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Quantifying the effect of different urban planning strategies on heat stress for current and future climates in the agglomeration of The Hague (The Netherlands)
Koopmans, Sytse ; Ronda, Reinder ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. ; Klein Tank, Albert M.G. - \ 2018
Atmosphere 9 (2018)9. - ISSN 2073-4433
Climate scenarios - Heat resilience - Urban heat island - Urban planning
In the Netherlands, there will be an urgent need for additional housing by the year 2040, which mainly has to be realized within the existing built environment rather than in the spatial extension of cities. In this data-driven study, we investigated the effects of different urban planning strategies on heat stress for the current climate and future climate scenarios (year 2050) for the urban agglomeration of The Hague. Heat stress is here expressed as the number of days exceeding minimum temperatures of 20 °C in a year. Thereto, we applied a diagnostic equation to determine the daily maximum urban heat island based on routine meteorological observations and straightforward urban morphological properties including the sky-view factor and the vegetation fraction. Moreover, we utilized the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute's (KNMI) climate scenarios to transform present-day meteorological hourly time series into the future time series. The urban planning strategies differ in replacing low- and mid-rise buildings with high-rise buildings (which reduces the sky-view factor), and constructing buildings on green areas (which reduces the vegetation fraction). We found that, in most cases, the vegetation fraction is a more critical parameter than the sky-view factor to minimize the extra heat stress incurred when densifying the neighbourhood. This means that an urban planning strategy consisting of high-rise buildings and preserved green areas is often the best solution. Still, climate change will have a larger impact on heat stress for the year 2050 than the imposed urban densification.
Incorporating soil ecosystem services into urban planning : status, challenges and opportunities
Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Delden, Hedwig van; Ploeg, Martine van der - \ 2018
Landscape Ecology 33 (2018)7. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1087 - 1102.
Ecosystem services - Integrated planning - Soil - Sustainable development - Urban planning
Context: Traditionally soils have not received much attention in urban planning. For this, tools are needed that can both be understood both by soil scientists and urban planners. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enhance the role of soil knowledge in urban planning practice, through the following objectives: (1) identifying the role soil plays in recent urban plans; (2) analysing the ecosystem services and indicators used in soil science in an urban context; and (3) inferring the main challenges and opportunities to integrate soil into urban planning. Methods: Seven urban plans and reports of world cities that include sustainability goals were analysed using text-mining and qualitative analysis, with a critical view on the inclusion of soil-related concepts. Secondly, the contribution of soil science to urban planning was assessed with an overview of case studies in the past decade that focus on soil-related ecosystem services in urban context. Results: The results show an overall weak attention to soil and soil-related ecosystem services in the implementation and monitoring phases of urban plans. The majority of soil science case studies uses a haphazard approach to measure ecosystem service indicators which may not capture the ecosystem services appropriately and hence lack relevance for urban planning. Conclusions: Even though the most urban plans assessed recognize soil as a key resource, most of them fail to integrate indicators to measure or monitor soil-related functions. There is a need to develop soil-related ecosystem services that can be easily integrated and understood by other fields.
Playing by the rules? Analysing incremental urban developments
Karnenbeek, Lilian van; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 72 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 402 - 409.
Collective action - Incremental urban development - Institutional change - Rules - Urban planning
Current urban developments are often considered outdated and static, and the argument follows that they should become more adaptive. In this paper, we argue that existing urban development are already adaptive and incremental. Given this flexibility in urban development, understanding changes in the so-called ‘rules of the game’ which structure and change collective action, is increasingly relevant. Gaining such insights advances the ability of planners to deal with perceived spatial problems. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to develop an analytical framework for scrutinizing changes in rules in incremental urban developments and second, to test the analytical framework in a real-life incremental urban development. Building on Ostrom's IAD Framework we develop an analytical framework that makes a distinction between formal and informal rules, connects sets of rules, actors and interaction patterns and provides a comparative, longitudinal perspective. The case of the Navy Yard in Amsterdam, the Netherlands is used in order to test the framework's application, proving the relevance of investigating how rules in urban development change.
Space-time information analysis for resource-conscious urban planning and design: A stakeholder based identification of urban metabolism data gaps
Voskamp, I.M. ; Spiller, M. ; Stremke, S. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Vreugdenhil, L.C. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2018
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 128 (2018). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 516 - 525.
Urban metabolism; - Sustainable resource management - Urban infrastructure - Urban planning - Spatiotemporal analysis
The research presented here examined at which spatial and temporal resolution urban metabolism should be analysed to generate results that are useful for implementation of urban planning and design interventions aiming at optimization of resource flows. Moreover, it was researched whether a lack of data currently hampers analysing resource flows at this desired level of detail. To facilitate a stakeholder based research approach, the SIRUP tool – “Space-time Information analysis for Resource-conscious Urban Planning” – was developed. The tool was applied in a case study of Amsterdam, focused on the investigation of energy and water flows. Results show that most urban planning and design interventions envisioned in Amsterdam require information on a higher spatiotemporal resolution than the resolution of current urban metabolism analyses, i.e., more detailed than the city level and at time steps smaller than a year. Energy-related interventions generally require information on a higher resolution than water-related interventions. Moreover, for the majority of interventions information is needed on a higher resolution than currently available. For energy, the temporal resolution of existing data proved inadequate, for water, data with both a higher spatial and temporal resolution is required. Modelling and monitoring techniques are advancing for both water and energy and these advancements are likely to contribute to closing these data gaps in the future. These advancements can also prove useful in developing new sorts of urban metabolism analyses that can provide a systemic understanding of urban resource flows and that are tailored to urban planning and design.
Urban streets : Epitomes of planning challenges and opportunities at the interface of public space and mobility
Schönfeld, Kim Carlotta von; Bertolini, Luca - \ 2017
Cities 68 (2017). - ISSN 0264-2751 - p. 48 - 55.
Mobility - Public space - Transitions - Urban planning - Urban streets
Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating street vending, food trucks, markets, artistic interventions, political expressions, comfortable benches, green spaces. Although these are mostly not new activities to appear on streets, they are now given particular attention in public discourses, urban planning, media and academia, as public space in cities has become a more contested resource among different uses and ownership-constellations. Growing and diversifying urban populations are generating a particular strain on urban streets worldwide. In short, urban streets epitomize the challenges and opportunities that accompany the negotiations of space and uses attributed to mobility and public space in cities. They necessarily unite stationary and mobile functions – though this is not usually given room for in planning. Moreover, these functions are rarely studied from more than one perspective at once, which limits the analytical and creative thinking that inspiration is drawn from. In order to address these limitations, in this article we rely on insights from three theoretical fields - namely planning regulation, transitions and governance - and illustrations from concrete examples, to explore what urban planning might have to focus on to address the tensions in linking stationary and mobile functions in urban streets.
Enhanced Performance of the Eurostat Method for Comprehensive Assessment of Urban Metabolism : A Material Flow Analysis of Amsterdam
Voskamp, Ilse M. ; Stremke, Sven ; Spiller, Marc ; Perrotti, Daniela ; Hoek, Jan Peter van der; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. - \ 2017
Journal of Industrial Ecology 21 (2017)4. - ISSN 1088-1980 - p. 887 - 902.
Amsterdam - Circular economy - Industrial ecology - Resource management - Sustainable city - Urban planning
Sustainable urban resource management depends essentially on a sound understanding of a city's resource flows. One established method for analyzing the urban metabolism (UM) is the Eurostat material flow analysis (MFA). However, for a comprehensive assessment of the UM, this method has its limitations. It does not account for all relevant resource flows, such as locally sourced resources, and it does not differentiate between flows that are associated with the city's resource consumption and resources that only pass through the city. This research sought to gain insights into the UM of Amsterdam by performing an MFA employing the Eurostat method. Modifications to that method were made to enhance its performance for comprehensive UM analyses. A case study of Amsterdam for the year 2012 was conducted and the results of the Eurostat and the modified Eurostat method were compared. The results show that Amsterdam's metabolism is dominated by water flows and by port-related throughput of fossil fuels. The modified Eurostat method provides a deeper understanding of the UM than the urban Eurostat MFA attributed to three major benefits of the proposed modifications. First, the MFA presents a more complete image of the flows in the UM. Second, the modified resource classification presents findings in more detail. Third, explicating throughput flows yields a much-improved insight into the nature of a city's imports, exports, and stock. Overall, these advancements provide a deeper understanding of the UM and make the MFA method more useful for sustainable urban resource management.
Nearby green space and human health : Evaluating accessibility metrics
Ekkel, E.D. ; Vries, Sjerp de - \ 2017
Landscape and Urban Planning 157 (2017). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 214 - 220.
Accessibility metrics - Health - Nature - Urban green space - Urban planning
There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific evidence about these health benefits into account. Accessibility metrics that are well substantiated by empirical evidence are needed. This paper reviews the quantitative and qualitative aspects relevant for accessibility metrics and empirical studies addressing these aspects in relation to health. Studies comparing different types of green space indicators suggest that cumulative opportunities indicators are more consistently positively related to health than residential proximity ones. In contrast to residential proximity indicators, cumulative opportunities indicators take all the green space within a certain distance into account. Comparing results across studies proved to be hard. Green space accessibility was measured in a variety of ways and the green space indicator that was chosen was often not problematized. We feel that it is time for a more function-oriented approach. How precisely does contact with nature impact health and what type and qualities are relevant in this regard? We think this will lead to a new generation of more evidence-based accessibility metrics that will help to advance the field.
Environmental policy integration : Towards a communicative approach in integrating nature conservation and urban planning in Bulgaria
Grift-Simeonova, Vanya van der; Valk, Arnold van der - \ 2016
Land Use Policy 57 (2016). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 80 - 93.
Communicative approach - Environmental policy integration - Nature conservation - Urban planning
As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge. Although a number of such integrated approaches have been developed, many local authorities in Europe encounter important institutional barriers to this integration. This is particularly true for countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) like Bulgaria. The post-socialist transformation in Bulgaria led to intensified urban growth and local authorities struggle to find a balance between environmental and socio-economic interests. Meanwhile, the Environmental Policy Integration 'principle' (EPI) has been gaining prominence in Europe, aiming to address the trade-offs between environmental and economic incentives. Research highlights that successful EPI depends on institutional processes within different economic sectors and across governmental scales. These processes have not yet been comprehensively studied in the CEE and in Bulgaria. This article assesses the EPI process in urban planning in Bulgaria and identifies the institutional approaches that may contribute best to EPI in urban planning. Using the example of the "Corner Land" project in the city of Burgas, we discuss the key challenges that the local authorities face in addressing nature conservation in land use plans. The findings indicate that EPI is to a high degree constrained by the lack of an efficient communicative process across fragmented organizational structures throughout the entire planning process. While a procedural approach to EPI appears to be prevalent it is concluded that a communicative approach is urgently needed if the sustainability of urban plans is to be safeguarded and negative impacts on nature prevented.
Governing cities reflexively-The biocultural diversity concept as an alternative to ecosystem services
Buizer, Marleen ; Elands, Birgit ; Vierikko, Kati - \ 2016
Environmental Science & Policy 62 (2016). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 7 - 13.
Biocultural diversity - Ecosystem services - Reflexive governance - Transdisciplinarity - Urban planning
With the aim to embed ecology more forcefully into decision-making, the concept of Ecosystems Services (ES) has gained significant ground among policy-makers and researchers. The increasing recognition of the importance of urban green areas for the quality of life in growing cities has led proponents of ES approaches to argue for an uptake of the approach in urban environmental decision-making. However, the ES approach has been criticized for standing too much at a distance from local communities and their day-to-day practices and for insufficiently taking into account the potential trade-offs between different qualities or preferences. In this paper we argue that other concepts, doing other work, need to be added to the debate about futures of urban governance and research. Biocultural diversity is suggested as one such alternative concept. By its emphasis on diversity, biocultural diversity can account for the many ways in which people live with green areas in the urban landscape, acknowledges the different knowledges this involves, and can reveal conflicts and ambivalence that may be at stake. This sets up for a reflexive, transdisciplinary research process that questions and contextualizes knowledge and worldviews including those of researchers. A reflexive, transdisciplinary research, then, is a productive catalyst for forms of reflexive urban governance that recognise and respond to this diversity and provide platforms for contestation.
Wasted cities in urbanizing China
He, Guizhen ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Lu, Yonglong - \ 2016
Environmental Development (2016). - ISSN 2211-4645 - p. 2 - 13.
China - Environmental impacts - Urban planning - Urbanization - Wasted cities
Urbanization is a characteristic of the 21st century, especially in countries with developing economies and a large amount of rural-to-urban migration. In China, the emergence of "wasted cities and towns" has paralleled urban expansion; large newly built areas that remain unpopulated and have created significant economic and social costs. We conducted a systematic investigation into the prevalence and geographical distribution of these "wasted cities and towns" through an analysis of spatially-detailed data from 1992 to 2014, and by estimating the environmental impacts of these "wasted" cities using available data in mainland China. Between 2008 and 2012, at least 28 ghost cities/towns were documented within 16 provinces, with severe effects on land use and the ecosystem, creating a waste of resources and energy. These cities contributed to poor air quality and climate change, and created unneeded construction and demolition waste. To prevent a further increase in wasted cities, and to turn existing ones into sustainable cities, China has to dramatically change its urbanization and housing policies in tandem with strengthening environmental policies, while taking long-term prevention and short-term execution strategies. Knowing how to manage the phenomenon of "wasted cities" in China is not just an environmental question, but also has strong effects on urbanization and sustainability. Developing reasonable management plans may establish an example for developing countries, and emerging economies in particular. The sustainability of urbanization might be affected if the problems identified here are not resolved. China's experiences with the environmental challenges of urbanization may provide valuable lessons for other emerging economies if the measures recommended here are implemented successfully.
New roles for local authorities in a time of climate change : The Rotterdam Energy Approach and Planning as a case of urban symbiosis
Lenhart, Jennifer ; Vliet, Bas Van; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Cleaner Production 107 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 593 - 601.
Energy strategies - Resource-waste cycles - Rotterdam - Urban climate governance - Urban planning
As cities expand and environmental challenges multiply, linear relations between resource consumption and waste need to be broken, with outputs cycled back as inputs. Twenty years of industrial symbiosis research has provided ample evidence and experience how to close material and energy cycles in industrial systems. The more recent urban symbiosis literature develops a similar perspective and experience on closing waste-resource cycles for a different social system: cities. An urban symbiosis analysis on how to close urban waste-resource cycles has to focus on geographical boundaries, local partnerships, and policy interventions. In conducting a detailed case study of Rotterdam Energy Approach and Planning (REAP), this paper aims to identify how urban actors, notably local authorities, can facilitate improved urban resource management to mitigate climate change. REAP incorporates energy and water reuse in an urban area, using by-products as resources in different urban functions. It is coordinated by Rotterdam's local authority, in partnership with architects and academic institutions in its design, and housing corporations and energy companies in its implementation. The methodology to assess REAP includes a review of policy documents, site visits and in-depth interviews. This study revealed the central role of local authorities in governing urban symbiosis projects like REAP; the need for increased private-sector participation in the design stage of such projects; and the necessity to encourage dialogue, learning and flexibility in the governance of urban resource management.