Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sweetness but not sourness enhancement increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in children
Stokkom, V.L. van; Poelman, A.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
Appetite 131 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 100 - 107.
Acceptance - Children - Sourness - Sweetness - Taste - Vegetables

For children it is important to consume enough vegetables to establish healthy dietary patterns. Taste acceptance is an important factor contributing to food choice and consumption. Sweetness and sourness enhancement can increase acceptance of specific foods in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sweetness and sourness enhancement on acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in 5-6-year-old children. Three concentrations of sucrose (2, 5 and 10%) and citric acid (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15%) were added to cucumber and green capsicum purees. Children (n = 70, 5.7 ± 0.5 yrs) assessed acceptance of the vegetable purees using a 5-point hedonic facial scale. Sweetness enhancement significantly increased acceptance of cucumber purees (5 and 10% sucrose) and green capsicum purees (2 and 10% sucrose) compared to unmodified purees. Sourness enhancement (0.05, 0.08 and 0.15% citric acid) did not significantly influence acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees compared to unmodified purees. Children differed in acceptance of vegetable purees with added sucrose and citric acid. Sweetness likers (cucumber 77.1%, green capsicum 58.6%) accepted sucrose concentrations better than sweetness non-likers in both vegetables. Sourness likers (cucumber 50.0%, green capsicum 44.3%) accepted medium and high concentrations of citric acid better than sourness non-likers in cucumber and all citric acid concentrations in green capsicum. We conclude that enhancement of sweetness increases acceptance of cucumber and green capsicum purees in most children whereas enhancement of sourness is better accepted by only a few children. This study highlights the challenge to get children to better accept vegetables, since only sweetness enhancement improved acceptance while addition of sucrose is undesirable. For a small subset of children enhancing sourness might be an alternative strategy to increase acceptance of vegetables.

Animal manure use in vegetable production in the Netherlands
Haan, J. de; Geel, W. van - \ 2018
In: 5th International Symposium on Ecologically Sound Fertilization Strategies for Field Vegetable Production. - International Society for Horticultural Science (Acta Horticulturae ) - ISBN 9789462611887 - p. 73 - 80.
Manure - Nitrogen - Organic matter - Phosphate - Regulations - Vegetables
Application of animal manure in vegetables, when used right, can improve soil quality, crop production and financial returns on the long term. Use of animal manure closes nutrient and carbon cycles and contributes to several ecosystem services. The composition of animal manure varies considerably depending on animal species, housing system and feeding of animals. It is important to account for the composition of the manure when using it in vegetable production. Important aspects are the right selection of manure type, matching crop needs in nutrients and organic matter, and the right application of manure in time and place with minimum emissions. Animal manure is ample available in the Netherlands. It is widely used to cover nutrient needs and to sustain soil fertility in the intensive crop rotations in the Netherlands. Manure use in the Netherlands is severely restricted by legislation on nitrogen and phosphorus to prevent emissions to ground and surface water. Processing of animal manure is emerging to be able to use more manure in crop production efficiently next to other advantages for the animal farmer. Important processing techniques developed are 1) anaerobic digestion and 2) separation of manure in a liquid and a solid fraction combined with reversed osmosis making mineral concentrates. The value of animal manure for arable and vegetable crop production is difficult to calculate, especially for organic matter as it affects multiple processes in soil and plant growth. A first estimation of the value of animal manure for arable and vegetable farming on sandy soils is made based on a long-term experiment with different organic matter input treatments. Total value of slurry in the Netherlands is estimated between € 35 and 57 t-1 or € 430 and 2240 ha-1 based on input of 60 kg ha-1 of phosphate with slurry.
The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables
Stokkom, V.L. van; Blok, A.E. ; Kooten, O. van; Graaf, C. de; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 69 - 76.
Flavour - Identification - Smell - Taste - Texture - Vegetables
It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands.
The financial feasibility of producing fish and vegetables through aquaponics
Bosma, Roel H. ; Lacambra, Lysette ; Landstra, Ynze ; Perini, Chiara ; Poulie, Joline ; Schwaner, Marie J. ; Yin, Yi - \ 2017
Aquacultural Engineering 78 (2017). - ISSN 0144-8609 - p. 146 - 154.
Aquaponics - Catfish - Cost-Benefit-Analysis - Jade perch - Vegetables
Aquaponics, producing fish and vegetables in a closed-loop water system, reduces fertilizer use and water discharge, and is therefore promoted as a sustainable venture. A recent global study found that the majority of 257 surveyed aquaponics farms made losses, but the reasons have been poorly analyzed. Based upon grey literature and a post-hoc cost-benefit analysis for an investment in an aquaponics farm in the Philippines, this paper aims to assess the factors contributing to an appropriate level of returns. In the Philippines, vegetables are relatively well-priced, but if catfish were produced, a venture producing 1250. kg fish, 6000. kg lettuce, and 300. kg tomato per year would have a Net-Benefit-Cost Ratio of below 1.3 after 20 years. This ratio should be higher when one considers the risks against which a farmer cannot and should not insure its production, as argued in the paper. Depending on the species of both fish and vegetables, the quantity of nutrients coming from the former component imposes a fish volume: vegetable area ratio ranging from 1:30 to 1:100, thus the quantity of marketable fresh vegetables determines the size of an aquaponics enterprise. As a consequence, the investments in the fish component are relatively high and weigh heavily on the financial balance. For producers to successfully adopt aquaponics, they need to consider starting first with catfish, and then, as they get to master the system's management, they can shift to a high-value fish species for niche markets.
Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption : A real-life experiment
Reinders, Machiel J. ; Huitink, Marlijn ; Dijkstra, S.C. ; Maaskant, Anna J. ; Heijnen, Joris - \ 2017
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 14 (2017)1. - ISSN 1479-5868
Diet - Intake - Meat - Menu - Portion size - Restaurant - Vegetables

Background: The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment. Methods: A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included. Results: Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish. Conclusions: This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied with their restaurant visit and main dish. The findings of this study suggest that modifying portion size in restaurants is an effective tool for stimulating vegetable consumption and consequently healthy and sustainable diets.

New approach to Integrated Pest Management research with and for horticulture. A vision from and beyond economics
Buurma, J.S. ; Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2017
Crop Protection 97 (2017). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 94 - 100.
Adoption - Fruit - Market pull - Product concepts - Sociology - Vegetables
The main problem addressed in this paper is the low adoption rate of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) knowledge into practice. Many IPM research leaders believe this low adoption rate is due to bottlenecks in knowledge supply. Consequently, they have asked for research, education and extension efforts that will lead to more widespread use of flexible, locally adapted and practical IPM. In our opinion, however, the bottleneck is a lack of attention for the motivations and framework conditions of the end-users. Therefore, in this paper we shift the focus from technology push to market pull. This paper is based on interviews with Dutch greenhouse growers about the adoption of a new cultivation concept and on export data of tomatoes and apples from Eurostat's Comext database. The two data sources were combined to get understanding of the interactions between entrepreneur types, economic drivers and adoption of new IPM methods. The motivations of the greenhouse growers were captured in mind maps. The export data were analysed for differences between market segments. The main motivations of the growers for adopting innovations such as IPM were getting access to high market segments and achieving better crop growth and lower crop losses. Thus, the challenge for IPM research is integrating tasteful cultivars and product types, advanced agronomy, adequate crop management, attractive packaging and low pesticide residue levels in an inclusive product concept (e.g. residue-free snack tomatoes in a transparent plastic cup). This can be achieved by capturing innovative production strategies from market-oriented entrepreneurs, further developing these strategies in . in-situ experiments with input suppliers, crop-oriented entrepreneurs and advisers, and co-creating guidelines for integrated production strategies with these partners for both crop-oriented and costs-oriented entrepreneurs. The costs-oriented interviewees often had financial problems and/or plans to sell their business. Consequently, knowledge investments in this specific subgroup will, in many cases, not lead to adoption of new crop protection solutions.
Vegetables and other core food groups : A comparison of key flavour and texture properties
Poelman, Astrid A.M. ; Delahunty, Conor M. ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 56 (2017)Part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
Children - Sensory properties of diets - Taste - Texture - Vegetables

Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n = 34) were compared to fruit (n = 26), dairy (n = 28), meat/fish (n = 28) and grains (n = 38); these foods were representative of the diet of Australian children and profiled by a trained sensory panel on 10 key taste and texture attributes as part of a larger study (Lease, Hendrie, Poelman, Delahunty, & Cox, 2016). Mean intensities were analysed using ANOVA. Vegetables were more bitter in taste than the other food categories and amongst the hardest. They were the lowest, or amongst the lowest, in all other flavour properties. Other core food categories had sensory properties known to be drivers of food liking: sweet and sour for fruit, sour, salty and fatty for dairy, salty, umami and fatty for meat/fish, and salty for grains. No food category other than vegetables had a bitter taste, a known driver of dislike. This research shows that vegetables, relative to other food groups, have sensory properties that are known to predispose to low acceptance based on innate likes and dislikes or preferences acquired within the first few months of life. High hardness of vegetables implicates a slow eating rate, which is generally beneficial from a public health perspective, but may make it difficult to meet recommended vegetable intake. To increase children's acceptance and intake for vegetables, either vegetable sensory properties can be modified, or children's acceptance for vegetables can be modified through sensory learning strategies.

Taste intensities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands
Stokkom, V.L. van; Teo, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, Kees de; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2016
Food Research International 87 (2016). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 34 - 41.
Bitterness - Cooking - Preparation - Taste - Vegetables

Bitterness has been suggested to be the main reason for the limited palatability of several vegetables. Vegetable acceptance has been associated with preparation method. However, the taste intensity of a variety of vegetables prepared by different methods has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to assess the intensity of the five basic tastes and fattiness of ten vegetables commonly consumed in the Netherlands prepared by different methods using the modified Spectrum method. Intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fattiness were assessed for ten vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, leek, carrot, onion, red bell pepper, French beans, tomato, cucumber and iceberg lettuce) by a panel (n = 9) trained in a modified Spectrum method. Each vegetable was assessed prepared by different methods (raw, cooked, mashed and as a cold pressed juice). Spectrum based reference solutions were available with fixed reference points at 13.3 mm (R1), 33.3 mm (R2) and 66.7 mm (R3) for each taste modality on a 100 mm line scale. For saltiness, R1 and R3 differed (16.7 mm and 56.7 mm). Mean intensities of all taste modalities and fattiness for all vegetables were mostly below R1 (13.3 mm). Significant differences (p

Organics unpacked : The influence of packaging on the choice for organic fruits and vegetables
Herpen, Erica van; Immink, Victor ; Puttelaar, Jos van den - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 53 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 90 - 96.
Choice - Fruit - Organics - Packaging - Produce - Unpacked - Vegetables

In many supermarkets throughout Europe, it has become common practice in the fruit and vegetable department to offer options in plastic packaging. Recent trends, however, move towards the removal of packaging. The current study examines whether offering fruit and vegetables without primary packaging increases the likelihood that consumers choose these products. This is especially relevant for organic fruit and vegetables, given that plastic may be perceived as contrary to the sustainable nature of these products. A first experiment, using a student sample and an immersive 3D virtual supermarket environment, shows that choice for organic fruit and vegetables indeed increases when organics are offered without packaging. A second experiment with the virtual supermarket generalizes these findings to a sample of supermarket patrons, additionally showing that unpacked fruit and vegetables are preferred over packed options overall, both for organic and non-organic products. We conclude that removing the primary packaging of organic fruit and vegetables appears to be a promising intervention in attempts to increase organic sales.

Lactobacillus paracasei-Enriched Vegetables Containing Health Promoting Molecules
Lavermicocca, P. ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Russo, F. ; Valerio, F. ; Venere, D. Di; Sisto, A. - \ 2015
In: Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion Academic Press - ISBN 9780128023716 - p. 361 - 370.
Functional constipation - Functional foods - Glucosinolates - Inulin - Lactobacillus paracasei LMG P-22043 - Polyphenols - Vegetables

Broadening the range of probiotic foods is an interest of both consumers and enterprises because probiotic products available on the market are mainly limited to milk-based foods or dietary supplements. Here we describe the efficient association of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain with several vegetable matrices acting as vehicles for both live beneficial probiotic populations and health-promoting molecules. In this regard, table olives, cabbage, and artichokes were proved to be suitable as probiotic carriers, also providing phytochemicals, such as glucosinolates and polyphenols, as well as the prebiotic inulin. Moreover, experimental results demonstrated the technological features of the probiotic strain acting as an efficient starter for fermentation process, saving the bioactive molecules, and as a protective culture improving product shelflife. Finally, in vivo human trials indicated the efficacy of the symbiotic artichokes, carrying the probiotic L. paracasei IMPC2.1, in modulating fecal biochemical and microbiological parameters and in reducing symptoms of functional constipation.

Vegetable preparation practices for 5-6 years old Australian children as reported by their parents; relationships with liking and consumption
Poelman, A.A.M. ; Delahunty, C.M. ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 42 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 20 - 26.
Child - Consumption and liking - Food preparation - Home - Vegetables

Vegetables are the food category least accepted by children, which is a key reason for their low intake. Common sense suggests that vegetable preparation, liking and consumption is idiosyncratic to each vegetable, e.g. carrots may be eaten raw, but raw broccoli may be unacceptable, however scientific evidence is largely lacking. This study measured children's experiences, liking and consumption of vegetables in relation to preparation practices at home. Questionnaire data were collected for a comprehensive range of preparation methods (raw, boiling, steaming, frying, roasting, and seven ways of preparing it with other dishes (e.g. soup)) across five common vegetables, i.e. carrot, potato, broccoli, cauliflower, and green beans. Measures included experience with preparation methods (yes/no), liking (9 point hedonic scale) and consumption frequency (5 point scale). Data were reported by parents for their child (N= 82, 5-6. years, low and high vegetable intake), and child/parent pairs were recruited from the Sydney metropolitan area. Parents reported that children consumed an average of 6.8 (SD 3.4) different preparation methods for vegetables at home, including many mixed dishes. The number and type of preparations the child consumed depended on the vegetable type (p<.0001). Preparation method was associated with liking of carrot and potato (both p<.0001), and with consumption frequency of all vegetables (all p<.05). The most and least liked preparations were vegetable specific. Parents reported that vegetables in mixed dishes were generally well accepted by their children, and flavourings were added on average by 54%. The results also showed that a higher vegetable consumption was related to a higher liking, and exposure to more preparation methods. This study demonstrates the potential for further experimental research into preparation practices to increase vegetable acceptance and intake in children. A vegetable by vegetable approach is recommended, with potential cross-vegetable opportunities for flavour-flavour learning and flavour masking strategies including the use of mixed dishes.

Estimating shadow prices and efficiency analysis of productive inputs and pesticide use of vegetable production
Singbo, Alphonse G. ; Lansink, Alfons Oude ; Emvalomatis, Grigorios - \ 2015
European Journal of Operational Research 245 (2015)1. - ISSN 0377-2217 - p. 265 - 272.
Input specific efficiency - Pesticides - Shadow prices - Smooth bootstrap - Vegetables

This paper analyzes technical efficiency and the value of the marginal product of productive inputs vis-a-vis pesticide use to measure allocative efficiency of pesticide use along productive inputs. We employ the data envelopment analysis framework and marginal cost techniques to estimate technical efficiency and the shadow values of each input. A bootstrap technique is applied to overcome the limitations of DEA and helps to estimate the mean and 95 percent confidence intervals of the estimated quantities. The methods are applied to a sample of vegetable producers in Benin over the period 2009-2010. Results indicated that bias corrected technical efficiency scores are lower than the initial measures and the former estimates are statistically significant. The application results show that vegetable producers are less efficient with respect to pesticide use than other inputs. Also, results suggest that pesticides, land and fertilizers are overused.

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