Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Self-organizing processes in urban green commons. The case of the Angachilla wetland, Valdivia-Chile
Correa, Heidy ; Blanco-Wells, Gustavo ; Barrena, José ; Tacón, Alberto - \ 2018
International Journal of the Commons 12 (2018)1. - ISSN 1875-0281 - p. 573 - 595.
Chile - Self-organization - Social-ecological systems - Urban green commons - Wetlands
This article focuses on self-organizing processes in contested urban social-ecological systems. It analyzes a wetland conservation program and civic management effort in the Angachilla sector of the city of Valdivia, Chile in a 15-year time frame. The aim is to understand what triggers collective actions and self-organization in the attempts of preserving an urban green common. The study uses a qualitative approach based on action-research methodologies. It examines key variables influencing self-organizing processes; including social-environmental crises, governance vacuums, wetland valuation, and leadership. It also discusses collective strategies for the transformation of negative feedback loops, such as norms and regulations detrimental to wetland protection, and those related to resistance to change of wetland surface area due to unregulated urbanization. From an Urban Green Commons perspective, this work illustrates the complexity of dealing with contested nature, making it a resource difficult to govern collectively given all the different interests and values in place. It also shows that there have been successful periods of active wetland management that have influenced active democratic processes regarding land use and land use change in the city.
Between all-for-one and each-for-himself : On-farm competition for labour as determinant of wetland cropping in two Beninese villages
Paresys, Lise ; Malézieux, Eric ; Huat, Joël ; Kropff, Martin J. ; Rossing, Walter A.H. - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 159 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 126 - 138.
Farm typology - Labour - Management system - Production system - Wetlands
In sub-Saharan Africa, unexploited land and water resources in wetlands represent an important potential for intensified, sustainable and food-secure farms through rice production and market gardening. The lack of uptake of cropping in wetlands may be related to the ways in which resources are divided between family fields and individual fields. The management system on sub-Saharan African farms comprises a family management unit or a combination of a family management unit and one or more individual management units. The family management unit or the farm head controls production in family fields to satisfy family needs while the individual management units control production in individual fields to satisfy individual needs. Our objective was to investigate the diversity in farm management systems and the resulting uptake of cropping in wetlands for different farm types, as the first step towards suggestions for enhancing rice production and market gardening in wetlands. We studied farms in two case-study villages in Benin: Zonmon in the southern part and Pelebina in the north-western part. Farm typologies were developed based on random samples of 51 out of 134 farms (38%) from Zonmon and 50 out of 146 farms (34%) from Pelebina by combining principal component analysis and Ward's minimum variance clustering. Variables included in the PCA were related to levels of resource endowment (e.g., amounts of land, family labour, cash for purchasing chemical inputs and hiring labour) and to resource-use strategies including resource division between family fields and individual fields, and between uplands and wetlands. We identified 3 farm types in Zonmon and 5 farm types in Pelebina based on differences in resource-use strategies and in resource endowment. We found no trade-off between the existence of individual fields and the area under rice and market garden crops in wetlands. Labour abundance was the main factor driving both the occurrence of individual fields and the expansion of cropping in wetlands. Differences in labour division strategies between family and individual fields among farm types reflected differences in food and cash division strategies. Land use appeared strongly motivated by food self-sufficiency objectives and labour productivity, leading to prioritisation of upland over wetland areas. In wetlands, most farm types opted for cultivating market garden crops during the dry season when labour demand for upland fields was low. Our results indicate that increasing labour productivity in food crops and in rice and market garden crops would enhance the uptake of rice and market garden crops in wetlands. Creating credit facilities would increase the labour resource and allow farmers to hire labour, further contributing to wetland use. We discuss the relevance of a systemic farm analysis that enables distinguishing family and individual fields for understanding farm uptake of rice and market garden crops in wetlands.
Humusica 2, article 11 : Histic humus systems and forms-Epihisto intergrades and dynamics
Zanella, Augusto ; Ponge, Jean François ; Waal, Rein De; Delft, Bas Van; Nobili, Maria De; Ferronato, Chiara ; Antisari, Livia Vittori ; Vianello, Gilmo ; Jabiol, Bernard - \ 2018
Applied Soil Ecology 122 (2018)2. - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 162 - 169.
Biodegradation - Histosols - Humus - Peats - Soil water dynamics - Wetlands
The processes of formation and evolution of Histic humipedons are related to the soil/water dynamics. In a first part of the paper we present diagnostic features and horizons necessary for describing the intergrade humipedons existing between Histic and Hydro humipedons. Called Epihistic ("superficial" Histic), these humipedons are very common and help in better defining the relationships between plant and soil in semi-terrestrial environments. In a second part of the paper we set some information about biological activities and correlated environmental frames of Histic and Epihisto units. The article concludes with dynamic relationships between humipedons, describing them in fen or bog ecosystems, allowing the interpretation of complex wetlands. The present manuscript updates the description and classification of semi-terrestrial humus forms previously published by
Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda
Uwimana, Brigitte ; Dam, Anne van; Gettel, Gretchen ; Bigirimana, Bonfils ; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2017
Environmental Management 60 (2017)3. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 496 - 512.
Agriculture - Discharge - Land use - Nutrients - Water quality - Wetlands
Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013. In 2011, measurements were done at the outlets of 3 sub-catchments (Munyazi, Mukura and Akagera). Between May 2012 and May 2013 the measurements were done in 16 reaches of Munyazi dominated by rice, vegetables, grass/forest or ponds/reservoirs. Water quality was also measured during two rainfall events. Results showed seasonal trends in water quality associated with high water flows and farming activities. Across all sites, the total suspended solids related positively to discharge, increasing 2–8 times during high flow periods. Conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH decreased with increasing discharge, while total nitrogen and total phosphorus did not show a clear pattern. The total suspended solids concentrations were consistently higher downstream of reaches dominated by rice and vegetable farming. For total nitrogen and total phosphorus results were mixed, but suggesting higher concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus during the dry and early rainy (and farming) season, and then wash out during the rainy season, with subsequent dilution at the end of the rains. Rice and vegetable farming generate the transport of sediment as opposed to ponds/reservoir and grass/forest.
Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level
Peterka, Tomáš ; Hájek, Michal ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Aunina, Liene ; Bergamini, Ariel ; Dítě, Daniel ; Felbaba-Klushyna, Ljuba ; Graf, Ulrich ; Hájková, Petra ; Hettenbergerová, Eva ; Ivchenko, Tatiana G. ; Jansen, Florian ; Koroleva, Natalia E. ; Lapshina, Elena D. ; Lazarević, Predrag M. ; Moen, Asbjørn ; Napreenko, Maxim G. ; Pawlikowski, Paweł ; Plesková, Zuzana ; Sekulová, Lucia ; Smagin, Viktor A. ; Tahvanainen, Teemu ; Thiele, Annett ; Biţǎ-Nicolae, Claudia ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Brisse, Henry ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Bie, Els De; Ewald, Jörg ; FitzPatrick, Úna ; Font, Xavier ; Jandt, Ute ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Landucci, Flavia ; Moeslund, Jesper E. ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Rodwell, John S. ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Šilc, Urban ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Chytrý, Milan ; Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika - \ 2017
Applied Vegetation Science 20 (2017)1. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 124 - 142.
Biogeography - Ecological gradients - Endangered habitats - Mires - Relevés - Supervised vegetation classification - Unsupervised vegetation classification - Vegetation plots - Wetlands
Aims: Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plots, identify diagnostic species of fen alliances, and map their distribution. Location: Europe, western Siberia and SE Greenland. Methods: 29 049 vegetation-plot records of fens were selected from databases using a list of specialist fen species. Formal definitions of alliances were created using the presence, absence and abundance of Cocktail-based species groups and indicator species. DCA visualized the similarities among the alliances in an ordination space. The ISOPAM classification algorithm was applied to regional subsets with homogeneous plot size to check whether the classification based on formal definitions matches the results of unsupervised classifications. Results: The following alliances were defined: Caricion viridulo-trinervis (sub-halophytic Atlantic dune-slack fens), Caricion davallianae (temperate calcareous fens), Caricion atrofusco-saxatilis (arcto-alpine calcareous fens), Stygio-Caricion limosae (boreal topogenic brown-moss fens), Sphagno warnstorfii-Tomentypnion nitentis (Sphagnum-brown-moss rich fens), Saxifrago-Tomentypnion (continental to boreo-continental nitrogen-limited brown-moss rich fens), Narthecion scardici (alpine fens with Balkan endemics), Caricion stantis (arctic brown-moss rich fens), Anagallido tenellae-Juncion bulbosi (Ibero-Atlantic moderately rich fens), Drepanocladion exannulati (arcto-boreal-alpine non-calcareous fens), Caricion fuscae (temperate moderately rich fens), Sphagno-Caricion canescentis (poor fens) and Scheuchzerion palustris (dystrophic hollows). The main variation in the species composition of European fens reflected site chemistry (pH, mineral richness) and sorted the plots from calcareous and extremely rich fens, through rich and moderately rich fens, to poor fens and dystrophic hollows. ISOPAM classified regional subsets according to this gradient, supporting the ecological meaningfulness of this classification concept on both the regional and continental scale. Geographic/macroclimatic variation was reflected in the second most important gradient. Conclusions: The pan-European classification of fen vegetation was proposed and supported by the data for the first time. Formal definitions developed here allow consistent and unequivocal assignment of individual vegetation plots to fen alliances at the continental scale.
Differentiating the effects of climate and land use change on European biodiversity : A scenario analysis
Vermaat, Jan E. ; Hellmann, Fritz A. ; Teeffelen, Astrid J.A. van; Wallis de Vries, Michiel - \ 2017
Ambio 46 (2017)3. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 277 - 290.
Climate envelope modelling - Dry grasslands - Habitat connectivity - Land use change - Species sensitivity database - SRES scenario articulation - Wetlands - 016-3982 - 017-3997
Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i.e. whether they would probably be declining, stable or increasing). We used the BIOSCORE database tool, which allows assessment of the effects of a range of environmental pressures including climate change as well as land use change. We updated the species lists included in this tool for our two habitat types. We projected species change for two spatial scales: the EU27 covering most of Europe, and the more restricted biogeographic region of ‘Continental Europe’. Other environmental pressures modelled for the four scenarios than land use and climate change generally did not explain a significant part of the variance in species richness change. Changes in characteristic bird and dragonfly species were least pronounced. Land use change was the most important driver for vascular plants in both habitats and spatial scales, leading to a decline in 50–100% of the species included, whereas climate change was more important for wetland dragonflies and birds (40–50 %). Patterns of species decline were similar in continental Europe and the EU27 for wetlands but differed for dry grasslands, where a substantially lower proportion of butterflies and birds declined in continental Europe, and 50 % of bird species increased, probably linked to a projected increase in semi-natural vegetation. In line with the literature using climate envelope models, we found little divergence among the four scenarios. Our findings suggest targeted policies depending on habitat and species group. These are, for dry grasslands, to reduce land use change or its effects and to enhance connectivity, and for wetlands to mitigate climate change effects.
GLOBIO-Aquatic, a global model of human impact on the biodiversity of inland aquatic ecosystems
Janse, J.H. ; Kuiper, J.J. ; Weijters, M.J. ; Westerbeek, E.P. ; Jeuken, M.H.J.L. ; Bakkenes, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Mooij, W.M. ; Verhoeven, J.T.A. - \ 2015
Environmental Science & Policy 48 (2015). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 99 - 114.
Catchment - Cyanobacteria - Eutrophication - Hydrological disturbance - Lakes - Land use change - Rivers - Scenario analysis - Wetlands

Biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems - rivers, lakes and wetlands - is undergoing rapid global decline. Major drivers are land use change, eutrophication, hydrological disturbance, climate change, overexploitation and invasive species. We developed a global model for assessing the dominant human impacts on inland aquatic biodiversity. The system consists of a biodiversity model, named GLOBIO-Aquatic, that is embedded in the IMAGE model framework, i.e. linked to models for demography, economy, land use changes, climate change, nutrient emissions, a global hydrological model and a global map of water bodies. The biodiversity model is based on a recompilation of existing data, thereby scaling-up from local/regional case-studies to global trends. We compared species composition in impacted lakes, rivers and wetlands to that in comparable undisturbed systems. We focussed on broad categories of human-induced pressures that are relevant at the global scale. The drivers currently included are catchment land use changes and nutrient loading affecting water quality, and hydrological disturbance and climate change affecting water quantity. The resulting relative mean abundance of original species is used as indicator for biodiversity intactness. For lakes, we used dominance of harmful algal blooms as an additional indicator. The results show that there is a significant negative relation between biodiversity intactness and these stressors in all types of freshwater ecosystems. In heavily used catchments, standing water bodies would lose about 80% of their biodiversity intactness and running waters about 70%, while severe hydrological disturbance would result in losses of about 80% in running waters and more than 50% in floodplain wetlands. As an illustration, an analysis using the OECD 'baseline scenario' shows a considerable decline of the biodiversity intactness in still existing water bodies in 2000, especially in temperate and subtropical regions, and a further decline especially in tropical regions in 2050. Historical loss of wetland areas is not yet included in these results. The model may inform policy makers at the global level in what regions aquatic biodiversity will be affected most and by what causes, and allows for scenario analysis to evaluate policy options.

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