Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Opinion paper about organic trace pollutants in wastewater : Toxicity assessment in a European perspective
Pedrazzani, Roberta ; Bertanza, Giorgio ; Brnardić, Ivan ; Cetecioglu, Zeynep ; Dries, Jan ; Dvarionienė, Jolanta ; García-Fernández, Antonio J. ; Langenhoff, Alette ; Libralato, Giovanni ; Lofrano, Giusy ; Škrbić, Biljana ; Martínez-López, Emma ; Meriç, Süreyya ; Pavlović, Dragana Mutavdžić ; Papa, Matteo ; Schröder, Peter ; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. ; Vogelsang, Christian - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 3202 - 3221.
Aquatic ecosystem - Bioassays - Ecotoxicity - Micro-pollutants - Risk assessment - Wastewater treatment

This opinion paper focuses on the role of eco-toxicological tools in the assessment of possible impacts of emerging contaminants on the aquatic ecosystem, hence, on human health. Indeed, organic trace pollutants present in raw and treated wastewater are the pivot targets: a multidisciplinary approach allows defining the basic principles for managing this issue, from setting a proper monitoring campaign up to evaluating the optimal process treatment. Giving hints on trace pollutants fate and behaviour, attention is focused on the choice of the bioassay(s), by analysing the meaning of possible biological answers. Data interpretation and exploitation are detailed with the final goal of providing criteria in order to be able to select the best targeted treatment options. The manuscript deals with conventional and innovative analytical approaches for assessing toxicity, by reviewing laboratory and field assays; illustrative real scale and laboratory applications integrate and exemplify the proposed approach.

Pesticide residues in European agricultural soils – A hidden reality unfolded
Silva, Vera ; Mol, Hans G.J. ; Zomer, Paul ; Tienstra, Marc ; Ritsema, Coen J. ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 653 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1532 - 1545.
Agricultural soils - European Union - Mixtures of pesticide residues - Predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECs) - Risk assessment

Pesticide use is a major foundation of the agricultural intensification observed over the last few decades. As a result, soil contamination by pesticide residues has become an issue of increasing concern due to some pesticides' high soil persistence and toxicity to non-target species. In this study, the distribution of 76 pesticide residues was evaluated in 317 agricultural topsoil samples from across the European Union. The soils were collected in 2015 and originated from 11 EU Member States and 6 main cropping systems. Over 80% of the tested soils contained pesticide residues (25% of samples had 1 residue, 58% of samples had mixtures of two or more residues), in a total of 166 different pesticide combinations. Glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) and the broad-spectrum fungicides boscalid, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole were the compounds most frequently found in soil samples and the compounds found at the highest concentrations. These compounds occasionally exceeded their predicted environmental concentrations in soil but were below the respective toxic endpoints for standard in-soil organisms. Maximum individual pesticide content assessed in a soil sample was 2.05 mg kg−1 while maximum total pesticide content was 2.87 mg kg−1. This study reveals that the presence of mixtures of pesticide residues in soils are the rule rather than the exception, indicating that environmental risk assessment procedures should be adapted accordingly to minimize related risks to soil life and beyond. This information can be used to implement monitoring programs for pesticide residues in soil and to trigger toxicity assessments of mixtures of pesticide residues on a wider range of soil species in order to perform more comprehensive and accurate risk assessments.

Development of wheat with hypoimmunogenic gluten obstructed by the gene editing policy in europe
Jouanin, Aurélie ; Boyd, Lesley ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Smulders, Marinus J.M. - \ 2018
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 871 (2018). - ISSN 2194-5357
Coeliac disease - Genetic modification - GM regulation - Innovation principle - Mutation breeding - New plant breeding technique - Public acceptance - Risk assessment

Coeliac Disease (CD) is an auto-immune reaction to gluten in 1–2% of the human population. A gluten-free (GF) diet, excluding wheat, barley, and rye, is the only remedy. This diet is difficult to adhere to, partly because wheat gluten is added to many processed products for their viscoelastic properties. In addition, GF products are less healthy and expensive. Wheat products containing only hypoimmunogenic gluten proteins would be a desirable option. Various gluten peptides that trigger CD have been characterized. A single wheat variety contains around hundred gluten genes, producing proteins with varying numbers of epitopes. Gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 can precisely remove or modify the DNA sequences coding for immunogenic peptides. Wheat with hypoimmunogenic gluten thus exemplifies the potential of gene editing for improving crops for human consumption where conventional breeding cannot succeed. We describe here, in relation to breeding hypoimmunogenic wheat varieties, the inconsistencies of applying GM regulation in Europe for gene-edited plants while mutation breeding-derived plants are exempted. We explain that healthy products derived from this new technology may become available in the United States, Canada, Argentina and other countries but not in Europe, because of strict regulation of unintended GM risk at the expense of reduction the existing immunogenicity risks of patients. We argue that regulation of gene-edited plants should be based on scientific evidence. Therefore, we strongly recommend implementing the innovation principle. Responsible Research and Innovation, involving stakeholders including CD patient societies in the development of gene-editing products, will enable progress toward healthy products and encourage public acceptance.

Risk assessment paradigm for glutamate
Roberts, Ashley ; Lynch, Barry ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2018
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 73 (2018)Suppl 5. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 53 - 64.
Acceptable daily intake - Glutamate - Macronutrient - Risk assessment

Background: Re-evaluation of the use of glutamic acid and glutamate salts (referred to as glutamate hereafter) by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 30 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. Summary: This ADI is below the normal dietary intake, while even intake of free glutamate by breast-fed babies can be above this ADI. In addition, the pre-natal developmental toxicity study selected by EFSA, has never been used by regulatory authorities worldwide for the safety assessment of glutamate despite it being available for nearly 40 years. Also, the EFSA ignored that toxicokinetic data provide support for eliminating the use of an uncertainty factor for interspecies differences in kinetics. Key Messages: A 3-generation reproductive toxicity study in mice that includes extensive brain histopathology, provides a better point of departure showing no effects up to the highest dose tested of 6,000 mg/kg bw/day. Furthermore, kinetic data support use of a compound-specific uncertainty factor of 25 instead of 100. Thus, an ADI of at least 240 mg/kg bw/day would be indicated. In fact, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that the previous ADI of "not specified" warrants any change.

Introduction and summary of the 2018 dietary glutamate workshop
Cynober, Luc ; Fernstrom, John D. ; Koletzko, Berthold ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Roberts, Ashley ; Tennant, David R. ; Tomé, Daniel ; Vorhees, Charles V. - \ 2018
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 73 (2018)Suppl 5. - ISSN 0250-6807 - 4 p.
Amino acid - European food safety authority - Glutamate - Risk assessment - Toxicology

The 2018 Dietary Glutamate Workshop was organized and sponsored by the International Glutamate Technical Committee to provide a platform for a broad expert discussion on all relevant aspects of glutamate metabolism and safety in human nutrition. The participants reached a consensus with previous safety evaluations conducted by the global expert bodies, but contradicted the 2017 re-evaluation of dietary glutamates by the European Food Safety Authority, which proposed a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 30 mg/kg body weight per day. The participants of the Workshop concluded that the present knowledge on metabolism, kinetics, developmental and general toxicity of dietary glutamates did not warrant a change in the previous ADI of "not specified."

Changes in work practices for safe use of formaldehyde in a university-based anatomy teaching and research facility
Scheepers, Paul T.J. ; Graumans, Martien H.F. ; Beckmann, Gwendolyn ; Dael, Maurice van; Anzion, Rob B.M. ; Melissen, Maarten ; Pinckaers, Nicole ; Wel, Luuk van; Werdt, Laurie M.A. de; Gelsing, Vera ; Linge, Albert van - \ 2018
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018)9. - ISSN 1661-7827
Carcinogenicity - Exposure assessment - Occupational hygiene - Risk assessment - Risk management

Anatomy teaching and research relies on the use of formaldehyde (FA) as a preservation agent for human and animal tissues. Due to the recent classification of FA as a carcinogen, university hospitals are facing a challenge to (further) reduce exposure to FA. The aim of this study was to reduce exposure to FA in the anatomy teaching and research facility. Workers participated in the development of improved work practices, both technical and organizational solutions. Over a period of 6 years mitigating measures were introduced, including improvement of a down-flow ventilation system, introduction of local exhaust ventilation, collection of drain liquid from displayed specimens in closed containers and leak prevention. Furthermore, some organizational changes were made to reduce the number of FA peak exposures. Stationary and personal air sampling was performed in three different campaigns to assess the effect of these new work practices on inhalation exposure to FA. Samples were collected over 8 h (full shift) and 15 min (task-based) to support mitigation of exposure and improvement of work practices. Air was collected on an adsorbent coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and analyzed by HPLC-UV. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of FA in the breathing zone over a work-shift were 123 µg/m3 in 2012 and 114 µg/m3 in 2014, exceeding the workplace standard of 150 µg/m3 (8 h time-weighted average, TWA) on 46% of the workdays in 2012 and 38% of the workdays in 2014. This exposure was reduced to an average of 28.8 µg/m3 in 2017 with an estimated probability of exceeding the OEL of 0.6%. Task-based measurements resulted in a mean peak exposures of 291 µg/m3 in 2012 (n = 19) and a mean of 272 µg/m3 in 2014 (n = 21), occasionally exceeding the standard of 500 µg/m3 (15 min TWA), and were reduced to a mean of 88.7 µg/m3 in 2017 (n = 12) with an estimated probability of exceeding the OEL of 1.6%.

Omics analyses of potato plant materials using an improved one-class classification tool to identify aberrant compositional profiles in risk assessment procedures
Kok, Esther ; Dijk, Jeroen van; Voorhuijzen, Marleen ; Staats, Martijn ; Slot, Martijn ; Lommen, Arjen ; Venema, Dini ; Pla, Maria ; Corujo, Maria ; Barros, Eugenia ; Hutten, Ronald ; Jansen, Jeroen ; Voet, Hilko van der - \ 2018
Food Chemistry (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146
Compositional analysis - Genetically modified organism - GMO - Omics profiling - Risk assessment

The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess potato omics profiles of new varieties for meaningful differences from analogous profiles of commercial varieties through the SIMCA one-class classification model. Analytical profiles of nine commercial potato varieties, eleven experimental potato varieties, one GM potato variety that had acquired Phytophtora resistance based on a single insert with potato-derived DNA sequences, and its non-GM commercial counterpart were generated. The ten conventional varieties were used to construct the one-class model. Omics profiles from experimental non-GM and GM varieties were assessed using the one-class SIMCA models. No potential unintended effects were identified in the case of the GM variety. The model showed that varieties that were genetically more distant from the commercial varieties were recognized as aberrant, highlighting its potential in determining whether additional evaluation is required for the risk assessment of materials produced from any breeding technique, including genetic modification.

Use of omics analytical methods in the study of genetically modified maize varieties tested in 90 days feeding trials
Corujo, Maria ; Pla, Maria ; Dijk, Jeroen van; Voorhuijzen, Marleen ; Staats, Martijn ; Slot, Martijn ; Lommen, Arjen ; Barros, Eugenia ; Nadal, Anna ; Puigdomènech, Pere ; Paz, José Luís La ; Voet, Hilko van der; Kok, Esther - \ 2018
Food Chemistry (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146
GMO (genetically modified organism) - Metabolomics - One-class model - Proteomics - Risk assessment - Transcriptomics

Genetically modified (GM) maize and their non-modified counterparts were compared using MON810 varieties, the only GMO event cultivated in Europe. The differences in grain samples were analysed by omics profiles, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Other cultivated maize varieties were analysed as a reference for the variability that will exist between cultivated varieties. The observed differences between modified and non-modified maize varieties do not exceed typical differences between non-modified varieties. The use of these advanced analytical approaches to analyse novel plant materials as compared to the results from animal feeding trials with whole foods is assessed. No indications were observed for changes in the GM varieties that warrant further investigations. Furthermore, it was shown that such indications will be obtained if maize samples of inferior quality are analysed similarly. Omics data provide detailed analytical information of the plant material, which facilitates a risk assessment procedure of new (GM) plant varieties.

Natural occurrence of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in Indonesian jamu and evaluation of consumer risks
Suparmi, Suparmi ; Widiastuti, Diana ; Wesseling, Sebastiaan ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 118 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 53 - 67.
Alkenylbenzenes - Jamu - Margin of exposure (MOE) - Risk assessment
The consumer risks of jamu, Indonesian traditional herbal medicines, was assessed focussing on the presence of alkenylbenzene containing botanical ingredients. Twenty-three out of 25 samples contained alkenylbenzenes at levels ranging from 3.8 to 440 μg/kg, with methyleugenol being the most frequently encountered alkenylbenzene. The estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from jamu consumption was estimated to amount to 0.2–171 μg/kg bw/day for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 0.9–203 μg/kg bw/day when adding up all alkenylbenzenes detected, and to 0.9–551 μg/kg bw/day when expressed in methyleugenol equivalents using interim relative potency (REP) factors. The margin of exposure (MOE) values obtained were generally <10,000 indicating a priority for risk management when assuming daily consumption during a lifetime. Using Haber's rule it was estimated that two weeks consumption of these jamu only once would not raise a concern (MOE >10,000). However, when considering use for two weeks every year during a lifetime, 5 samples still raise a concern. It is concluded that the consumption of alkenylbenzene containing jamu can be of concern especially when consumed on a daily basis for longer periods of time on a regular basis.
Evaluation of a single extraction test to estimate the human oral bioaccessibility of potentially toxic elements in soils : Towards more robust risk assessment
Rodrigues, S.M. ; Cruz, N. ; Carvalho, L. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Pereira, E. ; Boim, A.G.F. ; Alleoni, L.R.F. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2018
Science of the Total Environment 635 (2018). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 188 - 202.
ISO-17586:2016 - Oral bioaccessibility - Potentially toxic elements - Risk assessment - SBET - UBM
Intake of soil by children and adults is a major exposure pathway to contaminants including potentially toxic elements (PTEs). However, only the fraction of PTEs released in stomach and intestine are considered as bioaccessible and results from routine analyses of the total PTE content in soils, therefore, are not necessarily related to the degree of bioaccessibility. Experimental methods to determine bioaccessibility usually are time-consuming and relatively complicated in terms of analytical procedures which limits application in first tier assessments. In this study we evaluated the potential suitability of a recently developed single extract method (ISO-17586:2016) using dilute (0.43 M) nitric acid (HNO3) to mimic the bioaccessible fraction of PTEs in soils. Results from 204 soils from Portugal, Brazil and the Netherlands including all major soil types and a wide range of PTEs' concentrations showed that the extraction efficiency using 0.43 M HNO3 of Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils is related to that of in vitro methods including the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) and Unified BARGE Method (UBM). Also, differences in the degree of bioaccessibility resulting from differences in parent material, geology and climate conditions did not affect the response of the 0.43 M HNO3 extraction which is a prerequisite to be able to compare results from different soils. The use of 0.43 M HNO3 as a first screening of bioaccessibility therefore offers a robust and representative way to be included in first tier standard soil tests to estimate the oral bioaccessibility. Capsule: The single dilute (0.43 M) nitric acid extraction can be used in first tier soil risk assessment to assess both geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of PTEs.
Avoidance tests as a tool to detect sublethal effects of oil-impacted sediments
Szczybelski, Ariadna S. ; Kampen, Tineke ; Vromans, Joris ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, Martine J. van den; Brink, Nico W. van den; Koelmans, Albert A. - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)6. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1757 - 1766.
Amphipod - Avoidance - Benthic macroinvertebrates - Distillate marine grade A oil - Oil spills - Risk assessment
Currently, risk assessment for oil contamination does not consider behavioral responses of benthos to oil toxicity. Avoidance of oil-contaminated sediment by benthic amphipods, however, may be a highly sensitive endpoint for sublethal effects of commonly used distillate fuels. In the present study, the avoidance behavior of temperate freshwater (Gammarus pulex) and marine (Gammarus locusta) amphipods was tested by allowing them to choose between a reference sediment and a distillate marine grade A (DMA) oil-spiked sediment. Avoidance of DMA-spiked sediment at 1000mg/kg dry weight was significant within the total exposure time (96h) in G. pulex and within the first 72h in G. locusta in 1 of 2 tests. Absence of DMA avoidance at lower concentrations (≤250mg/kg dry wt) indicates that test species can only detect DMA above these concentrations. However, sensitivity to oil may vary according to the phenology and physiological conditions of the populations involved, such as the species temperature tolerance and reproductive stage. The results suggest that avoidance tests may be used as an alternative to traditional chronic toxicity tests provided that a causal link between avoidance and long-term effects can be established.
Detection of titanium particles in human liver and spleen and possible health implications
Heringa, M.B. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Bleys, R.L.A.W. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Tromp, P.C. ; Kesteren, P.C.E. van; Eijkeren, J.C.H. van; Undas, A.K. ; Oomen, A.G. ; Bouwmeester, H. - \ 2018
Particle and Fibre Toxicology 15 (2018)1. - ISSN 1743-8977
Human liver - Human spleen - Nanoparticle - Quantification - Risk assessment - Sp-ICP-HRMS - Tissue level - Titanium dioxide
Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal studies. A health risk from nanosized TiO2 particle consumption could not be excluded then. Results: Here we show the first quantification of both total titanium (Ti) and TiO2 particles in 15 post-mortem human livers and spleens. These low-level analyses were enabled by the use of fully validated (single particle) inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometry ((sp)ICP-HRMS) detection methods for total Ti and TiO2 particles. The presence of TiO2 in the particles in tissues was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Conclusions: These results prove that TiO2 particles are present in human liver and spleen, with ≥24% of nanosize (< 100 nm). The levels are below the doses regarded as safe in animals, but half are above the dose that is deemed safe for liver damage in humans when taking into account several commonly applied uncertainty factors. With these new and unique human data, we remain with the conclusion that health risks due to oral exposure to TiO2 cannot be excluded.
Site-specific aftercare completion criteria for sustainable landfilling in the Netherlands : Geochemical modelling and sensitivity analysis
Dijkstra, Joris J. ; Zomeren, André van; Brand, Ellen ; Comans, Rob N.J. - \ 2018
Waste Management 75 (2018). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 407 - 414.
Aftercare completion - Environmental protection criteria - Geochemical modelling - Risk assessment - Sensitivity analysis - Sustainable landfill management
A novel, regulatory accepted approach is developed that enables competent authorities to decide whether landfill aftercare can be reduced or terminated. Our previous paper (Brand et al., Waste Management 2016, 56, 255–261, https://doi.org//10.1016/j.wasman.2016.07.038) outlines the general approach, that consists of a 10-year treatment phase (e.g., aeration, leachate recirculation), in combination with site-specific Environmental Protection Criteria (EPC) for contaminant concentrations in the landfill leachate after treatment. The current paper presents the unique modelling approach by which the site-specific EPC are derived. The modelling approach is based on the use of mechanistic multi-surface geochemical models covering the main sorption processes in soils underneath the landfills, and is composed of widely-accepted surface complexation models in combination with published “generic” parameter sets. This approach enables the consideration of the main site-specific soil properties that influence the attenuation of emitted contaminants. In addition, the sensitivity of the EPC is shown for variation of the main physicochemical-assumptions and policy-based decisions. Site-specific soil properties have been found to substantially determine the EPC and include soil-pH, dissolved organic matter, and iron-(hydr)oxide content. Apart from the sorption capacity of the local soil, EPC also depend strongly on the assumed dilution with local groundwater in the saturated zone. An important policy-related decision that influences the calculated EPC is the assessment period during which the groundwater is protected. The transparent setup of the approach using geochemical modelling, the explicit consideration of site-specific properties and the achieved regulatory acceptance may also stimulate application to landfills in other countries.
Risk assessment of aflatoxin B1 exposure from maize and peanut consumption in Indonesia using the margin of exposure and liver cancer risk estimation approaches
Nugraha, Ananditya ; Khotimah, Khusnul ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 113 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 134 - 144.
Aflatoxin B1 - Liver cancer - Maize - MOE - Peanut - Risk assessment
Aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) is a secondary fungal metabolite product widely found in many foodstuffs and considered a public health concern worldwide due to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Tropical climate and inappropriate food safety practices in Indonesia are the favorable conditions for AfB1 contamination of foodstuffs. Despite these challenges, there has been a limited number of risk assessment of AfB1 conducted in Indonesia. Therefore, this paper aimed to gather all available occurrence data of AfB1 in maize and peanut originating from Indonesia and used the occurrence data to evaluate the risk of exposure to AfB1 using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) and the quantitative liver cancer risk approaches established by EFSA and FAO/WHO respectively. Risk assessment using both the MOE and quantitative liver cancer risk approaches revealed that AfB1 exposure from maize and peanut consumption in Indonesia is of concern. The MOE values derived from consumption of maize and peanut originating from Indonesia were generally below 10,000, and for several occurrence data were even below 1000. The estimated number of liver cancer cases associated with AfB1 exposure generally was above the 0.1 cancer cases/100,000 individuals/75 years. Altogether the evaluation reveals the urgency for risk management of AfB1 in Indonesia.
Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring
Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Dussort, P. ; Günther, Helmut ; Hanlon, Paul ; Honda, Hiroshi ; Mally, Angela ; O’Hagan, Sue ; Scholz, Gabriele ; Seidel, Albrecht ; Swenberg, James ; Teeguarden, Justin ; Eisenbrand, Gerhard - \ 2018
Archives of Toxicology 92 (2018)1. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 15 - 40.
Biomarkers - Dietary process-related contaminants - External exposure assessment - Physiologically based kinetic models - Risk assessment
Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario’s and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.
Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment
Rambla-Alegre, Maria ; Miles, Christopher O. ; Iglesia, Pablo de la; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita ; Jacobs, Silke ; Sioen, Isabelle ; Verbeke, Wim ; Samdal, Ingunn A. ; Sandvik, Morten ; Barbosa, Vera ; Tediosi, Alice ; Madorran, Eneko ; Granby, Kit ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Calis, Tanja ; Diogene, Jorge - \ 2018
Environmental Research 161 (2018). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 392 - 398.
Cyclic imines - Marine toxins - Mass spectrometry - Risk assessment - Shellfish
Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25 µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3 µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment.
Conceptual considerations on exposure assessment goals for aquatic pesticide risks at EU level
Boesten, Jos J.T.I. - \ 2018
Pest Management Science 74 (2018)2. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 264 - 274.
Aquatic organisms - Exposure assessment - Pesticides - Protection goals - Risk assessment

Assessment of the risk to aquatic organisms is an important aspect of pesticide registration. This assessment must be based on well-defined exposure assessment goals (EAGs). However, these goals have not yet been defined for the EU authorization procedure. The definition of an aquatic EAG has seven elements, including: type of water body, spatial dimension of this body, spatial population of water bodies, multi-year temporal population of concentrations for a single water body, and the space-time percentile combination to be selected from the spatio-temporal population of concentrations. The seven elements are split into 16 items, three which are within the risk-management domain. The remaining 13 scientific items should preferably be based on consistency with landscape-level approaches. Subdivision of the spatial population of water bodies on the occurrence of exposure routes should be avoided (although this is current practice). The multi-year temporal population of concentrations should be based on all years in rotational crops (including years without applications). Risk managers should be offered a suite of coherent packages of EAGs and effect assessment goals from which they can select the package corresponding to the desired overall level of protection.

The status of biological control and recommendations for improving uptake for the future
Barratt, B.I.P. ; Moran, V.C. ; Bigler, F. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2018
BioControl 63 (2018)1. - ISSN 1386-6141 - p. 155 - 167.
Access and benefit-sharing - Biological control - Communication - Cost-effectiveness - IPM - Research approach - Risk assessment
Classical and augmentative biological control of insect pests and weeds has enjoyed a long history of successes. However, biocontrol practices have not been as universally accepted or optimally utilised as they could be. An International Organisation for Biological Control (IOBC) initiative brought together practitioners and researchers from widely diverse fields to identify the main limitations to biocontrol uptake and to recommend means of mitigation. Limitations to uptake included: risk averse and unwieldy regulatory processes; increasingly bureaucratic barriers to access to biocontrol agents; insufficient engagement and communication with the public, stakeholders, growers and politicians of the considerable economic benefits of biocontrol; and fragmentation of biocontrol sub-disciplines. In this contribution we summarise a range of recommendations for the future that emphasise the need for improved communication of economic, environmental and social successes and benefits of biological control for insect pests, weeds and plant diseases, targeting political, regulatory, grower/land manager and other stakeholder interests. Political initiatives in some countries which augur well for biocontrol in the future are discussed.
Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica
Arias-Andrés, M. ; Rämö, R. ; Mena Torres, F. ; Ugalde, R. ; Grandas, L. ; Ruepert, C. ; Castillo, L.E. ; Den Brink, P.J. van; Gunnarsson, J.S. - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)14. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 13312 - 13321.
Ecotoxicology - Pesticides - Risk assessment - Tropics

Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia
Teklu, Berhan M. ; Hailu, Amare ; Wiegant, Daniel A. ; Scholten, Bernice S. ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)14. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 13207 - 13216.
Lake Ziway - Monitoring - Pesticides - Physicochemical parameters - Risk assessment - Water quality

The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water quality data was gathered to study the dynamics of pesticide concentrations and physicochemical parameters for the years from 2009 to 2015. Results indicate that for some physicochemical parameters, including pH, potassium and iron, over 50 % of the values were above the maximum permissible limit of the Ethiopian standard for drinking water. The insecticide spiroxamine poses a high chronic risk when the water is used for drinking water, while the estimated intake of diazinon was approximately 50 % of the acceptable daily intake. Higher-tier risk assessment indicated that the fungicide spiroxamine poses a high acute risk to aquatic organisms, while possible acute risks were indicated for the insecticides deltamethrin and endosulfan. Longer-term monitoring needs to be established to show the water quality changes across time and space, and the current study can be used as a baseline measurement for further research in the area as well as an example for other surface water systems in Ethiopia and Africa.

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