Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==Starch
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Phase separation, antiplasticization and moisture sorption in ternary systems containing polysaccharides and polyols
Sman, R.G.M. van der - \ 2019
Food Hydrocolloids 87 (2019). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 360 - 370.
Antiplasticization - phase separation - Sorption isotherm - Starch - Thermodynamics

In this paper, we investigate whether the Flory-Huggins-Free-Volume (FHFV) theory can describe the rich thermodynamics of the ternary mixtures of starch, polyol, and water. These systems exhibit 1) non-monotonic moisture sorption with increasing plasticizer concentration, 2) phase separation, and 3) antiplasticization. After extending the FHFV theory with 1) the proper formulation of the chemical potential of water and polyol, and 2) the proper composition dependency of the interaction parameter between starch and water, the theory is well able to describe the above described complex thermodynamic behavior, showing good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, our analysis shows that phase separation can already occur when the ternary mixture is still in the glassy state. Overall, the phase separation happens after the antiplasticization/plasticization transition, which can be linked to the minimum in moisture sorption, when increasing the polyol concentration at equal water activity. We think that the extended theory will become an important tool for analysis and design of complex food materials, pharmaceutical systems, and biopolymeric films having carbohydrates as plasticizers.

NMR imaging of air spaces and metabolites in fruit and vegetables
Musse, Maja ; As, Henk van - \ 2018
In: Modern Magnetic Resonance Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319283876 - p. 1765 - 1779.
Chemical shift imaging (CSI) - Chemical shift selective imaging (CSSI) - Gas volume fraction - Lipids - Localized spectroscopy - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - Magnetic susceptibility - Microporosity - Proton exchange - Quality defects - Relaxation times - Single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) - Starch - Sugars

This chapter deals with the principles and the applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessment of the distribution and of the amount of intercellular gas-filled spaces and major metabolites in fruit and vegetable tissues. Combining this information with measurements of water characteristics could enable the use of MRI in an integrative approach to plant characterization. In MRI, the presence of gas-filled intercellular spaces in plant tissues impacts the NMR relaxation behavior of water molecules because gas and water have different magnetic susceptibilities. This phenomenon can be exploited for the noninvasive detection of certain physiological disorders in fruit and vegetable tissues or for quantification of the spatial distribution of apparent microporosity. On the other hand, the amount and the distribution of major metabolites (sugars, starch, lipids, etc.) can be accessed by MRI using approaches based on differences in relaxation times or on chemical shift between water and metabolites protons. Here we provide an overview of the theoretical aspects of MRI methods and a description of different approaches. The imaging protocols for specific applications for both air space and metabolite imaging are discussed with respect to their application to fruits and vegetables.

Transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic foundation for the dynamics of starch and lipid production in Ettlia oleoabundans
Sturme, Mark H.J. ; Gong, Yanhai ; Heinrich, Josué Miguel ; Klok, Anne J. ; Eggink, Gerrit ; Wang, Dongmei ; Xu, Jian ; Wijffels, Rene H. - \ 2018
Algal Research 33 (2018). - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 142 - 155.
Carbon-partitioning - Lipids - Microalgae - Nitrogen starvation - Starch - Transcriptome

The oleaginous microalga Ettlia oleoabundans accumulates both starch and lipids to high levels under stress conditions such as nitrogen starvation (N−). To steer biosynthesis towards starch or lipids only, it is important to understand the regulatory mechanisms involved. Here physiological and transcriptional changes under nitrogen starvation were analysed in controlled flat-panel photobioreactors at both short and long time-scales. Starch accumulation was transient and occurred rapidly within 24 h upon starvation, while lipid accumulation was gradual and reached a maximum after 4 days. The major fraction of accumulated lipids was composed of de novo synthesized neutral lipids - triacylglycerides (TAG) - and was characterized by a decreased composition of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) C18:3 and C16:3 and an increased composition of the mono-unsaturated (MUFAs) and saturated (SFAs) fatty acids C18:1/C16:1 and C18:0/C16:0, respectively. RNA-sequencing revealed that starch biosynthesis and degradation genes show different expression dynamics from lipid biosynthesis ones. An immediate rapid increase in starch synthetic transcripts was followed by an increase in starch degrading transcripts and a decrease in the starch synthetic ones. In contrast, increased gene expression for fatty acid and TAG synthesis was initiated later and occurred more gradually. Expression of several fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes was decreased upon starvation, which corresponds to the observed changes to higher levels of MUFAs and SFAs. Moreover, several homologs of transcription regulators that were implicated in controlling starch and lipid metabolism in other microalgae showed differential gene expression and might be key regulators of starch and lipid metabolism in E. oleoabundans as well. Our data provide insights into the genetic foundation of starch and lipid metabolism in E. oleoabundans under nitrogen starvation and should facilitate metabolic engineering towards tailored strains with desired storage compound composition.

In-situ Single Mode Dielectric Measurements of microwaveable snack pellets
Esveld, Erik ; Bows, John ; Vollebregt, Martijntje ; Sman, Ruud van der - \ 2018
Journal of Food Engineering 231 (2018). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 109 - 122.
Dielectric properties - Expansion - Microwave - Starch

The dielectric properties of starch based snack pellets have been measured in situ during microwave heating and expansion. The microwave setup consists of a single mode shorted waveguide, equipped with a six-port impedance analyser which measures the absorbed power and complex reflection coefficient during heating. The pellet is suspended in the electric field maximum, with an optic temperature sensor inserted in the centre. The dielectric properties of the pellet during heating and after expansion are obtained via an inverse mapping of the recorded reflection coefficient to dielectric properties, which are pre-computed via finite elements simulations. Experiments show that the dielectric properties of the starch pellets change significantly during heating, expansion and subsequent drying. The dielectric properties increase with increasing temperature up to the moment that the pellet starts expanding. Subsequently, the power absorption shows a sudden decline, which is mainly due to the sudden change in porosity. Addition of salt (2.5%) to the starch pellet composition results in a slight decrease of the dielectric constant and loss factor, as it apparently lowers the effective mobility of the dipoles. The dielectric properties as function of temperature and moisture content were fitted with a polynomial model. The strong effect of porosity for the dielectric properties of the expanded snack is well predicted with the effective medium mixing rule.

Isomalto/malto-polysaccharide structure in relation to the structural properties of starch substrates
Zaal, P.H. van der; Schols, H.A. ; Bitter, J.H. ; Buwalda, P.L. - \ 2018
Carbohydrate Polymers 185 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 179 - 186.
Enzymatic modification - Glucanotransferase - Linkage analysis - Preparative fractionation - Starch - α-glucan
Isomalto/malto-polysaccharides (IMMPs) are soluble dietary fibres produced by the enzymatic modification of starch with 4,6-α-glucanotransferase (GTFB). The structure, size, and linkage distribution of these IMMPs has remained largely unknown, since most structural information has been based on indirect measurements such as total α-(1→6) content, iodine staining and GTFB hydrolytic activity. This study provides a deeper understanding of IMMP structure in relation to its respective starch substrate, by combining preparative fractionation with linkage compositition analysis. IMMPs were produced from a variety of amylose-rich and amylose-free starches. The extent of modification was investigated per IMMP molecular weight (Mw)-fraction, distinguishing between linear α-(1→6) linkages introduced by GTFB and starch's native α-(1→4,6) branching points. It emerged that the amount of α-(1→6) linkages was consistently higher in IMMP low Mw-fractions and that GTFB activity was limited by native α-(1→4,6) linkages. The presence of amylose turned out to be a prerequisite for the incorporation of linear α-(1→6) linkages in amylopectin.
Identification of an industrial microalgal strain for starch production in biorefinery context : The effect of nitrogen and carbon concentration on starch accumulation
Gifuni, Imma ; Olivieri, Giuseppe ; Pollio, Antonino ; Marzocchella, Antonio - \ 2018
New Biotechnology 41 (2018). - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 46 - 54.
Biorefinery - CO supply - Microalgae - Nitrate demand - Starch
The recent trends in microalgal cultures are focused on the biorefinery of the biomass components. Some of them are not completely valorised, for example starch. Since there is a wide market for starch products in food and non-food industries, the exploitation of microalgal starch fractions could improve the economic sustainability of microalgae production. In this perspective, the optimization of nitrogen and carbon source uptake for starch accumulation is a critical point for reducing the nitrogen requirement footprint and to increase CO2 capture. In this study, four robust microalgal strains, already known as starch-accumulating strain, were investigated: Chlorella sorokiniana, Scenedesmus vacuolatus, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Tetraselmis chuii. C. sorokiniana was selected as the best starch producer in the biorefinery context, and the role nitrogen and CO2 concentration had on the starch production was investigated. For light irradiance of 300 μmol m−2 s−1 the optimal nitrogen concentration for growth and starch accumulation resulted 32 mg L−1. The CO2 concentration clearly does not influence the starch accumulation, but concentrations distant from 2% negatively influence microalgal growth, affecting the final starch productivity. The biomass composition during the batch growth of C. sorokiniana was also analysed in order to explicitly characterise the dynamic of starch accumulation during the different growth phases. Protein content decreased during N-depletion, carbohydrates were mainly produced during the early N-depletion, followed by the accumulation of lipids in the late depletion.
A tandem CBM25 domain of α-amylase from Microbacterium aurum as potential tool for targeting proteins to starch granules during starch biosynthesis
Huang, Xing Feng ; Nazarian, Farhad ; Vincken, Jean Paul ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2017
BMC Biotechnology 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1472-6750
CBM20 - CBM25 - Starch - Starch binding domain - Transgenic potato
Background: Starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been used as a tool for starch engineering. Previous studies showed that expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins in planta resulted in modified starch granule structures and physicochemical properties. However, although 13 carbohydrate binding module families have been reported to contain starch-binding domains, only starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been well studied and introduced into plants successfully. In this study, two fragments, the tandem CBM25 domain and the tandem CBM25 with multiple fibronectin type III (FN3) domains of the α-amylase enzyme from Microbacterium aurum, were expressed in the tubers of a wild type potato cultivar (cv. Kardal) and an amylose-free (amf) potato mutant. Results: The (CBM25)2 and FN3 protein were successfully accumulated in the starch granules of both Kardal and amf transformants. The accumulation of (CBM25)2 protein did not result in starch morphological alterations in Kardal but gave rise to rough starch granules in amf, while the FN3 resulted in morphological changes of starch granules (helical starch granules in Kardal and rough surface granules in amf) but only at a very low frequency. The starches of the different transformants did not show significant differences in starch size distribution, apparent amylose content, and physico-chemical properties in comparison to that of untransformed controls. Conclusion: These results suggest that the starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 25 can be used as a novel tool for targeting proteins to starch granules during starch biosynthesis without side-effects on starch morphology, composition and properties.
Continuous versus batch production of lipids in the microalgae Acutodesmus obliquus
Remmers, I.M. ; Hidalgo-Ulloa, A. ; Brandt, B.P. ; Evers, W.A.C. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Lamers, P.P. - \ 2017
Bioresource Technology 244 (2017). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 1384 - 1392.
Diurnal LD cycles - Microalgae - Scenedesmus obliquus - Starch - Triacylglycerol (TAG)
This work provides a novel quantitative comparison of batch versus continuous microalgal lipid production in the wild type and starchless mutant strain of Acutodesmus obliquus. Both strains showed higher TAG yields on light under batch operation compared to continuous nitrogen limitation. The starchless mutant showed 0.20gTAGmolph -1 for batch and 0.12gTAGmolph -1 for continuous operation, while the wildtype only showed 0.16gTAGmolph -1 for batch and 0.08gTAGmolph -1 for continuous operation. Also, higher TAG contents were found under batch starvation (26% of dry weight for the wildtype and 43% of dry weight for starchless mutant) compared to continuous cultivations (16% of dry weight for the wildtype and 33% of dry weight for starchless mutant). Starch acts as the favoured storage metabolite during nitrogen limitation in A. obliquus, whereas TAG is only accumulated after starch reaches a cellular maximum of 40% of dry weight.
Critical factors in microwave expansion of starchy snacks
Sman, R.G.M. van der; Bows, J.R. - \ 2017
Journal of Food Engineering 211 (2017). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 69 - 84.
Expanded snacks - Microwave - Popcorn - Starch

Popping of starchy pellets in a domestic microwave oven has proven difficult compared to pellets expanded in frying oil, and even to microwave expanded popcorn. These pellets encounter problems like uneven popping, burning and the absence of an audible cue for the end of popping. The lack of a moisture barrier, like the pericarp of popcorn, leads to the development of an inverse temperature gradient in the pellets and a significant moisture loss before and after expansion. In this paper we review the hypotheses and solutions for the criticality of microwave popping of starchy pellets, as discussed in scientific and patent literature. We have found a large collection of critical factors and their associated hypotheses, which have been structured via linking them to specific steps in the physical expansion process. We conclude with a list of hypotheses that we view valuable for further investigation.

Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe
Lintunen, Anna ; Paljakka, Teemu ; Jyske, Tuula ; Peltoniemi, Mikko ; Sterck, Frank ; Arx, Georg Von; Cochard, Hervé ; Copini, Paul ; Caldeira, Maria C. ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Gebauer, Roman ; Grönlund, Leila ; Kiorapostolou, Natasa ; Lechthaler, Silvia ; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel ; Peters, Richard L. ; Petit, Giai ; Prendin, Angela L. ; Salmon, Yann ; Steppe, Kathy ; Urban, Josef ; Juan, Sílvia Roig ; Robert, Elisabeth M.R. ; Hölttä, Teemu - \ 2016
Frontiers in Plant Science 7 (2016)JUNE2016. - ISSN 1664-462X
Hexose - Osmotic concentration - Phloem water content - Pinitol - Raffinose - Starch - Sucrose

Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter acclimation in these cold regions. Present results for the secondary phloem of trees suggest that adjustment with tissue water content plays an important role in osmolality dynamics. Furthermore, trees acclimated to dry and cold climate showed high phloem osmolality and raffinose proportion.

Comparison of fractionation methods for nitrogen and starch in maize and grass silages
Ali, M. ; Jonge, L.H. de; Cone, J.W. ; Duinkerken, G. van; Blok, M.C. ; Bruinenberg, M.H. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 100 (2016)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 526 - 531.
Modified method - Nitrogen - Silages - Starch - Washing machine method

In in situ nylon bag technique, many feed evaluation systems use a washing machine method (WMM) to determine the washout (W) fraction and to wash the rumen incubated nylon bags. As this method has some disadvantages, an alternate modified method (MM) was recently introduced. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the W and non-washout (D+U) fractions of nitrogen (N) and/or starch of maize and grass silages, using the WMM and the MM. Ninety-nine maize silage and 99 grass silage samples were selected with a broad range in chemical composition. The results showed a large range in the W, soluble (S) and D+U fractions of N of maize and grass silages and the W, insoluble washout (W-S) and D+U fractions of starch of maize silages, determined by both methods, due to variation in their chemical composition. The values for N fractions of maize and grass silages obtained with both methods were found different (p <0.001). Large differences (p <0.001) were found in the D+U fraction of starch of maize silages which might be due to different methodological approaches, such as different rinsing procedures (washing vs. shaking), duration of rinsing (40 min vs. 60 min) and different solvents (water vs. buffer solution). The large differences (p <0.001) in the W-S and D+U fractions of starch determined with both methods can led to different predicted values for the effective rumen starch degradability. In conclusion, the MM with one recommended shaking procedure, performed under identical and controlled experimental conditions, can give more reliable results compared to the WMM, using different washing programs and procedures.

Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories
Quentin, Audrey G. ; Pinkard, Elizabeth A. ; Ryan, Michael G. ; Tissue, David T. ; Baggett, Scott L. ; Adams, Henry D. ; Maillard, Pascale ; Marchand, Jacqueline ; Landhäusser, Simon M. ; Lacointe, André ; Gibon, Yves ; Anderegg, William R.L. ; Asao, Shinichi ; Atkin, Owen K. ; Bonhomme, Marc ; Claye, Caroline ; Chow, Pak S. ; Clément-Vidal, Anne ; Davies, Noel W. ; Dickman, Turin L. ; Dumbur, Rita ; Ellsworth, David S. ; Falk, Kristen ; Galiano, Lucía ; Grünzweig, José M. ; Hartmann, Henrik ; Hoch, Günter ; Hood, Sharon ; Jones, Joanna E. ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Kuhlmann, Iris ; Lloret, Francisco ; Maestro, Melchor ; Mansfield, Shawn D. ; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi ; Maucourt, Mickael ; McDowell, Nathan G. ; Moing, Annick ; Muller, Bertrand ; Nebauer, Sergio G. ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Palacio, Sara ; Piper, Frida ; Raveh, Eran ; Richter, Andreas ; Rolland, Gaëlle ; Rosas, Teresa ; Joanis, Brigitte Saint ; Sala, Anna ; Smith, Renee A. ; Sterck, Frank ; Stinziano, Joseph R. ; Tobias, Mari ; Unda, Faride ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Way, Danielle A. ; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K. ; Wild, Birgit ; Wiley, Erin ; Woodruff, David R. - \ 2015
Tree Physiology 35 (2015)11. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 1146 - 1165.
Extraction and quantification consistency - Non-structural carbohydrate chemical analysis - Particle size - Reference method - Soluble sugars - Standardization - Starch

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also asked whether any differences among laboratories were related to the extraction and quantification methods used to determine starch and sugar concentrations. These questions were addressed by sending sub-samples collected from five woody plant tissues, which varied in NSC content and chemical composition, to 29 laboratories. Each laboratory analyzed the samples with their laboratory-specific protocols, based on recent publications, to determine concentrations of soluble sugars, starch and their sum, total NSC. Laboratory estimates differed substantially for all samples. For example, estimates for Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EGL) varied from 23 to 116 (mean = 56) mg g-1 for soluble sugars, 6-533 (mean = 94) mg g-1 for starch and 53-649 (mean = 153) mg g-1 for total NSC. Mixed model analysis of variance showed that much of the variability among laboratories was unrelated to the categories we used for extraction and quantification methods (method category R2 = 0.05-0.12 for soluble sugars, 0.10-0.33 for starch and 0.01-0.09 for total NSC). For EGL, the difference between the highest and lowest least squares means for categories in the mixed model analysis was 33 mg g-1 for total NSC, compared with the range of laboratory estimates of 596 mg g-1. Laboratories were reasonably consistent in their ranks of estimates among tissues for starch (r = 0.41-0.91), but less so for total NSC (r = 0.45-0.84) and soluble sugars (r = 0.11-0.83). Our results show that NSC estimates for woody plant tissues cannot be compared among laboratories. The relative changes in NSC between treatments measured within a laboratory may be comparable within and between laboratories, especially for starch. To obtain comparable NSC estimates, we suggest that users can either adopt the reference method given in this publication, or report estimates for a portion of samples using the reference method, and report estimates for a standard reference material. Researchers interested in NSC estimates should work to identify and adopt standard methods.

Targeted and Untargeted Detection of Skim Milk Powder Adulteration by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Capuano, Edoardo ; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita ; Koot, Alex ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Food Analytical Methods 8 (2015)8. - ISSN 1936-9751 - p. 2125 - 2134.
Acid whey - Adulteration - Class modelling - Near-infrared spectroscopy - Skim milk powder - Starch

In the present study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was explored as a fast and reliable screening method for the detection of adulteration of skim milk powder (SMP). Sixty genuine SMP were adulterated with acid whey (1–25 % w/w), starch (2 and 5 %) and maltodextrin (2 and 5 %) for a total of 348 adulterated samples. Two chemometric approaches were employed. In the first approach, an untargeted one class model for genuine skim milk powder was developed by Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy. In the second approach, adulterant-specific regression models were developed to assess the amount of each adulterant by partial least square regression and principal component regression. The class modelling approach had the advantage that several adulterants could be detected with the same chemometric model, including situations where multiple adulterants are present in the test sample or where yet unknown adulterants are present. Regression models showed a better sensitivity with genuine SMP samples completely discriminated from samples adulterated with 5 % acid whey and 2 % of starch or maltodextrin. NIRS proved to be a useful tool for the rapid and cost-efficient untargeted and/or targeted detection of adulterations in SMP.

Thermodynamic and structural properties of tuber starches from transgenic potato plants grown in vitro and in vivo
Wasserman, L.A. ; Sergeev, A.I. ; Vasil'Ev, V.G. ; Plashchina, I.G. ; Aksenova, N.P. ; Konstantinova, T.N. ; Golyanovskaya, S.A. ; Sergeeva, Lidia ; Romanov, G.A. - \ 2015
Carbohydrate Polymers 125 (2015). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 214 - 223.
AtPHYB gene - Crystalline lamellae - DSC - Solanum tuberosum - Starch - Thermodynamic parameters - Transgenic potato - Tubers rol genes

Potato plants harboring Phytochrome B (PHYB) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana or rol genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used to study the effect of transgene expression on structure and properties of starch in tubers. Thermodynamic characteristics of starch (melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, thickness of crystalline lamellae) were shown to be variable depending on the transgene expression and plant culturing mode: in vitro or in soil. The expression of rolB or rolC genes in in vitro cultured plants evoked opposite effects on starch melting temperature and crystalline lamellae thickness. AtPHYB or rolB expression in the soil-grown potato led to the formation of more defective or more ordered starch structures, respectively, in comparison with starches of the same lines grown in vitro. On the whole, our study revealed genotype-dependent differences between starches extracted from tubers of in vitro or in vivo grown plants.

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