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Dietary supplementation with tannin and soybean oil on intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, ruminal protozoa and methane emission in sheep
Lima, P.R. ; Apdini, T. ; Freire, A.S. ; Santana, A.S. ; Moura, L.M.L. ; Nascimento, J.C.S. ; Rodrigues, R.T.S. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Garcez Neto, A.F. ; Queiroz, M.A.Á. ; Menezes, D.R. - \ 2019
Animal Feed Science and Technology 249 (2019). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 10 - 17.
Feeding behavior - Fibre digestibility - Methane mitigation - Sheep - Soybean oil - Tannins
Tannins and soybean oil are supplements used in diets that depending on concentration may promote beneficial or negative effects on animal productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with tannins extract or soybean oil, as well as their combination, on intake, digestibility, methane production, feeding behavior and rumen parameters in Santa Inês crossbred uncastrated male sheep. Eight sheep were assigned to a double 4 × 4 Latin square (4 treatments and 4 periods), and 4 sheep to a simple 4 × 4 Latin square (for ruminal fluid collection) and fed a basal diet of 60% elephant grass and 40% concentrate (dry matter (DM) basis). The treatments were: control (no tannins or soybean oil); tannins (30 g/kg DM); soybean oil (50 g/kg DM); and tannins plus soybean oil (30 g/kg DM of tannin and 50 g/kg DM of soybean oil). Intake did not differ between treatments. Tannins supplementation increased eating time (ET) (P < 0.01) and decreased DM intake rate (DMIR) (P = 0.02) and rumen fluid pH (P = 0.04), but did not affect digestibility. Supplementation with soybean oil decreased acid detergent fibre (P = 0.04) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (P = 0.02) digestibility, and increased number (P < 0.05) and time (P = 0.04) of chewing per ruminal bolus. The combination of tannins and soybean oil decreased digestibility of organic matter (DOM) (P = 0.04) and NDF (P = 0.01), increased ET (P < 0.01) and decreased DMIR (P < 0.01) and NDF intake rate (P = 0.02). The inclusion of tannins did not decrease methane production. However, the inclusion of soybean oil or soybean oil plus tannins reduced methane production (absolute value and per unit of ingested DM and digestible organic matter) (P < 0.01). The number of rumen protozoa decreased in the treatments with tannins, soybean oil and soybean oil plus tannins compared to control treatment (P < 0.01), and a greater proportion of reduction was obtained using only soybean oil. The inclusion of soybean oil alone is sufficient to reduce methane production, without affecting DM intake and DOM, although reducing fibre digestion.
Uniformity in birth weight is heritable in Norwegian White Sheep
Sae-Lim, Panya ; Jakobsen, Jette H. ; Mulder, H.A. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. - WCGALP - 6 p.
Sheep - Birth weight - Uniformity - Maternal genetic effect - DHGLM
Birth weight is an optimum trait where very high and very low birth weights are undesirable as they may cause issues, such as dystocia, stillbirths and diminished lamb vigor. Due to economic and welfare concerns, selection for more uniform birth weight is therefore desirable at all litter sizes. If uniformity in birth weight is heritable, selection against very high and very low birth weights can be conducted. The aim of the current study was to investigate if direct and maternal genetic variances in uniformity in birth weight exist in Norwegian White Sheep (NWS). Data composed birth weights of 136,992 NWS lambs born between 2000 and 2017 and corresponding sire-maternal grand sire pedigree. The double hierarchical generalized linear mixed model (DHGLM) was fitted. The direct and maternal heritability for uniformity of birth weight were 0.08 and 0.11, respectively, and larger than for many other uniformity traits in livestock. Furthermore, the direct (57.8%) and maternal (69.4%) genetic coefficients of variation for uniformity were substantial, revealing large potential for selection for more uniform birth weight in NWS lambs. Genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects on birth weight and uniformity were 0.39 and 0.12, respectively, indicating that that selection for more uniform birth weight may reduce the average birth weight genetically.
Protection in sheep against heterologous challenge with serotype Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus using high potency vaccine
Horsington, Jacquelyn ; Nfon, Charles ; Gonzales, Jose L. ; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar ; Bittner, Hilary ; Vosloo, Wilna - \ 2018
Vaccine 36 (2018)41. - ISSN 0264-410X - p. 6095 - 6102.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus - Heterologous challenge - Sheep - Vaccine efficacy
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 is prevalent in countries considered high risk for incursion into Australia, and has recently been responsible for a number of outbreaks in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Turkey. In vitro vaccine matching has shown a number of contemporary FMDV Asia-1 strains vary antigenically to the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine strain, which could result in poor protection with use of this vaccine. Therefore it was important to test the ability of the Asia-1 Shamir vaccine to protect sheep from challenge with a recent, heterologous strain at different days post-vaccination (dpv), including in an emergency vaccination scenario (challenge 4 or 7 dpv). Sheep (5 per group) were challenged with the Asia-1/PAK/19/2014 isolate by intra-nasopharyngeal instillation 21 (V21), 7 (V7) or 4 (V4) dpv with high-potency (>6 PD50) Asia-1 Shamir vaccine. An additional five sheep were mock-vaccinated with adjuvant only (antigen-free preparation) 4 days prior to challenge (A4), and five unvaccinated (UV) control sheep were also challenged. All V21, V7 and V4 sheep were protected from clinical FMD. Eighty percent of V21 sheep and 40% of V7 sheep had sterile immunity, however all V4 sheep became systemically infected. Vaccination reduced excretion of virus in nasal and oral secretions but had no effect on the development of persistent infection. All A4 sheep and UV control sheep developed clinical FMD. The high-potency Asia-1 Shamir vaccine will protect against disease should an outbreak of contemporary Asia-1 viruses occur. Intranasopharyngeal instillation is an effective challenge method for use in vaccine efficacy studies in sheep.
Experimental infection of small ruminants with bluetongue virus expressing Toggenburg Orbivirus proteins
Rijn, Piet A. van; Water, Sandra G.P. van de; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke A. ; Gennip, René G.P. van - \ 2016
Veterinary Microbiology 192 (2016). - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 145 - 151.
Bluetongue virus - Experimental infection - Goat - Protein expression - Reverse genetics - Sheep - Toggenburg Orbivirus
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype orbivirus (Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus) consisting of more than 24 recognized serotypes or neutralization groups. Recently, new BTV serotypes in goats have been found; serotype 25 (Toggenburg Orbivirusor TOV), serotype 26 (KUW2010/02), and serotype 27 from Corsica, France. KUW2010/02 has been isolated in mammalian cells but is not replicating in Culicoides cells. TOVhas been detected in goats but could not been cultured, although TOV has been successfully passed to naïve animals by experimental infection using viremic blood. Genome segments Seg-2[VP2], Seg-6[VP5], Seg-7[VP7], and Seg-10[NS3/NS3a] expressing the respective TOV proteins were incorporated in BTV using reverse genetics, demonstrating that these TOV proteins are functional in BTV replication. Depending on the incorporated TOV proteins, in vitro replication is, however, decreased compared to the ancestor BTV, in particular by TOV-VP5. Sheep and goats were experimentally infected with BTV expressing both outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 of TOV, so-named ‘TOV-serotyped BTV’. Viremia was not detected in sheep, and hardly detected in goats after infection with TOV-serotyped BTV. Seroconversion by cELISA, however, was detected, suggesting that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in small ruminants. One goat was coincidentally pregnant, and the fetus was strong PCR-positive in blood samples and several organs, which conclusively demonstrates that TOV-serotyped BTV replicates in vivo.
European bluetongue serotype 8 : Disease threat assessment for U.S. sheep
Drolet, Barbara S. ; Reister-Hendricks, Lindsey M. ; Podell, Brendan K. ; Breitenbach, Jonathan E. ; Mcvey, D.S. ; Rijn, Piet A. van; Bowen, Richard A. - \ 2016
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 16 (2016)6. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 400 - 407.
Bluetongue virus - BTV-8 - Orbivirus - Sheep - U.S.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an orbivirus transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) that can result in moderate to high morbidity and mortality primarily in sheep and white-tailed deer. Although only 5 serotypes of BTV are considered endemic to the United States, as many as 11 incursive serotypes have been detected in livestock and wildlife in the past 16 years. Introductions of serotypes, with unknown virulence and disease risk, are constant threats to US agriculture. One potential incursive serotype of particular concern is the European strain of BTV-8, which was introduced into Northern Europe in 2006 and caused unprecedented livestock disease and mortality during the 2006-2007 vector seasons. To assess disease risk of BTV-8 in a common white-faced American sheep breed, eight Polled Dorset yearlings were experimentally infected and monitored for clinical signs. Viremia and viral tissue distribution were detected and quantified by real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, clinical disease was moderate with no mortality. Viremia reached as high as 9.7 log10 particles/mL and persisted at 5 logs or higher through the end of the study (28 days). Virus distribution in tissues was extensive with the highest mean titers at the peak of viremia (day 8) in the kidney (8.38 log10 particles/mg) and pancreas (8.37 log10 particles/mg). Virus persisted in tissues of some sheep at 8 logs or higher by day 28. Results of this study suggest that should BTV-8 emerge in the United States, clinical disease in this common sheep breed would likely be similar in form, duration, and severity to what is typically observed in severe outbreaks of endemic serotypes, not the extraordinary disease levels seen in Northern Europe. In addition, a majority of exposed sheep would be expected to survive and act as significant BTV-8 reservoirs with high titer viremias for subsequent transmission to other livestock and wildlife populations.
Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass
Zafeiraki, Effrosyni ; Vassiliadou, Irene ; Costopoulou, Danae ; Leondiadis, Leondios ; Schafft, Helmut A. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2016
Chemosphere 156 (2016). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 280 - 285.
Grass - Liver - PFASs - PFOS - Sheep
Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g-1 ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg-1. Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g-1 ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g-1 ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health.
Serological Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Sheep of Portugal 2014
Esteves, Fernando ; Mesquita, João R. ; Vala, Helena ; Abreu-Silva, Joana ; Poel, W.H.M. Van Der; Nascimento, Maria S.J. - \ 2016
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 16 (2016)1. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 63 - 65.
Arbovirus - ELISA. - Schmallenberg virus - Seroprevalence - Sheep
Between November and December of 2014, a serosurvey was set up to evaluate the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibodies in sheep of Portugal. Sera (n = 1068) were tested using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen® Schmallenberg virus indirect, IDvet Innovative Diagnostics Montpellier, France). The estimated occurrence of immunogobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SBV in sheep of Portugal was 12.8% (95% confidence interval 11.0-15.0%). This is the first study reporting the presence of SBV antibodies in sheep of Portugal.
A pilot study to develop an assessment tool for sheep welfare after long journey transport
Messori, S. ; Sossidou, E. ; Buonanno, M. ; Mounaix, B. ; Barnard, S. ; Vousdouka, V. ; Villa, P. Dalla; Roest, K. De; Spoolder, H. - \ 2015
Animal Welfare 24 (2015)4. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 407 - 416.
Animal welfare - Long journey - Sheep - Transport - Welfare assessment - Welfare indicators
Sheep transport within Europe involves 9.5 million animals yearly, 63% of which travel over longjourneys (> 8 h). Livestock transport, particularly over long journeys, gives rise to concern about the welfare of transported animals. The European Commission stimulates the development of market-oriented animal welfare standards for all phases of livestock production, providing an alternative to the 'regulatory approach'. This study aimed to develop and test a new sheep welfare assessment protocol to be used following transport, irrespective of the journey purpose. The protocol included outcome (animal-based measures) and input variables (resource-based and management-based measures), being welfare-relevant aspects of both transport and unloading procedures. Weighted Cohen's Kappa and Heiss' Kappa index of agreement were calculated to evaluate the raters accuracy and the inter-observer reliability.Overall, good agreement levels were found. The protocol was tested on 40 commercial transports arriving at previously selected assembly centres and slaughterhouses in Italy and Greece. The protocol was found to be feasible when applied to commercial transports, allowing for a comprehensive and quick sheep welfare assessment during unloading, without impairing stockman work. Univariate analysis was carried out to evaluate associations between outcome and input variables. In this study, significant association between outcome measures and risk factors were identified when associated to unloading procedures but not to travel conditions. In collaboration with the relevant stakeholders, this protocol might be developed into a tool for routine checks for certification purposes and could provide direct feedback to all professionals involved in animal transportation on the weaknesses and strengths of their work.
Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats : An opinionated review
Brom, R. Van den; Engelen, E. van; Roest, H.I.J. ; Hoek, W. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2015
Veterinary Microbiology 181 (2015)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 119 - 129.
Coxiella burnetii - Goat - Q fever - Sheep - Zoonosis
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.