- Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management (1)
- Biobased Chemistry and Technology (1)
- Laboratory of Plant Physiology (1)
- Operations Research and Logistics (1)
- VLAG (1)
Techno-economic evaluation of microalgae harvesting and dewatering systems
Fasaei, F. ; Bitter, J.H. ; Slegers, P.M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2018
Algal Research 31 (2018). - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 347 - 362.
Cost - Dewatering - Energy - Harvesting - Microalgae - System analysis
Microalgal biomass is processed into products by two main process steps: 1) harvesting and dewatering; and 2) extraction, fractionation and conversion. The performance of unit operations for harvesting and dewatering is often expressed in qualitative terms, like “high energy consumption” and “low in operational cost”. Moreover, equipment is analysed as stand-alone unit operations, which do not interact in a chain of operations. This work concerns a quantitative techno-economic analysis of different large-scale harvesting and dewatering systems with focus on processing cost, energy consumption and resource recovery. Harvesting and dewatering are considered both as a single operation and as combinations of sequential operations. The economic evaluation shows that operational costs and energy consumption are in the range 0.5–2 €·kg− 1 algae and 0.2–5 kWh·kg− 1 of algae, respectively, for dilute solutions from open cultivation systems. Harvesting and dewatering of the dilute systems with flocculation results in the lowest energy requirement. However, due to required chemicals and loss of flocculants, these systems end at the same cost level as mechanical harvesting systems. For closed cultivation systems the operational costs decrease to 0.1–0.6 €·kg− 1 algae and the energy consumption to 0.1–0.7 kWh·kg− 1 algae. For all harvesting and dewatering systems, labour has a significant contribution to the total costs. The total costs can be reduced by a high level of automation, despite the higher associated investment costs. The analysis shows that a single step operation can be satisfactory if the operation reaches high biomass concentrations. Two-step operations, like pressure filtration followed by spiral plate technology or centrifugation, are attractive from an economic point of view, just as the operation chain of flocculation followed by membrane filtration and a finishing step with spiral plate technology or centrifugation.
Editorial - A critical perspective on geo-engineering for eutrophication management in lakes
Lurling, Miguel ; Mackay, Eleanor ; Reitzel, Kasper ; Spears, Bryan M. - \ 2016
Water Research 97 (2016). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1 - 10.
Eutrophication management - Geo-engineering in lakes - Lake rehabilitation - Phosphorus sorbent - System analysis
Eutrophication is the primary worldwide water quality issue. Reducing excessive external nutrient loading is the most straightforward action in mitigating eutrophication, but lakes, ponds and reservoirs often show little, if any, signs of recovery in the years following external load reduction. This is due to internal cycling of phosphorus (P). Geo-engineering, which we can here define as activities intervening with biogeochemical cycles to control eutrophication in inland waters, represents a promising approach, under appropriate conditions, to reduce P release from bed sediments and cyanobacteria accumulation in surface waters, thereby speeding up recovery. In this overview, we draw on evidence from this special issue Geoengineering in Lakes, and on supporting literature to provide a critical perspective on the approach. We demonstrate that many of the strong P sorbents in the literature will not be applicable in the field because of costs and other constraints. Aluminium and lanthanum modified compounds are among the most effective compounds for targeting P. Flocculants and ballast compounds can be used to sink cyanobacteria, in the short term. We emphasize that the first step in managing eutrophication is a system analysis that will reveal the main water and P flows and the biological structure of the waterbody. These site specific traits can be significant confounding factors dictating successful eutrophication management. Geo-engineering techniques, considered collectively, as part of a tool kit, may ensure successful management of eutrophication through a range of target effects. In addition, novel developments in modified zeolites offer simultaneous P and nitrogen control. To facilitate research and reduce the delay from concept to market a multi-national centre of excellence is required.
A simple routine for quantitative analysis of light and dark kinetics of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in intact leaves
Vredenberg, Wim - \ 2015
Photosynthesis Research 124 (2015)1. - ISSN 0166-8595 - p. 87 - 106.
Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics - OJIP - Quenching mechanisms - System analysis - TSTM - Views
Paper describes principles and application of a novel routine that enables the quantitative analysis of the photochemical O-J phase of the variable fluorescence F v associated with the reversible photo-reduction of the secondary electron acceptor QA of photosystem II (PSII) in algae and intact leaves. The kinetic parameters that determine the variable fluorescence F PP(t) associated with the release of photochemical quenching are estimated from 10 μs time-resolved light-on and light-off responses of F v induced by two subsequent light pulses of 0.25 (default) and 1000 ms duration, respectively. Application of these pulses allows estimations of (i) the actual value of the rate constants k L and k AB of the light excitation (photoreduction of QA) and of the dark re-oxidation of photoreduced QA (QA -), respectively, (ii) the actual maximal normalized variable fluorescence [nF v] associated with 100 % photoreduction of QA of open RCs, and (iii) the actual size β of RCs in which the re-oxidation of QA - is largely suppressed (QB-nonreducing RC with k AB ~ 0). The rate constants of the dark reversion of Fv associated with the release of photo-electrochemical quenching F PE and photo-electric stimulation F CET in the successive J-I and I-P parts of the thermal phase are in the range of (100 ms)-1 and (1 s)-1, respectively. The kinetics of fluorescence changes during and after the I-P phase are given special attention in relation to the hypothesis on the involvement of a Δμ H+-dependent effect during this phase and thereafter. Paper closes with author's personal view on the demands that should be fulfilled for chlorophyll fluorescence methods being a correct and unchallenged signature of photosynthesis in algae and plants.