Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Introducing the H2020 AQUACROSS project: Knowledge, Assessment, and Management for AQUAtic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services aCROSS EU policies
Lago, M. ; Boteler, B. ; Rouillard, J. ; Abhold, K. ; Jähnig, S.C. ; Iglesias-Campos, A. ; Delacámara, G. ; Piet, G.J. ; Hein, T. ; Nogueira, A.J.A. ; Lillebø, A.I. ; Strosser, P. ; Robinson, L.A. ; Wever, A. De; O'Higgins, T. ; Schlüter, M. ; Török, L. ; Reichert, P. ; Ham, C. Van; Villa, F. ; Hugh, Mcdonald - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 652 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 320 - 329.
Freshwater - Coastal - Marine ecosystems - Resilience - Social-ecological modelling - EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy - Social learning - stakeholder engagement
The AQUACROSS project was an unprecedented effort to unify policy concepts, knowledge, and management of freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems to support the cost-effective achievement of the targets set by the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. AQUACROSS aimed to support EU efforts to enhance the resilience and stop the loss of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems as well as to ensure the ongoing and future provision of aquatic ecosystem services. The project focused on advancing the knowledge base and application of Ecosystem-Based Management. Through elaboration of eight diverse case studies in freshwater and marine and estuarine aquatic ecosystem across Europe covering a range of environmental management problems including, eutrophication, sustainable fisheries as well as invasive alien species AQUACROSS demonstrated the application of a common framework to establish cost-effective measures and integrated Ecosystem-Based Management practices. AQUACROSS analysed the EU policy framework (i.e. goals, concepts, time frames) for aquatic ecosystems and built on knowledge stemming from different sources (i.e. WISE, BISE, Member State reporting within different policy processes, modelling) to develop innovative management tools, concepts, and business models (i.e. indicators, maps, ecosystem assessments, participatory approaches, mechanisms for promoting the delivery of ecosystem services) for aquatic ecosystems at various scales of space and time and relevant to different ecosystem types.
Integrated Forest Governance in Europe : An introduction to the special issue on forest policy integration and integrated forest management
Sotirov, Metodi ; Arts, Bas - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 79 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 960 - 967.
Biodiversity - Europe - Forests - Governance - Integrated forest management - Policy change - Policy integration - Resilience - Sustainable forest management
In this introduction to the Special Issue, we set out the key definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions of integrated forest governance. By so doing, we identify and account for the interplay between forest policy integration and integrated forest management as two constituting elements of integrated forest governance. Second, we summarize the main findings reported in the regular papers, and link them to the outlined definitions, theoretical concepts and analytical dimensions. This introduction further takes stock and classifies the main paradoxes of, barriers to, and drivers of forest policy integration and integrated forest management. It then structures the main empirical findings and conclusions along the key analytical dimensions and links them to the state of the art knowledge. Finally, we draw policy relevant conclusions and outline suggestions for future research.
The resilience of social norms of cooperation under resource scarcity and inequality — An agent-based model on sharing water over two harvesting seasons
Nhim, Tum ; Richter, Andries ; Zhu, Xueqin - \ 2018
Ecological Complexity (2018). - ISSN 1476-945X
Agent-based modeling - Cooperation - Inequality - Resilience - Resource scarcity - Social-ecological systems

Water governance remains a challenge for human societies, especially when the variation in resource inflow is large and the resource users are heterogeneous. We analyze with a coupled social-ecological systems (SES) model how socioeconomic and environmental changes affect the resilience of social norms governing resource use. In our model, agents have access to water as a common-pool resource and allocate it between rainy and dry seasons. While it is socially optimal to save water for the dry season, it is individually optimal to take water immediately. In our model, punishment of norm violators is the mechanism that may sustain cooperation. We show that the resilience of social norms could be affected by changes in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. Particularly, we find that social norms may collapse in times of resource scarcity and variability, especially if several drivers act in concert. Finally, we find that user heterogeneity in the form of different skills and inequality in land endowments may undermine cooperation. This implies that climatic changes and increased inequality – both potential drivers in the field – may affect community resilience and may lead to an erosion of social norms.

Elements of fishing community resilience to climate change in the coastal zone of Bangladesh
Sharifuzzaman, S.M. ; Hossain, M.S. ; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman ; Sarker, Subrata ; Chowdhury, M.S.N. ; Chowdhury, M.Z.R. - \ 2018
Journal of Coastal Conservation 22 (2018)6. - ISSN 1400-0350 - p. 1167 - 1176.
Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) - Fishing community - Hatiya Island - Livelihood assets - Resilience

Resilience has been conceptualized in various ways by anthropologists, ecologists, systems scientists and engineers; the boundaries of resilience are subjective and context dependent. Consequently, choosing the standards and metrics for assessing resilience remains key challenges for policy makers. In this study, using multicriteria evaluation of 40 basic criteria of human, physical, financial, natural and social assets, we have identified several elements, such as experienced fishermen, natural abundance of hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), ability to assert decision on fish selling, nets and boats ownership, social harmony and capacity of buying food as essential livelihood assets for the fishermen at Hatiya Island, Bangladesh. These assets may enhance the relative resilience of the fishing community of the island to climate change by as much as 20–40%. The results of this study will improve our understanding of the elements that lead to resilience at the community level.

Agroecological integration of shade- and drought-tolerant food/feed crops for year-round productivity in banana-based systems under rain-fed conditions in Central Africa
Blomme, G. ; Ocimati, W. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Ntamwira, J. ; Bahati, L. ; Kantungeko, D. ; Remans, R. ; Tittonell, P. - \ 2018
In: 10th International Symposium on Banana. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611924 - p. 41 - 54.
Intensification - Resilience - Small-scale farming - Year-round productivity - Yield gaps
Yield gaps in banana-based production systems have increased in the past two decades due to declining soil fertility, drought and biotic stresses. Sustainable, environmentally sound and economically viable strategies for intensification in these systems are urgently needed. Agroecological practices, such as the integration of shade- and drought-tolerant crops, nitrogen-fixing and cover crops could potentially improve soil fertility and moisture retention, reduce the weed burden, narrow yield gaps and increase overall plot/farm productivity in these systems. In Malaysia, leguminous crops like Pueraria phaseoloides, Calopogonium caeruleum and Centrosema pubescens are often cultivated as cover crops (to suppress weeds, and reduce moisture loss and soil erosion) in young rubber and oil palm plantations with low shade levels. Even in mature oil palm plantations with less than 30% light intensity, various shade-tolerant crops are grown, e.g., elephant foot yam, turmeric and arrow root. In humid tropical Africa, Colocasia (taro) and Xanthosoma (cocoyam) are reported to tolerate shade conditions and hence often planted under perennial banana/plantain plantations. Drought tolerance is a less common feature of most annual crops grown in the humid tropics. A few root and tuber crops (e.g., cassava, taro, yam and sweetpotato) remain in the field during the dry season in Central Africa and are then harvested according to household needs. This paper also reports on crops (Mucuna, lablab and chickpea) with potential for integration into banana-based systems during the dry season, if planted during the last month of the rainy season. These crops are reported to use the residual soil moisture content for continued growth during the dry season months. The paper concludes with detailed descriptions (from a literature review) on drought- and shade-tolerance characteristics of various crops which have long been integrated in Central African banana-based cropping systems, crops with a more recent cultivation history and crops with potential for system integration.
Unlocking the multiple public good services from balanced fertilizers
Bindraban, Prem S. ; Dimkpa, Christian O. ; Angle, Scott ; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 273 - 285.
Food loss - Human health - Innovative fertilizers - Micronutrients - Plant health - Resilience - Sector transformation
Fertilizers produce over half of the world’s food and permit less encroachment into pristine lands. Yet, the low uptake efficiency by crop plants causes nutrient losses that drive global change. Mitigating measures have been insufficient to address the problems, and policy interventions, NGO involvement, and R&D investments have been too insignificant to transform the fertilizer sector. Here, we discuss the contribution of balanced mineral fertilizers to increasing the nutritional value of crop produce to improve human nutrition and health; healthier plants to reduce biocide use; plant robustness to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses; and increased metabolite production to improve taste and shelf-life. We reflect on raising awareness about these multiple fertilizer-based public good services for realizing several Sustainable Development Goals which can be achieved through a comprehensive nutrient assessment to catalyze transformation in research, policy and industry.
Seagrass ecosystem trajectory depends on the relative timescales of resistance, recovery and disturbance
O'Brien, Katherine R. ; Waycott, Michelle ; Maxwell, Paul ; Kendrick, Gary A. ; Udy, James W. ; Ferguson, Angus J.P. ; Kilminster, Kieryn ; Scanes, Peter ; McKenzie, Len J. ; McMahon, Kathryn ; Adams, Matthew P. ; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena ; Collier, Catherine ; Lyons, Mitchell ; Mumby, Peter J. ; Radke, Lynda ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Dennison, William C. - \ 2018
Marine Pollution Bulletin 134 (2018). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 166 - 176.
Colonizing - Opportunistic - Persistent - Recovery - Resilience - Resistance - Seagrass - Trajectory
Seagrass ecosystems are inherently dynamic, responding to environmental change across a range of scales. Habitat requirements of seagrass are well defined, but less is known about their ability to resist disturbance. Specific means of recovery after loss are particularly difficult to quantify. Here we assess the resistance and recovery capacity of 12 seagrass genera. We document four classic trajectories of degradation and recovery for seagrass ecosystems, illustrated with examples from around the world. Recovery can be rapid once conditions improve, but seagrass absence at landscape scales may persist for many decades, perpetuated by feedbacks and/or lack of seed or plant propagules to initiate recovery. It can be difficult to distinguish between slow recovery, recalcitrant degradation, and the need for a window of opportunity to trigger recovery. We propose a framework synthesizing how the spatial and temporal scales of both disturbance and seagrass response affect ecosystem trajectory and hence resilience.
Fluctuations in milk yield are heritable and can be used as a resilience indicator to breed healthy cows
Elgersma, G.G. ; Jong, G. de; Linde, R. van der; Mulder, H.A. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1240 - 1250.
Big data - Fluctuation - Health - Resilience - Variance
Automatic milking systems record an enormous amount of data on milk yield and the cow itself. These type of big data are expected to contain indicators for health and resilience of cows. In this study, the aim was to define and estimate heritabilities for traits related with fluctuations in daily milk yield and to estimate genetic correlations with existing functional traits, such as udder health, fertility, claw health, ketosis, and longevity. We used daily milk yield records from automatic milking systems of 67,025 lactations in the first parity from 498 herds in the Netherlands. We defined 3 traits related to the number of drops in milk yield using Student t-tests based on either a rolling average (drop rolling average) or a regression (drop regression) and the natural logarithm of the within-cow variance of milk yield (LnVar). Average milk yield was added to investigate the relationships between milk yield and these new traits. ASReml was used to estimate heritabilities, breeding values (EBV), and genetic correlations among these new traits and average milk yield. Approximate genetic correlations were calculated using correlations between EBV of the new traits and existing EBV for health and functional traits correcting for nonunity reliabilities using the Calo method. Partial genetic correlations controlling for persistency and average milk yield and relative contributions to reliability were calculated to investigate whether the new traits add new information to predict fertility, health, and longevity. Heritabilities were 0.08 for drop rolling average, 0.06 for drop regression, and 0.10 for LnVar. Approximate genetic correlations between the new traits and the existing health traits differed quite a bit, with the strongest correlations (-0.29 to -0.52) between LnVar and udder health, ketosis, persistency, and longevity. This study shows that fluctuations in daily milk yield are heritable and that the variance of milk production is best among the 3 fluctuations traits tested to predict udder health, ketosis, and longevity. Using the residual variance of milk production instead of the raw variance is expected to further improve the trait to breed healthy, resilient, and long-lasting dairy cows.
Bacterial communities in soil become sensitive to drought under intensive grazing
Jurburg, Stephanie D. ; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago ; Raimundo, João ; Morais, Paula V. ; Sousa, José Paulo ; Elsas, Jan Dirk van; Salles, Joana Falcao - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 618 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1638 - 1646.
Bacteria - Climate change - Land management - Microbiome - Precipitation - Resilience - Soil

Increasing climatic and anthropogenic pressures on soil ecosystems are expected to create a global patchwork of disturbance scenarios. Some regions will be strongly impacted by climate change, others by agricultural intensification, and others by both. Soil microbial communities are integral components of terrestrial ecosystems, but their responses to multiple perturbations are poorly understood. Here, we exposed soils from sustainably- or intensively-managed grasslands in an agro-silvo-pastoral oak woodland to month-long intensified drought and flood simulation treatments in a controlled mesocosm setting. We monitored the response of the bacterial communities at the end of one month as well as during the following month of recovery. The communities in sustainably-managed plots under all precipitation regimes were richer and more diverse than those in intensively-managed plots, and contained a lower proportion of rapidly-growing taxa. Soils from both land managements exhibited changes in bacterial community composition in response to flooding, but only intensively-managed soils were affected by drought. The ecologies of bacteria favored by both drought and flood point to both opportunism and stress tolerance as key traits shaping the community following disturbance. Finally, the response of several taxa (i.e. Chloracidobacteria RB41, Janthinobacterium sp.) to precipitation depended on land management, suggesting that the community itself affected individual disturbance responses. Our findings provide an in-depth view of the complexity of soil bacterial community responses to climatic and anthropogenic pressures in time, and highlight the potential of these stressors to have multiplicative effects on the soil biota.

Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems : A modelling study from semi-arid Zimbabwe
Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Zijlstra, Mink ; Masikati, Patricia ; Crespo, Olivier ; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 159 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 282 - 295.
Crop-livestock interactions - Crude protein - Forage - Metabolizable energy - Resilience - Soil fertility - Vulnerability

Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a dynamic modelling framework integrating climate, crop, pasture and livestock models. The framework was applied to a population of 91 farms located in semi-arid Zimbabwe to assess effects on livestock production resulting from climate change and management interventions. Climate scenarios representing relative "cool-wet", "hot-dry" and "middle" conditions by mid-century (2040-2070) for two representative concentration pathways were compared with the baseline climate. On-farm fodder resources and rangeland grass production were simulated with the crop model APSIM and the pasture model GRASP respectively. The simulated fodder availability was used in the livestock model LIVSIM to generate various production indicators including milk, offtake, mortality, manure, and net revenue. We investigated the effects of two adaptation packages targeting soil fertility management and crop diversification and quantified the sensitivity to climate change of both current and improved systems. Livestock productivity was constrained by dry-season feed gaps, which were particularly severe for crude protein and caused by the reliance on rangeland grazing and crop residues, both of low quality in the dry season. Effects on grass and stover production depended on the climate scenario and the crop, but year-to-year variation generally increased. Relative changes in livestock net revenue compared to the baseline climate varied from a 6% increase to a 43% decrease, and the proportion of farmers negatively affected varied from 20% to 100%, depending on the climate scenario. Adverse effects of climate change on average livestock production usually coincided with increased year-to-year variability and risk. Farms with larger stocking density faced more severe feed gaps and were more sensitive to climate change than less densely stocked farms. The first adaptation package resulted in increased stover production and a small increase in livestock productivity. The inclusion of grain and forage legumes with the second package increased milk productivity and net revenues more profoundly by 30%. This was attributed to the alleviation of dry-season feed gaps, which also reduced the sensitivity to climate change compared to the current system. Clearly, individual farms were affected differently by climate change and by improved farm management, illustrating that disaggregated impact assessments are needed to effectively inform decision making towards climate change adaptation.

Climate Services for Business : Adapting and building long term resilience to climate change by and for the private sector
Bruin, K. de; Stahr, Cosima ; Coninx, I. ; Kind, Christian ; Soares, M. - \ 2017
In: Full Programme: ECCA (European Conference on Climate Adaptation) 2017. - - p. 209 - 210.
private sector - Climate services - Adaptation - Climate risk - Resilience - climate opportunities - Co-benefits
Planning and governance issues in the restructuring of the high street
Peel, Deborah ; Parker, Cathy - \ 2017
Journal of Place Management and Development 10 (2017)4. - ISSN 1753-8335 - p. 404 - 418.
Governance - Holistic - Joint working - Resilience - Restructuring - Wicked issue

Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of “restructuring” in confronting the challenges facing contemporary high streets in the devolved UK. It complements three articles concerned with repositioning, reinventing and rebranding and illustrates the multi-faceted approaches involved in addressing retail change and town centre transformations. This paper emphasises the role of planning and governance in effecting change. Design/methodology/approach: Informed by a literature review, action research involved inter-related interventions in selected locations, and associated workshops with engaged practitioners and community actors. Findings: The findings highlight that the “resilience” of contemporary town centres demands resisting efforts to return to the status quo and necessitate forms of adaptive management. Understanding high street degeneration and the limitations of a retail-only led policy focus as a “wicked issue” further demands socially constructing town centres as an ecosystem requiring a holistic response. New forms of joint-working involve selecting appropriate models, attending to relational aspects and defined roles and responsibilities. Land use planning, including masterplanning and creating evidenced policy options, provides an important democratic space for legitimising action, offering leadership and extending participation to new change agents. Practical implications: Restructuring of governance is an essential prerequisite in effecting change. Originality/value: The originality of this study lies in the application of the restructuring element of the 4 Rs Framework which enables a focus on the governance dimensions of town centre and high street regeneration. The findings are enhanced through the experiential evidence which stresses both the importance of place-based diversification and value of prioritising holistic and joint actions developed through participatory visioning exercises.

Sustainability of Agricultural Management Options Under a Systems Perspective
Pacini, Gaio Cesare ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. - \ 2017
In: Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies Elsevier - ISBN 9780128047927 - p. 191 - 200.
Agricultural sustainability - Agroecosystems properties - Capacity - Coherence - Conceptual model - Connectedness - Diversity - Management options - Resilience - Stability - Systems perspective
Sustainable development of agricultural landscapes has become a primary issue as reflected in many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Comparing alternative potential technologies and assessing relevant results in terms of their implementation on agroecosystems in specific environmental and social contexts is a complex matter. In this article, a conceptual model to evaluate sustainability of agroecosystems under a systems perspective is presented, which is based on dimensions and properties of agroecosystems. Examples of applications of the conceptual model are given that address sustainability assessment of agricultural technologies and agroecosystems.
Moving beyond the human–nature dichotomy through biocultural approaches : Including ecological well-being in resilience indicators
Caillon, Sophie ; Cullman, Georgina ; Verschuuren, Bas ; Sterling, Eleanor J. - \ 2017
Ecology and Society 22 (2017)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
Biocultural approach - Conservation - Culture - Ecological well-being - Human well-being - Indicator - Indigenous peoples and local communities - Nature - Ontology - Resilience - Traditional ecological knowledge
Diverse and productive ecosystems and human well-being are too often considered opposing targets. This stems mainly from nature being perceived as separate from culture, which results in resilience indicators that focus predominantly on either ecosystems or humans, and that overlook the interplay between the two. Meanwhile, global targets for biodiversity conservation and human well-being have yet to be satisfactorily achieved. We believe that in order to develop effective, culturally appropriate, and equitable conservation strategies that ensure social-ecological resilience, conservation planners and practitioners must conceive of human and ecological well-beings as an interrelated system. By giving nature a voice, and by viewing nature and people as an undifferentiated whole, some indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC) have philosophical bases for achieving well-being for both humans and nature. Biocultural approaches to conservation ground management in local knowledges, practices, and ontologies. These approaches encompass both the biological and cultural aspects of a system, address complex relationships and feedbacks within human and ecological well-being, and offer flexible frameworks that facilitate synthesis across different metrics, knowledge systems, and ontologies. The process of developing indicators of resilience with a biocultural approach could help (1) overcome the human–nature dichotomy that often makes global approaches incompatible with local approaches by integrating local peoples’ diverse forms of relating to nature, (2) reflect two-way feedbacks between people and their environment by focusing on processes, not just final states, and (3) define, measure, and monitor ecological and human well-being as a whole. It can also facilitate dialog between IPLCs and global decision-makers who are disconnected from local realities, and between people from a diversity of disciplinary, ontological, and professional backgrounds.
Legacy effects on the recovery of soil bacterial communities from extreme temperature perturbation
Jurburg, Stephanie D. ; Nunes, Inês ; Brejnrod, Asker ; Jacquiod, Samuel ; Priemé, Anders ; Sørensen, Søren J. ; Elsas, J.D. van; Salles, Joana F. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Microbiology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-302X - 13 p.
Disturbance - Microcosm - Resilience - RNA - Secondary succession - Soil bacteria

The type and frequency of disturbances experienced by soil microbiomes is expected to increase given predicted global climate change scenarios and intensified anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems. While the direct effect of multiple disturbances to soil microbes has been explored in terms of function, their effect on the recovery of microbial community composition remains unclear. Here, we used soil microcosm experiments and multiple model disturbances to explore their short-term effect on the recovery of soil microbiota after identical or novel stresses. Soil microcosms were exposed to a heat shock to create an initial effect. Upon initial community recovery (25 days after stress), they were subjected to a second stress, either a heat or a cold shock, and they were monitored for additional 25 days. To carefully verify the bacterial response to the disturbances, we monitored changes in community composition throughout the experiment using 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing. The application of a heat shock to soils with or without the initial heat shock resulted in similar successional dynamics, but these dynamics were faster in soils with a prior heat shock. The application of a cold shock had negligible effects on previously undisturbed soils but, in combination with an initial heat shock, caused the largest shift in the community composition. Our findings show that compounded perturbation affects bacterial community recovery by altering community structure and thus, the community's response during succession. By altering dominance patterns, disturbance legacy affects the microbiome's ability to recover from further perturbation within the 25 days studied. Our results highlight the need to consider the soil's disturbance history in the development of soil management practices in order to maintain the system's resilience.

Sustainable intensification in agriculture : the richer shade of green. A review
Struik, Paul C. ; Kuijper, Thomas - \ 2017
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 37 (2017)5. - ISSN 1774-0746
Agronomy - Intensification - Resilience - Resource use efficiency - Sustainability - Trait-based agroecology - Values
Agricultural intensification is required to feed the growing and increasingly demanding human population. Intensification is associated with increasing use of resources, applied as efficiently as possible, i.e. with a concurrent increase in both resource use and resource use efficiency. Resource use efficiency has agronomic, environmental, economic, social, trans-generational, and global dimensions. Current industrial agriculture privileges economic resource use efficiency over the other dimensions, claiming that that pathway is necessary to feed the world. Current agronomy and the concept of sustainable intensification are contested. Sustainable intensification needs to include clarity about principles and practices for priority setting, an all-inclusive and explicit cost-benefit analysis, and subsequent weighing of trade-offs, based on scientifically acceptable, shared norms, thus making agriculture “green” again. Here, we review different forms of intensification, different principles and concepts underlying them, as well as the norms and values that are needed to guide the search for effective forms of sustainable and ecological intensification. We also address innovations in research and education required to create the necessary knowledge base. We argue that sustainable intensification should be considered as a process of enquiry and analysis for navigating and sorting out the issues and concerns in agronomy. Sustainable intensification is about societal negotiation, institutional innovation, justice, and adaptive management. We also make a plea for at least two alternative framings of sustainable intensification: one referring to the need for “de-intensification” in high-input systems to become more sustainable and one referring to the need to increase inputs and thereby yields where there are currently large yield (and often also efficiency) gaps. Society needs an agriculture that demonstrates resilience under future change, an agronomy that can cope with the diversity of trade-offs across different stakeholders, and a sustainability that is perceived as a dynamic process based on agreed values and shared knowledge, insight, and wisdom.
Breeding and genetics symposium : Climate change and selective breeding in aquaculture
Sae-Lim, P. ; Kause, A. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Olesen, I. - \ 2017
Journal of Animal Science 95 (2017)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1801 - 1812.
Adaptation - Climate change - Resilience - Robustness - Selective breeding

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in 2050. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and FAO, climate change may result in global warming, sea level rise, changes of ocean productivity, freshwater shortage, and more frequent extreme climate events. Consequently, climate change may affect aquaculture to various extents depending on climatic zones, geographical areas, rearing systems, and species farmed. There are 2 major challenges for aquaculture caused by climate change. First, the current fish, adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions, may be suboptimal under future conditions. Fish species are often poikilothermic and, therefore, may be particularly vulnerable to temperature changes. This will make low sensitivity to temperature more important for fish than for livestock and other terrestrial species. Second, climate change may facilitate outbreaks of existing and new pathogens or parasites. To cope with the challenges above, 3 major adaptive strategies are identified. First, general ‘robustness’ will become a key trait in aquaculture, whereby fish will be less vulnerable to current and new diseases while at the same time thriving in a wider range of temperatures. Second, aquaculture activities, such as input power, transport, and feed production contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Selection for feed efficiency as well as defining a breeding goal that minimizes greenhouse gas emissions will reduce impacts of aquaculture on climate change. Finally, the limited adoption of breeding programs in aquaculture is a major concern. This implies inefficient use of resources for feed, water, and land. Consequently, the carbon footprint per kg fish produced is greater than when fish from breeding programs would be more heavily used. Aquaculture should use genetically improved and robust organisms not suffering from inbreeding depression. This will require using fish from well-managed selective breeding programs with proper inbreeding control and breeding goals. Policymakers and breeding organizations should provide incentives to boost selective breeding programs in aquaculture for more robust fish tolerating climatic change.

Editorial: Studying tree responses to extreme events
Bräuning, Achim ; Bolte, Andreas ; Nabais, Cristina ; Rossi, Sergio ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X
Climate change - Future forests - Intra-annual resolution - Long-term monitoring - Mechanistic understanding - Resilience - Structure-function relationships - Tree
Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States : Battling the Good Guys?
Kuiper, Jan J. ; Verhofstad, Michiel J.J.M. ; Louwers, Evelien L.M. ; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Brederveld, Robert J. ; Gerven, Luuk P.A. van; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Klein, Jeroen J.M. de; Mooij, Wolf M. - \ 2017
Environmental Management 59 (2017)4. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 619 - 634.
Aquatic plant - Ecosystem services - Harvesting - Model - Phosphorus - Resilience
Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable states over a wide range of environmental conditions, designing a successful mowing strategy is challenging, given the important role of macrophytes in stabilizing the clear water state. In this study, the integrated ecosystem model PCLake is used to explore the consequences of mowing, in terms of reducing nuisance and ecosystem stability, for a wide range of external nutrient loadings, mowing intensities and timings. Elodea is used as a model species. Additionally, we use PCLake to estimate how much phosphorus is removed with the harvested biomass, and evaluate the long-term effect of harvesting. Our model indicates that mowing can temporarily reduce nuisance caused by submerged plants in the first weeks after cutting, particularly when external nutrient loading is fairly low. The risk of instigating a regime shift can be tempered by mowing halfway the growing season when the resilience of the system is highest, as our model showed. Up to half of the phosphorus entering the system can potentially be removed along with the harvested biomass. As a result, prolonged mowing can prevent an oligo—to mesotrophic lake from becoming eutrophic to a certain extent, as our model shows that the critical nutrient loading, where the lake shifts to the turbid phytoplankton-dominated state, can be slightly increased.
Genomic selection improves response to selection in resilience by exploiting genotype by environment interactions
Mulder, Herman - \ 2016
Frontiers in Genetics 7 (2016)OCT. - ISSN 1664-8021
Accuracy - Breeding programs - Genomic selection - Genotype by environment interaction - Reaction norm model - Resilience - Response to selection

Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) are very common in livestock and hamper genetic improvement. On the other hand, GxE is a source of genetic variation: genetic variation in response to environment, e.g., environmental perturbations such as heat stress or disease. In livestock breeding, there is tendency to ignore GxE because of increased complexity of models for genetic evaluations and lack of accuracy in extreme environments. GxE, however, creates opportunities to increase resilience of animals toward environmental perturbations. The main aim of the paper is to investigate to which extent GxE can be exploited with traditional and genomic selection methods. Furthermore, we investigated the benefit of reaction norm (RN) models compared to conventional methods ignoring GxE. The questions were addressed with selection index theory. GxE was modeled according to a linear RN model in which the environmental gradient is the contemporary group mean. Economic values were based on linear and non-linear profit equations. Accuracies of environment-specific (G)EBV were highest in intermediate environments and lowest in extreme environments. RN models had higher accuracies of (G)EBV in extreme environments than conventional models ignoring GxE. Genomic selection always resulted in higher response to selection in all environments than sib or progeny testing schemes. The increase in response was with genomic selection between 9 and 140% compared to sib testing and between 11 and 114% compared to progeny testing when the reference population consisted of 1 million animals across all environments. When the aim was to decrease environmental sensitivity, the response in slope of the RN model with genomic selection was between 1.09 and 319 times larger than with sib or progeny testing and in the right direction in contrast to sib and progeny testing that still increased environmental sensitivity. This shows that genomic selection with large reference populations offers great opportunities to exploit GxE to increase resilience of animals.

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