- H. Hashemipour (1)
- Leo J.L.D. Griensven Van (1)
- V. Khaksar (1)
- M.M. Krimpen van (1)
- Milena Radaković (1)
- Dejan Radović (1)
- L.A. Rubio (1)
- Marina Soković (1)
- Zoran Stanimirović (1)
- Jevrosima Stevanović (1)
- T. Veldkamp (1)
Effect of feed supplementation with a thymol plus carvacrol mixture, in combination or not with an NSP-degrading enzyme, on productive and physiological parameters of broilers fed on wheat-based diets
Hashemipour, H. ; Khaksar, V. ; Rubio, L.A. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2016
Animal Feed Science and Technology 211 (2016). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 117 - 131.
Broiler - Carvacrol - Enzyme - Thymol - Wheat
The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed supplementation with a phytogenic product (equal mixture of thymol plus carvacrol; T+C) on performance, nutrient retention, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, cecum microbial ecosystem, serum parameters and characteristics of gastrointestinal tract of broilers fed on wheat-based diets with or without an NSP-degrading enzyme product (xylanase plus β-glucanase; E) from d 0 to 42. Six dietary treatments were arranged according to a factorial design with three levels of T+C (0, 100 and 200. mg/kg of diet) and two levels of E (0 and 0.5 g/kg of diet). Each treatment was replicated five times with 12 chicks per replicate. There was no interaction effect between E and T+C on any of the measured parameters. Compared with the control group, birds fed diets containing E or T+C had a higher ( P<0.01) final body weight, average daily gain and feed efficiency at d 42. Digesta viscosity was reduced ( P<0.05) in treatments with E addition in all parts of the small intestine. In treatments with T+C inclusion digesta viscosity was reduced in jejunum and ileum at d 24. E or T+C treated birds showed an increased ( P<0.05) retention of DM, protein and energy. Dietary supplementation with E and T+C increased ( P<0.01) total VFA and acetate levels at d 24 and 42, whereas the level of butyrate decreased ( P<0.01). Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens counts were lower ( P<0.01) than controls, and Lactobacilli counts were higher ( P<0.01), in birds fed on diets supplemented with enzyme or T+C at the rate of 200. mg/kg. E supplementation increased ( P<0.05) serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, total protein (TP), albumin and globulin concentrations, while T+C supplementation decreased ( P<0.05) total cholesterol, TP and albumin at d 40. E supplementation decreased ( P<0.01) the relative length of duodenum, jejunum and ileum of broilers. Moreover, carcass, liver and pancreas relative weights decreased ( P<0.05) with E supplementation at d 42. T+C dietary supplementation only affected carcass relative weight and jejunum and ileum relative lengths. The present study showed that thymol + carvacrol, in combination or not with an NSP-degrading enzyme, improved growth performance, enhanced nutrients retention, increased total VFA, reduced cholesterol and modulated intestinal microbial counts in broilers fed on a wheat-based diet.
Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay
Radaković, Milena ; Stevanović, Jevrosima ; Soković, Marina ; Radović, Dejan ; Griensven, Leo J.L.D. Van; Stanimirović, Zoran - \ 2015
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 17 (2015)4. - ISSN 1521-9437 - p. 321 - 330.
Agaricus brasiliensis - Comet assay - Human lymphocytes - Medicinal mushrooms - Quercetin - Thymol
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each component was tested in the comet assay. Thymol significantly increased DNA damage in human lymphocytes at higher concentrations (20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/mL), whereas no genotoxic effect of A. brasiliensis ethanol extract was observed. In simultaneous treatment with thymol (200 μg/mL) and A. brasiliensis ethanol extract (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/mL), the latter failed to reduce a thymol-induced DNA damaging effect regardless of the applied concentrations. To confirm that thymol induces DNA damage via reactive oxygen species, we performed cotreatment with quercetin. Cotreatment with quercetin (100 and 500 μmol/L) significantly reduced DNA damage caused by thymol (200 μg/mL), indicating that thymol exhibits genotoxicity mainly through induction of reactive oxygen species.