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Stakeholders' perception of the relevance of water and sediment connectivity in water and land management
Smetanová, Anna ; Paton, Eva Nora ; Maynard, Carly ; Tindale, Sophie ; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia ; Marqéus Pérez, María José ; Bracken, Louise ; Bissonnais, Yves Le; Keesstra, Saskia D. - \ 2018
Land Degradation and Development 29 (2018)6. - ISSN 1085-3278 - p. 1833 - 1844.
Knowledge transfer - Management potential - Perception - Stakeholders - Water and sediment connectivity
Using concepts of connectivity in challenges regarding land and water management (flooding, erosion, nutrient leaching, landslides) can only be fully harnessed if knowledge is communicated well between scientists and stakeholders. Proper communication requires prior understanding of end-users' perception of connectivity as a useful framework. Therefore, we analysed (a) perceptions of 'connectivity' for stakeholders involved in water and land management across Europe, (b) potential for stakeholders to apply connectivity-related measures in their management decisions, (c) stakeholders' biggest challenges in water and land management, and (d) stakeholders' expectations for future connectivity research agendas. We studied 85 questionnaires from 19 countries using a grounded theory approach. One third of stakeholders understood connectivity in its scientific context, whereas 39% perceived connectivity indirectly through their personal experiences (e.g., water and sediment fluxes and erosion). Half of stakeholders' perceived links and challenges were related to availability of data and methods, communication, and institutions or policy, whereas others believed they were related to water quality and quantity, soil erosion and quality, and climate change. Half of the stakeholders considered connectivity management important, and one third showed high interest in managing connectivity. Adopting connectivity into management is hindered by institutional- and policy-based management limitations, insufficient data and methods, and ineffective knowledge transfer. Explicitly considering heterogeneity of stakeholder perceptions is required for projects regarding management of connectivity at European, national, and local scales.
Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Alternatives for Smallholder Farmers in the Upper Blue-Nile Basin
Nigussie, Yalemzewd ; Werf, Edwin van der; Zhu, Xueqin ; Simane, Belay ; Ierland, Ekko C. van - \ 2018
Ecological Economics 151 (2018). - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 142 - 150.
Adaptation - Agriculture - Climate change - Ethiopia - Multi-criteria analysis - Stakeholders
Climate change is expected to have severe negative impacts on the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, smallholder farmers and governments in these regions tend to be ill-prepared for the impacts of climate change. We present the results of a stakeholder-based multi-criteria analysis of climate change adaptation options for agriculture, natural resource management and water management in the upper Blue-Nile basin in Ethiopia. We use the PROMETHEE II outranking method to analyse data from a survey in which farmers and experts were asked to evaluate adaptation options based on potentially conflicting criteria. Adaptation options for soil and land management, such as crop rotation and composting, score high based on two sets of criteria for assessing adaptation options for agriculture. River diversion, preventing leaching and erosion, and drip irrigation are ranked highest as adaptation options for water management. Regarding natural resource management, the highest ranked adaptation options are afforestation, water retention and maximizing crop yield. Rankings by farmers and by experts are weakly correlated for agriculture and water management, and negatively correlated for natural resource management, which shows the importance of extension services and of involving farmers in the decision-making process to ensure the feasibility of adaptation options.
Does information on the interdependence of climate adaptation measures stimulate collaboration? A case study analysis
Vos, Claire C. ; Wal, Merel M. van der; Opdam, Paul F.M. ; Coninx, Ingrid ; Dewulf, Art R.P.J. ; Steingröver, Eveliene G. ; Stremke, Sven - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)7. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 2033 - 2045.
Adaptation measures - Climate adaptation - Collaboration - Landscape planning - Participative planning - Stakeholders
A key issue in implementing adaptation strategies at the landscape level is that landowners take measures on their land collectively. We explored the role of information in collective decision-making in a landscape planning process in the Baakse Beek region, the Netherlands. Information was provided on (a) the degree to which measures contribute to multiple purposes, (b) whether they are beneficial to stakeholders representing different sectors of land use, and (c) the need for landscape-level implementation of adaptation measures. Our analysis suggests that the negotiation process resulted in collective decisions for more collaborative adaptation measures than could be expected from individual preferences previous to the planning session. Based on the results, it is plausible that the provided information enhanced integrative agreements by leading stakeholders to realize that they were mutually interdependent, both in acquiring individual benefits as well as in implementing the measures at the landscape level. Our findings are significant in the context of the emerging insight that targeted information provision for climate adaptation of landscapes can support collaboration between the relevant stakeholders.
Stakeholder participation in planning rural development strategies : Using backcasting to support Local Action Groups in complying with CLLD requirements
Sisto, Roberta ; Lopolito, Antonio ; Vliet, Mathijs van - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 70 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 442 - 450.
Backcasting - Community-Led Local Development planning - Local Action Groups - Participatory approaches - Rural development planning - Stakeholders
In advanced countries, rural areas are a complex web of social, political and historical factors. In addition, several kinds of uncertainties are usually present. As a consequence, frequent mismatches arise in practise between measures and rural development goals and priorities. To overcome this pitfall, a key factor is represented by the acquisition of relevant knowledge from local stakeholders. In line with this idea, the European Commission encourages the Community-Led Local Development approach delivered by Local Action Groups. The aim of the study is to show the suitability of a participatory approach, namely backcasting, to the outline of the Local Action Plan of a specific LAG. Within this framework, a participative backcasting experience was carried out with the stakeholders of the LAG ‘Daunia Rurale’ in order to detect their needs and the strategic actions to carry out. The study provided stakeholders and policy makers with a rational approach and an operational tool to recognise the needs and design the actions for the specific endogenous potential of the investigated area. The proposed method proved to be rather innovative in CLLD contexts for the detection of expressed needs of local stakeholders and the definition of the LAP. We submitted some questionnaires to stakeholders and looking at their results (either at the ones on the niceness of the workshop or at the strategy-validation ones), some encouraging remarks can be drawn. Backcasting has been particularly helpful to local stakeholders and decision makers in identifying the steps to give a clear direction to rural development. What we learn from this case study represents a valuable outcome that can support practitioners, policy makers and researchers in understanding how to design medium- to long-term planning development strategies in rural areas.
Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation : A co-translation approach to bring research knowledge and practice closer together
Ingram, Julie ; Dwyer, Janet ; Gaskell, Peter ; Mills, Jane ; Wolf, Pieter de - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 70 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 38 - 51.
Advisers - Agricultural innovation - Co-translation - Dynamic Research Agenda - Farmers - Interactive innovation - Knowledge transfer - Researchers - Scientists - Stakeholders - Translation - Translation processes - Translational research
Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes part of useful knowledge for decision making. There is increasing interest in enhancing translation in the European agricultural innovation, research and policy context, and specifically in making it a more collaborative process. This new attention calls for a reorientation of how the concept is understood, theorised and operationalised. This paper considers these needs and specifically asks how can interactive innovation approaches be integrated with science-driven approaches to enhance translation; and how can this help to reveal the constituent translation processes? An interactive stakeholder methodology is described drawing on three agricultural case studies examined in the xx project which aims to make translation of existing bodies of scientific knowledge more effective. Analysis to date shows how this interactive methodology enables a communicative and reciprocal set of translation processes to evolve which comprise: identification, prioritisation, articulation, searching, retrieval, extraction and synthesis, and evaluation of innovation issues and solutions. These insights allow us to move beyond an understanding of translation as science- or innovation-driven to envisaging co-translation, where multiple processes interact in a fluid middle-ground, and where the actors involved develop the capacity to jointly analyse innovation issues and solutions. From the perspective of the EU's policy ambitions to stimulate collaborative translation, operationalising translation needs re-thinking with respect to requirements for new mind-sets and skills, and in particular for committed and well-resourced intermediaries who can foster these multi-actors approaches.
The quest for improving soil fertility : Why an integrated approach is needed
Beek, Christy van; Herold, Nadine ; Kessler, Aad ; Vonk, Remko - \ 2017
Outlook on Agriculture 46 (2017)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 289 - 294.
Africa - Fertilizer - Interventions - Soil nutrients - Stakeholders
Improving the productive capacity of lands has been on the international development agenda for many years. Yet, to date insufficient progress has been made. Although there have been successes, they tend to be of limited impact, and spontaneous spreading of good practices is low. In this article, different intervention paradigms are reviewed. It is concluded that interventions differ in their fundamental view of drivers for change. We found interventions that aim to increase the total amount of nutrients within the soil, either through increasing inputs or through increasing demands, but seldom both at the same time.We also found interventions that aim to increase the efficacy of existing soil nutrients through either increasing the nutrient holding capacity (e.g. through mulching) or the release of nutrients (e.g. through liming). The differentiation of these approaches has strong effects on the institutional organization of the intervention. This article makes the case for integrating these different approaches and for more collaboration at institutional levels to facilitate this process.
Towards systematic analyses of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies : Main concepts, methods and the road ahead
Cord, Anna F. ; Bartkowski, Bartosz ; Beckmann, Michael ; Dittrich, Andreas ; Hermans, Kathleen ; Kaim, Andrea ; Lienhoop, Nele ; Locher-Krause, Karla ; Priess, Jörg ; Schröter-Schlaack, Christoph ; Schwarz, Nina ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Strauch, Michael ; Václavík, Tomáš ; Volk, Martin - \ 2017
Ecosystem Services 28 (2017)part C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 264 - 272.
Ecosystem service bundles - Ecosystem service demand - Ecosystem service supply - Optimization - Spatio-temporal scales - Stakeholders
Ecosystem services (ES), the benefits that humans obtain from nature, are of great importance for human well-being. The challenge of meeting the growing human demands for natural resources while sustaining essential ecosystem functions and resilience requires an in-depth understanding of the complex relationships between ES. These conflicting ('trade-offs') or synergistic ('synergies') relationships mean that changes in one ES can cause changes in other ES. By synthesizing the growing body of literature on ES relationships, we identified the following four main study objectives: (i) the identification and characterization of co-occurrences of ES, (ii) the identification of drivers that shape ES relationships, (iii) the exploration of biophysical constraints of landscapes and limitations to their multifunctionality, and (iv) the support of environmental planning, management and policy decisions. For each of these objectives we here describe the key concepts, including viewpoints of different disciplines, and highlight the major challenges that need to be addressed. We identified three cross-cutting themes being relevant to all four main types of studies. To help guiding researchers towards more systematic analyses of ES trade-offs and synergies, we conclude with an outlook on suggested future research priorities.
Attitudes of different stakeholders toward pig husbandry : a study to determine conflicting and matching attitudes toward animals, humans and the environment
Bergstra, Tamara J. ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Stassen, Elsbeth N. - \ 2017
Agriculture and Human Values 34 (2017)2. - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 393 - 405.
Attitudes - Pig husbandry - Stakeholders
The pig sector is struggling with negative attitudes of citizens. This may be the result of conflicting attitudes toward pig husbandry between citizens and other stakeholders. To obtain knowledge about these attitudes, the objectives of this study were (1) to determine and compare attitudes of various stakeholders toward animals, humans and the environment in the context of pig husbandry and (2) to determine and compare the acceptability of publically discussed issues related to pig husbandry of various stakeholders. A questionnaire was distributed to citizens, conventional pig farmers, organic pig farmers, pig husbandry advisors and pig veterinarians. Respondents could indicate their attitude toward aspects related to animals, humans and the environment in the context of pig husbandry and they could indicate their opinion about the acceptability of issues of pig husbandry, e.g. piglet mortality and inside pig housing. Based on measured attitudes and the acceptability of issues, the studied stakeholders could be divided into three distinctive groups. The group of citizens and organic pig farmers showed negative attitudes toward all aspects of pig husbandry, the group of conventional pig farmers and pig husbandry advisors only showed negative attitudes toward aspects related to economics and the group of pig veterinarians showed negative attitudes to specific aspects of pig husbandry. This indicates that stakeholders have different interests and different perspectives with regard to pig husbandry. The pig sector should learn to understand citizens’ perspectives and take these into account in their line of work, the implementation of animal welfare measures and in their communication.
Governing ecosystem services : National and local lessons from policy appraisal and implementation
Verburg, René ; Selnes, Trond ; Verweij, Pita - \ 2016
Ecosystem Services 18 (2016). - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 186 - 197.
Ecosystem services approach - Participation - Policy practice - Stakeholders
The TEEB approach to the use of ecosystem services has found its way to policy as a means to biodiversity conservation and greening of the economy. In this paper we analysed the uptake of the TEEB approach at national and local levels by applying a framework that revolves around the problem, approach and solution frame. At the national level (United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands) TEEB is mainly used to develop integrated decision making. In policy documents the importance of clearly formulated divisions of tasks is emphasised, while the practical implementation is transferred to lower government levels and stakeholders from the private sector. At the local level explorative studies are implemented, while a shared vision is often a major outcome of such processes. Shared visions are directed to incentives and management plans and also point to new societal challenges for future development. The uptake of an ecosystem services approach requires new types of contracts, ample resources, sufficient knowledge and new modes of governance to attract societal involvement. The research suggests that long term engagement of stakeholders in the participatory processes was however not guaranteed due to insufficient resources.
Puzzling stakeholder views for long-term planning in the bio-economy : A back-casting application
Sisto, Roberta ; Vliet, Mathijs van; Prosperi, Maurizio - \ 2016
Futures 76 (2016). - ISSN 0016-3287 - p. 42 - 54.
Back-casting - Bio-economy - Participative approaches - Powering - Puzzling - Stakeholders
Planning long-term actions in the South of Italy is often characterised by a 'vicious circle of non-participation'. Stakeholders are increasingly not aware of the relevant role they have in supporting policy-making processes, even if they are usually keen to express their opinions. The aim of the study is to suggest policy-makers and practitioners a way to change their approach to long-term strategies definition in areas with traditionally scarce experience in stakeholder participation and where 'good governance' often lacks. On the whole, empirical results are very positive. The study allowed us to combine both puzzling and powering required by long-term strategies with a positive effect on the democratisation of the policymaking. In particular, both the e-mail survey and the workshop were important moments to sharing knowledge with experts, to putting together the different visions from stakeholders and to drawing possible policy actions (puzzling). Moreover, the backcasting timeline that clearly indicates the sequence of events and the involved stakeholders, and the strategy's validation questionnaires can be intended as a step towards a guide as to how power can be organised for each stage of the process (powering).
International experience of green development in Western China : An overall review of policy and practice
Zhen, Lin ; Hu, Jie ; Du, Bingzhen ; Liu, Jiyuan ; Sun, Chuanzhun ; Wu, Ruizi ; Long, Xin ; Zhang, Qiang - \ 2015
Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment 13 (2015)4. - ISSN 1004-2857 - p. 281 - 290.
Green development - OECD experience - Policy - Stakeholders
Green development emphasizes co-development between economic and environmental dimensions, and is a peoplecentered sustainable development approach. Western China demands green development, and international experience could provide necessary, unique and important help and support for Western China to achieve its green development goals. This paper has made a comprehensive overall review and analysis of international experience in green development policy and its implementation, in particular, OECD countries’ (mostly Australia and Canada) experience have been analyzed following the major policy foci defined by the Task Force on Strategy and Policies on Environment and Development in Western China initiated by China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED). Data and information were gathered from the field surveys and investigations, expert meetings, as well as literature review. The main sessions include policy framework and road map establishment, implementation and performance assessment, co-development between economic development and environmental protection, as well as green employment and poverty alleviation. The paper has addressed five policy considerations for the future promotion of green development in Western China.