- M. Herold (2)
- X. Jiang (1)
- H. Kamp (2)
- G. Krennrich (1)
- W. Mellert (1)
- E. Peter (1)
- S. Ramírez-Hincapié (1)
- B. Ravenzwaay van (3)
- I.M.C.M. Rietjens (3)
- S. Sperber (1)
- V. Strauss (3)
- T. Walk (3)
Impact of lincosamides antibiotics on the composition of the rat gut microbiota and the metabolite profile of plasma and feces
Behr, C. ; Ramírez-Hincapié, S. ; Cameron, H.J. ; Strauss, V. ; Walk, T. ; Herold, M. ; Beekmann, K. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Ravenzwaay, B. van - \ 2018
Toxicology Letters 296 (2018). - ISSN 0378-4274 - p. 139 - 151.
Antibiotics - Gut microbiome - Metabolomics - Microbiome-related metabolites - Repeated dose oral toxicity study - Taxonomic profiling
The importance of the gut microorganisms and their wide range of interactions with the host are well-acknowledged. In this study, lincomycin and clindamycin were used to modulate microbial communities of Wistar rats to gain a comprehensive understanding of the implications of microbiome alterations. A metabolomics approach and taxonomic profiling were applied to characterize the effects of these antibiotics on the functionality of the microbiome and to identify microbiome-related metabolites. After treatment, the diversity of the microbial community was drastically reduced. Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were drastically reduced, Tenericutes and Deferribacteres completely disappeared, while abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were highly increased. Changes in plasma and feces metabolites were observed for metabolites belonging mainly to the class of complex lipids, fatty acids and related metabolites as well as amino acids and related compounds. Bile acid metabolism was markedly affected: taurocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid presented abrupt changes showing a specific metabolite pattern indicating disruption of the microbial community. In both plasma and feces taurocholic acid was highly upregulated upon treatment whereas glycochenodeoxycholic acid was downregulated. Cholic acid was upregulated in feces but downregulated in plasma. These results show that changes in the gut microbial community lead to alterations of the metabolic profile in blood and feces of the host and can be used to identify potentially microbiome-related metabolites. This implies that metabolomics could be a suitable tool to estimate the extent of changes induced in the intestinal microbiome with respect to consequences for the host.
Microbiome-related metabolite changes in gut tissue, cecum content and feces of rats treated with antibiotics
Behr, C. ; Sperber, S. ; Jiang, X. ; Strauss, V. ; Kamp, H. ; Walk, T. ; Herold, M. ; Beekmann, K. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Ravenzwaay, B. van - \ 2018
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 355 (2018). - ISSN 0041-008X - p. 198 - 210.
Antibiotics - Gut content and tissue - Gut microbiome - Metabolite profiling - Metabolomics - Repeated dose oral toxicity study
The metabolic functionality of the gut microbiota contributes to the metabolism and well-being of its host, although detailed insight in the microbiota's metabolism is lacking. Omics technologies could facilitate unraveling metabolism by the gut microbiota. In this study, we performed metabolite profiling of different matrices of the gut, after antibiotic treatment of rats in order to evaluate metabolite changes observed at different dose levels and in different sexes, and to identify the best tissue matrix for further investigations regarding an assessment of metabolic effects of new compounds with antibiotic activity. Three different antibiotics (vancomycin, streptomycin and roxithromycin) were administered orally to rats for 28 days according to the OECD 407 guideline with a subsequent metabolic profiling in feces, cecum content and gut tissue (jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum). The data were analyzed in the MetaMap®Tox database. Treatment-related effects could be observed in the metabolite profile of feces and cecum content, but not of the different gut tissues. The metabolite profile showed compound specific effects on the microbiome. In line with the activity spectra of the antibiotics tested, vancomycin showed the largest effects, followed by roxithromycin and then by streptomycin for which changes were modest. In general, for all antibiotics the largest changes were observed for the classes of lipids (increase up to 94-fold), bile acids (increase up to 33-fold), amino acids (increase up to 200-fold) and amino acid related (increase up to 348-fold). The most relevant changes in metabolite values were similar in feces and cecum content and among sexes. The results of this targeted analysis indicate that the metabolic profiles of male and female animals in the gut microbiome are comparable. Concluding, taking other samples than feces does not add any extra information. Thus, as a non-invasive sampling method, feces provide a suitable matrix for studies on metabolism by the gut microbiota.
Gut microbiome-related metabolic changes in plasma of antibiotic-treated rats
Behr, C. ; Kamp, H. ; Fabian, E. ; Krennrich, G. ; Mellert, W. ; Peter, E. ; Strauss, V. ; Walk, T. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Ravenzwaay, B. van - \ 2017
Archives of Toxicology 91 (2017)10. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 3439 - 3454.
Antibiotics - Metabolomics - Microbiome - Plasma metabolite profiling - Repeated dose oral toxicity study
The intestinal microbiota contributes to the metabolism of its host. Adequate identification of the microbiota’s impact on the host plasma metabolites is lacking. As antibiotics have a profound effect on the microbial composition and hence on the mammalian-microbiota co-metabolism, we studied the effects of antibiotics on the “functionality of the microbiome”—defined as the production of metabolites absorbed by the host. This metabolomics study presents insights into the mammalian-microbiome co-metabolism of endogenous metabolites. To identify plasma metabolites related to microbiome changes due to antibiotic treatment, we have applied broad-spectrum antibiotics belonging to the class of aminoglycosides (neomycin, gentamicin), fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, levofloxacin) and tetracyclines (doxycycline, tetracycline). These were administered orally for 28 days to male rats including blood sampling for metabolic profiling after 7, 14 and 28 days. Fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines can be absorbed from the gut; whereas, aminoglycosides are poorly absorbed. Hippuric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and glycerol were identified as key metabolites affected by antibiotic treatment, beside changes mainly concerning amino acids and carbohydrates. Inter alia, effects on indole-3-propionic acid were found to be unique for aminoglycosides, and on 3-indoxylsulfate for tetracyclines. For each class of antibiotics, specific metabolome patterns could be established in the MetaMap®Tox data base, which contains metabolome data for more than 550 reference compounds. The results suggest that plasma-based metabolic profiling (metabolomics) could be a suitable tool to investigate the effect of antibiotics on the functionality of the microbiome and to obtain insight into the mammalian-microbiome co-metabolism.