, pasteurization, or spray drying, which can be ascribed to the removal of protein aggregates by the pH adjustment and ultracentrifugation during sample preparation. Some of the immune-related proteins were heat-sensitive, such as lactoferrin (LTF), glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GLYCAM1), and lactadherin (MFGE8), with losses of approximately 25% to 85% after pasteurization and 85% to 95% after spray drying. α-Lactalbumin (LALBA), osteopontin (SPP1), and whey acidic protein (WAP) were relatively heat stable with losses of 10% to 50% after pasteurization and 25% to 85% after spray drying. The increase of some individual proteins in concentration after freezing may be caused by the proteins originating from damaged milk fat globules and somatic cells. GLYCAM1 decreased significantly after pasteurization in bovine and camel milk but this protein is relatively stable in caprine milk. In conclusion, milk proteins changed differently in concentration after different processing steps, as well as among different species.