Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sweetness but not sourness enhancement increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in children
Stokkom, V.L. van; Poelman, A.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
Appetite 131 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 100 - 107.
Acceptance - Children - Sourness - Sweetness - Taste - Vegetables

For children it is important to consume enough vegetables to establish healthy dietary patterns. Taste acceptance is an important factor contributing to food choice and consumption. Sweetness and sourness enhancement can increase acceptance of specific foods in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sweetness and sourness enhancement on acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in 5-6-year-old children. Three concentrations of sucrose (2, 5 and 10%) and citric acid (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15%) were added to cucumber and green capsicum purees. Children (n = 70, 5.7 ± 0.5 yrs) assessed acceptance of the vegetable purees using a 5-point hedonic facial scale. Sweetness enhancement significantly increased acceptance of cucumber purees (5 and 10% sucrose) and green capsicum purees (2 and 10% sucrose) compared to unmodified purees. Sourness enhancement (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15% citric acid) did not significantly influence acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees compared to unmodified purees. Children differed in acceptance of vegetable purees with added sucrose and citric acid. Sweetness likers (cucumber 77.1%, green capsicum 58.6%) accepted sucrose concentrations better than sweetness non-likers in both vegetables. Sourness likers (cucumber 50.0%, green capsicum 44.3%) accepted medium and high concentrations of citric acid better than sourness non-likers in cucumber and all citric acid concentrations in green capsicum. We conclude that enhancement of sweetness increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in most children whereas enhancement of sourness is better accepted by only a few children. This study highlights the challenge to get children to better accept vegetables, since only sweetness enhancement improved acceptance while addition of sucrose is undesirable. For a small subset of children enhancing sourness might be an alternative strategy to increase acceptance of vegetables.

Exacting responses: lack of endocrine cephalic phase responses upon oro-sensory exposure
Lasschuijt, Marlou P. ; Mars, Monica ; Graaf, Cees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Endocrinology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-2392
Ghrelin - Insulin - Pancreatic polypeptide - Taste - Texture
Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) to food plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. One proposed underlying mechanism is the occurrence of cephalic phase responses (CPRs). CPRs include the pre-digestive endocrine responses induced by food-related sensory input. Yet, whether OSE duration or sweetness intensity affects CPRs is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the independent and interactive effects of oro-sensory duration (chewing) and stimulation intensity (sweetness) on endocrine CPRs and satiation. Eighteen males (22 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a 2 × 2 randomized study with a control condition. Each session participants performed modified sham feeding (MSF) with one of the four gel-based model foods. During the control session no MSF was performed. Model foods differed in chewing duration (hard or soft texture) and sweetness (low or high intensity). During each session, eight blood samples were collected up till 25 min after MSF onset. Subsequently, food intake from an ad libitum lunch was measured. No typical CPR was found for insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and ghrelin. However, the overall PP response was 1.1 times greater for the hard sweet MSF condition compared to control (p = 0.02). Overall ghrelin responses were 1.1 times greater for the hard model food compared to the soft model food conditions (p = 0.003). These differences in endocrine response were not associated with differences in food intake at the subsequent meal. Exploratory sub-analysis of the responsive insulin curves showed that after 2.5 min of MSF the hard texture model foods insulin concentrations were 1.2 greater compared to the soft texture. These findings indicate that texture hardness and sweetness increase the overall PP response and that MSF on hard texture increases the overall ghrelin response compared to soft texture model foods. However, MSF on model foods does not lead to a typical CPR. This study, among others, shows that there are major dissimilarities in the endocrine responses to food stimulation between individuals. This emphasizes the importance of considering cephalic responders and non-responders. More research is needed to understand CPRs in relation to food texture and taste properties.
Taste and smell perception and quality of life during and after systemic therapy for breast cancer
Vries, Y.C. de; Boesveldt, S. ; Kelfkens, C.S. ; Posthuma, E.E. ; Den Berg, M.M.G.A. van; Kruif, J.T.C.M. de; Haringhuizen, A. ; Sommeijer, D.W. ; Buist, N. ; Grosfeld, S. ; Graaf, C. de; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Kampman, E. ; Winkels, R.M. - \ 2018
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 170 (2018)1. - ISSN 0167-6806 - p. 27 - 34.
Breast cancer - Chemotherapy - Dysgeusia - Herceptin - Quality of life - Smell - Taste - Taste loss - Trastuzumab
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess self-reported taste and smell perception after chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and to assess whether taste and smell perception is associated with quality of life after the end of chemotherapy. Methods: We included 135 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who completed chemotherapy and 114 women without cancer. Questionnaires on taste, smell, and quality of life were completed shortly after and 6 months after chemotherapy (patients) or at two moments with 6 months’ time window in between (comparisons). Results: Self-reported taste and smell perception were significantly lower in patients shortly after chemotherapy compared to the comparison group. Most patients recovered 6 months after chemotherapy, although patients who were still receiving trastuzumab then reported a lower taste and smell perception compared to patients who were not. A lower self-reported taste and smell were statistically significantly associated with a worse quality of life, social, emotional, and role functioning shortly after chemotherapy. Six months after chemotherapy, taste and smell were statistically significantly associated with quality of life, social and role functioning, but only in patients receiving trastuzumab. Conclusions: Most taste and smell alterations recovered within 6 months after the end of chemotherapy for breast cancer, but not for patients receiving trastuzumab. These results highlight the importance of monitoring taste and smell alterations during and after treatment with chemotherapy and trastuzumab, as they may impact quality of life.
Exploring the framing of animal farming and meat consumption : On the diversity of topics used and qualitative patterns in selected demographic contexts
Nijland, Hanneke J. ; Aarts, Noelle ; Woerkum, Cees M.J. Van - \ 2018
Animals 8 (2018)2. - ISSN 2076-2615
Animal farming - Animal welfare - Complexity - Contextual influence - Environmental impact - Framing - Human health - Meat consumption - Taste - Topics
In various contexts, people talk about animal farming andmeat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing regarding this issue, performed among consumers in various settings in two extremes in the European sphere: The Netherlands and Turkey. We describe themethodological steps of collecting, coding, and organizing the variety of encountered framing topics, as well as our search for symbolic convergence in groups of consumers from different selected demographic contexts (country, urban-rural areas, gender, age, and education level). The framing of animal farming and meat consumption in everyday-life is not a simple one-issue rational display of facts, people referred to a vast range of topics in the categories knowledge, convictions, pronounced behaviour, values, norms, interests, and feelings. Looking at framing in relation to the researched demographic contexts, most patterns were found on the level of topics, symbolic convergence in lines of reasoning and composite framing was less prominent in groups based on single demographic contexts than anticipated. An explanation for this lies in the complexity of frame construction, happening in relation withmultiple interdependent contextual features.
Heart rate and skin conductance responses to taste, taste novelty, and the (dis)confirmation of expectations
Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Trijp, Hans van; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 9.
Autonomic nervous system - Expectations - Heart rate - Novelty - Skin conductance - Taste
It is unclear whether the responses of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can measure how people respond to food. Results focused on emotional responses are contradictory; therefore, the focus has shifted to other components of emotion, such as appraisals. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the differences in ANS responses related to appraisals; particularly taste novelty, valence, and the disconfirmation of expectations.A hundred and fifty-five participants joined this study. They tasted samples of different valence (sweet and bitter) twice: the first time without knowing the taste and the second while being informed of the taste. After this first block, participants tasted two additional samples: one that confirmed expectations and one that disconfirmed them. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Results show that the second experience with a taste led to cardiac deceleration. Heart rate changes were only related to valence when participants' expectations were (dis)confirmed. Heart rate decreased for those tastes that disconfirmed expectations and increased for those that confirmed them and the sweet sample had larger increases in heart rate than the bitter. Skin conductance changed in regards to novelty and valence but not to the disconfirmation of expectations. It increased for the bitter sample, decreased for the sweet, and was always higher during the first experience than during the second. In conclusion, the results suggest that cardiac responses are more sensitive to novelty and the disconfirmation of expectations while skin conductance responses capture novelty and valence.
The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables
Stokkom, V.L. van; Blok, A.E. ; Kooten, O. van; Graaf, C. de; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 69 - 76.
Flavour - Identification - Smell - Taste - Texture - Vegetables
It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands.
Altered food preferences and chemosensory perception during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients : A longitudinal comparison with healthy controls
Vries, Y.C. de; Winkels, R.M. ; Berg, M.M.G.A. van den; Graaf, C. de; Kelfkens, C.S. ; Kruif, J.T.C.M. de; Göker, E. ; Grosfeld, S. ; Sommeijer, D.W. ; Laarhoven, H.W.M. Van; Kampman, E. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 63 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 135 - 143.
Cancer - Chemotherapy - Food preferences - Smell - Taste
Changes in food preferences and chemosensory function are frequently reported during chemotherapy, but the nature of these changes are largely unknown. We followed and characterized food preferences, taste and smell function over chemotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients and compared to women without cancer. Furthermore, we assessed associations between taste and smell function and food preferences in breast cancer patients. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (n = 28) completed test sessions before, halfway, shortly after, and six months after chemotherapy. Twenty-eight women without cancer were tested at similar time points as control. During test sessions, food preferences were assessed with the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task. Self-reported taste and smell function were tested on a visual analogue scale. Objective taste and smell function were assessed with Taste Strips and Sniffin’ Sticks. Breast cancer patients liked high-protein, high-fat, sweet, and savoury products less during chemotherapy, which returned to baseline six months after chemotherapy, while the control group was stable over time. Chemotherapy led to a decreased taste and smell function which recovered six months after chemotherapy. A better self-reported taste was associated with higher liking of high-protein, low-energy, savoury and sweet products. Breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy have altered food preferences for certain macronutrients, but not specifically for sweet or savoury tastes. Chemotherapy has a transient influence on food preferences and chemosensory function, of which patients should be informed prior to treatment, and which should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life.
It’s in the eye of the beholder : selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions
Rijn, Inge van; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2018
Brain Imaging and Behavior 12 (2018)2. - ISSN 1931-7557 - p. 425 - 436.
Calories - Functional magnetic resonance imaging - Intensity - Pleasantness - Selective attention - Taste

Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water. Brain activation during tasting largely overlapped between the three selective attention conditions and was found in the rolandic operculum, insula and overlying frontal operculum, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Brain activation was higher during selective attention to taste intensity compared to calories in the right middle OFC and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Intensity ratings correlated with brain activation during selective attention to taste intensity in the anterior insula and lateral OFC. Our data suggest that not only the anterior insula but also the middle and lateral OFC are involved in evaluating taste intensity. Furthermore, selective attention to pleasantness engaged regions associated with food reward. Overall, our results indicate that selective attention to food properties can alter the activation of gustatory and reward regions. This may underlie effects of food labels on the consumption experience of consumers.

Low reported taste function is associated with low preference for high protein products in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy
Vries, Y.C. de; Boesveldt, S. ; Kampman, E. ; Graaf, C. de; Winkels, R.M. ; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van - \ 2017
Clinical Nutrition (2017). - ISSN 0261-5614
Cancer - Chemotherapy - Food preferences - Smell - Taste
Background & aims: Cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy can experience a variety of chemosensory and food preference changes which may impact their nutritional status and quality of life. However, evidence of these changes in oesophagogastric cancer (OGC) patients is currently mostly qualitative and not supported by quantitative data. The aim of this study was to assess how self-reported and objective taste and smell function and food preferences change over time during chemotherapy in OGC patients. Methods: This observational study included 15 advanced OGC patients planned for first line treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Participants completed two test sessions scheduled before start of cytotoxic treatment and after two cycles. Self-reported and objective taste and smell function and the macronutrient and taste preference ranking task were conducted at each test session. Results: Self-reported taste and smell did not change upon chemotherapy. Objective taste function decreased during chemotherapy, although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.06), objective smell function did not change. Before and during chemotherapy, high protein foods were preferred over high carbohydrate and over low energy products, but food preferences did not change over time. A lower self-reported taste function correlated with a lower preference for high-protein products (ρ = 0.526, p = 0.003). Conclusion: This study suggests that objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy in OGC patients, but not smell function. A low reported taste function was related to a lower preference for high-protein products.
Sensory expectation, perception, and autonomic nervous system responses to package colours and product popularity
Schulte-Holierhoek, Aurelia ; Verastegui-Tena, Luz ; Goedegebure, Robert P.G. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Betina ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 62 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 60 - 70.
Autonomic nervous system - Descriptive social norm - Heart rate - Packaging - Skin conductance - Taste

Consumers’ perception of, and behaviour towards, products are influenced by extrinsic cues, including packaging and social norms. However, the understanding of this process is unsatisfactorily captured by questionnaires. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses can be used to measure implicit consumer responses. The aim of this work was to assess how packaging cues and social norms influence product expectation, product perception, and ANS responses. Ninety-eight adults (age: 23.3 ± 3.2 years; BMI: 21.3 ± 2.2 kg/m2) first viewed four images of a yogurt package modified in hue (blue/red), brightness (high/low), and saturation (high/low) and two dummies alongside a fictitious product popularity score. After each image presentation, participants rated their expectations of the yogurt, tasted, and rated their perception of it. Expectations and the perception of liking, healthiness, sweetness, and flavour intensity were rated on 100-unit VAS scales. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR) to the image and tasting were measured. The darker, saturated red package elicited the lowest expectation of healthiness and the highest expectation of flavour intensity and sweetness. Red packages increased SCR while blue packages decreased them. During yogurt tasting, low product popularity was associated with a stronger decrease in SCR than a high popularity. Overall, the measured ANS responses were small. In conclusion, this study was the first to look at the effect of expectations elicited by a product's packaging colour and popularity on explicit ratings and ANS responses. We found differences in SCR to package colour and product popularity, suggesting their importance in affecting consumer responses.

The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior
Boesveldt, Sanne ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
Perception 46 (2017)3-4. - ISSN 0301-0066 - p. 307 - 319.
Appetite - Eating behavior - Olfaction - Satiation - Taste - Texture

Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longerterm effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people’s eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.

How do health information and sensory attributes influence consumer choice for dairy products? Evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia
Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba ; Beuving, Joost ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2017
International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 34 (2017)5. - ISSN 0265-671X - p. 667 - 683.
Consumer choice - Ethiopia - Experimental auction - Health information - Milk quality - Taste

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of health information and sensory attributes on consumer’s propensity to upgrade and their willingness to pay (WTP) for pasteurized milk in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a framed market experiment with 160 participants in 14 central locations in urban Ethiopia. The authors used a double hurdle model to analyze consumer willingness to shift to pasteurized milk and their WTP for quality attributes in pasteurized milk. Findings: Consumers are willing to pay a 4 percent premium for quality attributes in pasteurized milk. Male and employed participants are willing to shift and pay a premium for pasteurized milk. Conversely, consumers with more children, higher income, and higher raw milk consumption are less likely to shift to pasteurized milk. These results also show that taste is negatively related to consumer propensity to upgrade to pasteurized milk. Further, about half of the consumers who were provided with health information are willing to pay a premium of 11 percent for pasteurized milk, whereas others would pay only 6 percent. After providing the treatment group with health information, those consumers with higher income, old people and consumers with children are less likely to shift to pasteurized milk. Overall, consumer preference for raw milk is the result of taste, perceived nutrition and perceived health benefits. The study points at a segmented milk market and the consequent need for the provision of a targeted milk market promotion. Research limitations/implications: The application of experimental auctions in developing countries requires an extensive learning exercise for participants. Originality/value: The authors used a non-hypothetical valuation mechanism to unravel the effect of subjective and intrinsic milk attributes in fluid milk choice decisions and its variation across socio-economic groups in a developing country context.

Comparison of oro-sensory exposure duration and intensity manipulations on satiation
Lasschuijt, M.P. ; Mars, M. ; Stieger, M. ; Miquel-Kergoat, S. ; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul - \ 2017
Physiology and Behavior 176 (2017). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 76 - 83.
Food intake - Meal size - Oro-sensory exposure - Satiation - Taste - Texture
Oro-sensory exposure (OSE) is an important factor in the regulation of food intake with increasing OSE leading to lower food intake. Oral processing time and taste intensity both play an important role in OSE but their individual contribution to satiation is unknown. We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of oral processing time and taste intensity on satiation.Fifty eight participants (23±9y, BMI 22±2kg/m2) participated in a 2×2 factorial randomized crossover study in which they consumed one of four gel-based model foods until satiation during four sessions. Model foods were offered ad libitum and differed in texture (soft or hard texture, yielding shorter and longer oral processing time) and sweetness (low or high intensity). Model foods were isocaloric and were matched for flavor and palatability. Outcome measures were intake of the model food and the microstructure of eating behavior, such as number of chews and eating rate.There was an overall significant effect of texture (p < 0.001) but not sweetness (p = 0.33) on intake with a 29.2% higher intake of the soft model foods compared to the hard model foods. After correction for palatability the difference in intake between the soft and hard model foods was 21.5% (p < 0.001).The number of chews was significantly lower for the soft (10.1 ± 6.2) than for the hard (26.9 ± 6.2) model foods (p < 0.001), which resulted in a significantly lower eating rate (soft, 26.3 ± 10.2 and hard, 15.3 ± 7.1 g/min, p < 0.001).These results show that increasing texture hardness of gel model foods decreases food intake independent of sweet taste intensity. The higher number of chews and faster eating rate may cause this effect. In conclusion, oro-sensory exposure duration rather than taste intensity appears to be the main determinant of food intake.
Vegetables and other core food groups : A comparison of key flavour and texture properties
Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 56 (2017)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
Children - Sensory properties of diets - Taste - Texture - Vegetables

Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n = 34) were compared to fruit (n = 26), dairy (n = 28), meat/fish (n = 28) and grains (n = 38); these foods were representative of the diet of Australian children and profiled by a trained sensory panel on 10 key taste and texture attributes as part of a larger study (Lease, Hendrie, Poelman, Delahunty, & Cox, 2016). Mean intensities were analysed using ANOVA. Vegetables were more bitter in taste than the other food categories and amongst the hardest. They were the lowest, or amongst the lowest, in all other flavour properties. Other core food categories had sensory properties known to be drivers of food liking: sweet and sour for fruit, sour, salty and fatty for dairy, salty, umami and fatty for meat/fish, and salty for grains. No food category other than vegetables had a bitter taste, a known driver of dislike. This research shows that vegetables, relative to other food groups, have sensory properties that are known to predispose to low acceptance based on innate likes and dislikes or preferences acquired within the first few months of life. High hardness of vegetables implicates a slow eating rate, which is generally beneficial from a public health perspective, but may make it difficult to meet recommended vegetable intake. To increase children's acceptance and intake for vegetables, either vegetable sensory properties can be modified, or children's acceptance for vegetables can be modified through sensory learning strategies.

Development and distribution of quality related compounds in apples during growth
Sadar, N. ; Urbanek Krajnc, A. ; Tojnko, S. ; Tijskens, L.M.M. ; Schouten, R.E. ; Unuk, T. - \ 2016
Scientia Horticulturae 213 (2016). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 222 - 231.
Apple - Biopsy sampling - Colour - Modeling - Organic acids - Sugars - Taste

Colour and taste are important attributes of apple fruit quality and have therefore been widely studied. Nevertheless, because of the destructive sampling methods commonly used to obtain the data, and of the subsequent traditional analyses, ignoring the effects of biological variation, the knowledge on the kinetic mechanisms of synthesis and degradation of individual quality components during fruit development and growth is still lacking. Spatio-temporal changes of taste components (sugars: fructose, sucrose, glucose, organic acids: malic, citric, shikimic and fumaric acid) and colour aspects (a) in individual apple fruits were monitored to assess the dynamics and mechanisms of change during development and ripening with respect to location within fruit as a factor and the variation between individual apples. Data were analysed with non-linear indexed regression based on either a logistic or an exponential process oriented model assessing the technical variation simultaneously. The rate constants for colour or taste component were roughly similar between cultivars, suggesting a similar mechanism of development and confirming the generic nature of the model. There was a very large biological variation in individual quality components observed in the raw data (the biological variation), which can be almost exclusively explained by the difference in the maturity stage between individual fruit. The explained parts (R2 adj) were, with one exception, higher than 0.90. The major contribution of this study is the fact that all the herein monitored taste defining components can be analysed and described with the same process-oriented model.

Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception
Spence, Charles ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2016
In: Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace / Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina, Spence, Charles, Amsterdam : Elsevier Inc. Academic Press (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 298) - ISBN 9780081003510 - p. 107 - 132.
Expectations - Flavor - Liking - Multisensory - Sensory dominance - Taste - Vision

Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of different food and beverage items exerts a sometimes dramatic impact on the expectations, and often on the subsequent taste/flavor experiences of participants in the lab, as well as consumers under the more naturalistic conditions of everyday life. It is important to note that food colors can have rather different meanings, and hence give rise to differing expectations in these different age groups, not to mention in those from different cultures. By gaining a better understanding of the sensory and hedonic expectations that are elicited by food color in different groups of individuals, researchers are now coming to better understand the various ways in which what we see can modulate the multisensory perception of flavor, and alter our food behaviors.

Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food preference, and body composition
IJpma, Irene ; Renken, Remco J. ; Gietema, Jourik A. ; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. ; Mensink, Manon G.J. ; Lefrandt, Joop D. ; Horst, Gert J. ter; Reyners, Anna K.L. - \ 2016
Appetite 105 (2016). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 392 - 399.
Body composition - Cancer - Chemotherapy - Food - Smell - Taste
Background

Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCS treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

Methods

Fifty TCS, 1–7 years post-chemotherapy, and 50 age-matched healthy men participated. Taste and smell function were measured using taste strips and ‘Sniffin’ Sticks’, respectively. Dietary intake was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was performed to measure body composition. Presence of metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism were assessed.

Results

TCS had a lower total taste function, a higher bitter taste threshold, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and more (abdominal) fat than controls (p < 0.05). No differences in smell function and dietary intake were found. Testosterone level was an important determinant of body composition in TCS (p = 0.016).

Conclusion

Although taste function was impaired in TCS, this was not related to a different dietary intake compared to controls. Lower testosterone levels were associated with a higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat distribution in TCS.

Taste intensities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands
Stokkom, V.L. van; Teo, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, Kees de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2016
Food Research International 87 (2016). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 34 - 41.
Bitterness - Cooking - Preparation - Taste - Vegetables

Bitterness has been suggested to be the main reason for the limited palatability of several vegetables. Vegetable acceptance has been associated with preparation method. However, the taste intensity of a variety of vegetables prepared by different methods has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to assess the intensity of the five basic tastes and fattiness of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands prepared by different methods using the modified Spectrum method. Intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fattiness were assessed for ten vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, leek, carrot, onion, red bell pepper, French beans, tomato, cucumber and iceberg lettuce) by a panel (n = 9) trained in a modified Spectrum method. Each vegetable was assessed prepared by different methods (raw, cooked, mashed and as a cold pressed juice). Spectrum based reference solutions were available with fixed reference points at 13.3 mm (R1), 33.3 mm (R2) and 66.7 mm (R3) for each taste modality on a 100 mm line scale. For saltiness, R1 and R3 differed (16.7 mm and 56.7 mm). Mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness for all vegetables were mostly below R1 (13.3 mm). Significant differences (p

Food choices in Ethiopia : Does nutritional information matter?
Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba ; Beuving, Joost ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2016
International Journal of Consumer Studies 40 (2016)6. - ISSN 1470-6423 - p. 625 - 634.
Ethiopia - Experimental auction - Nutrition information - Reduced fat milk - Taste - Whole milk

This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia. It shows that sensory properties play a key role in the acceptance of reduced-fat milk while the provision of nutrition information has a mixed effect on a price premium. Further, a substantial percentage of participants were found to have a strong preference for whole milk while only 19% of them prefer reduced-fat milk with 2.8% price premium. The study unveils a heterogeneous preference for the nutritional quality of milk products. Consumers' health problems and socio-demographic characteristics influence their preference for the nutritional quality of milk products. The result also shows a nutrition-taste tradeoff, yet consumers place more value on sensory experience. Contrary to earlier studies, we found that prior belief about milk quality influences how consumers value sensory experience and nutrition information.

Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae
Müller, Caroline ; Loon, Joop Van; Ruschioni, Sara ; Nicola, Gina Rosalinda De; Olsen, Carl Erik ; Iori, Renato ; Agerbirk, Niels - \ 2015
Phytochemistry 118 (2015). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 139 - 148.
Brassicales - Deterrent - Glucosinolate - HPLCMS/MS - Isothiocyanate - Neuron - NMR - Sensory physiology - Specialist herbivores - Stimulant - Taste

Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently enter the gas phase and all ITCs may react with matrix components. Deterrence to herbivores resulting from topically applied volatile ITCs in artificial feeding assays may hence lead to ambiguous conclusions. In the present study, the non-volatile ITC moringin (4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC) and its glucosinolate precursor glucomoringin were examined for effects on behaviour and taste physiology of specialist insect herbivores of Brassicales. In feeding bioassays, glucomoringin was not deterrent to larvae of Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are adapted to glucosinolates. Glucomoringin stimulated feeding of larvae of the related Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and also elicited electrophysiological activity from a glucosinolate-sensitive gustatory neuron in the lateral maxillary taste sensilla. In contrast, the ITC moringin was deterrent to P. napi and P. brassicae at high levels and to A. rosae at both high and low levels when topically applied to cabbage leaf discs (either 12, 120 or 1200 nmol moringin per leaf disc of 1 cm diameter). Survival of A. rosae was also significantly reduced when larvae were kept on leaves treated with moringin for several days. Furthermore, moringin elicited electrophysiological activity in a deterrent-sensitive neuron in the medial maxillary taste sensillum of P. brassicae, providing a sensory mechanism for the deterrence and the first known ITC taste response of an insect. In simulated feeding assays, recovery of moringin was high, in accordance with its non-volatile nature. Our results demonstrate taste-mediated deterrence of a non-volatile, natural ITC to glucosinolate-adapted insects.

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