Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception
Spence, Charles ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2016
In: Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace / Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina, Spence, Charles, Amsterdam : Elsevier Inc. Academic Press (Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 298) - ISBN 9780081003510 - p. 107 - 132.
Expectations - Flavor - Liking - Multisensory - Sensory dominance - Taste - Vision
Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of different food and beverage items exerts a sometimes dramatic impact on the expectations, and often on the subsequent taste/flavor experiences of participants in the lab, as well as consumers under the more naturalistic conditions of everyday life. It is important to note that food colors can have rather different meanings, and hence give rise to differing expectations in these different age groups, not to mention in those from different cultures. By gaining a better understanding of the sensory and hedonic expectations that are elicited by food color in different groups of individuals, researchers are now coming to better understand the various ways in which what we see can modulate the multisensory perception of flavor, and alter our food behaviors.
High satiety expectations of a first course promote selection of less energy in a main course picture task
Bulsing, P.J. ; Gutjar, S. ; Zijlstra, N. ; Zandstra, E.H. - \ 2015
Appetite 87 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 236 - 243.
Expectations - Food choice - Restrained eaters - Satiety - Vision
One of the factors determining meal size is the expectation one has about satiating properties of foods. Foods eliciting low satiety expectations are often chosen in larger portions. We investigated whether satiety expectations of one food lead to a different portion size selection of other foods, using an online picture task. One hundred and twenty-six subjects (64 unrestrained, 62 restrained) participated in three conditions (within-subject). In two conditions subjects were asked to imagine they consumed soup as a first course. They were shown pictures of soups differing in terms of visual attributes, e.g. colour intensity, ingredients variety, etc. that conveyed a high or low expected satiety. In the control condition, no picture was shown. After viewing either a soup picture or no picture, subjects chose an ideal menu and portion size out of several other foods (meat, side dishes and vegetables) via an online choice task, specifically developed for this experiment. The energy (kcal) and weight (grams) selected for the main course was measured. More energy was chosen in the low satiety compared with the high satiety soup picture condition, but this effect was only significant for restrained eaters. This study shows that satiety expectations of a first course 'carry over' to the rest of the menu in people who carefully watch their diet, i.e. restrained eaters make satiety estimations for an entire menu. Our online choice task was able to capture these estimations in an implicit manner.