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The impact of the social environment on Zambian cervical cancer prevention practices
Nyambe, Anayawa ; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Baboo, Stridutt K. ; Hal, Guido Van - \ 2018
BMC Cancer 18 (2018). - ISSN 1471-2407
Cervical Cancer - Screening - Social ecological model - Theory of triadic influence - Vaccination - Zambia
Background: Cervical cancer which is preventable by screening and vaccination is the most common cancer in Zambia among both the female and male population. In this article we aim to determine how the key players of the sociocultural and political environment recognize cervical cancer as a public health problem and therefore impact the provision of cervical cancer prevention services (screening and vaccination). Methods: Qualitative data in the form of interviews with stakeholders (health care providers, teachers and religious leaders), special interest groups (advocacy groups and non-governmental organizations) and policy makers, was collected as part of a mixed methods study from February to May 2016. Results: The views expressed by the respondents were coded into predetermined themes (cervical cancer in general, screening, vaccination) and an organizational chart of the administration of cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia was developed. Conclusions: It is evident that the Zambian cervical cancer prevention system has targeted several areas and multiple sectors of society to reduce cervical cancer cases. However, awareness, knowledge, social support and facilities are factors that can be improved.
Using Film to Disseminate Information on Cervical Cancer Prevention in Lusaka : Results from a Small Intervention Study
Nyambe, Anayawa ; Kampen, Jarl K. ; Baboo, Stridutt K. ; Hal, Guido Van - \ 2018
Journal of Cancer Education (2018). - ISSN 0885-8195 - p. 1 - 6.
Cervical cancer - Film - Intervention - Knowledge - Zambia
In order to prevent the spread of cervical cancer, people must be aware and knowledgeable about the available preventive practices such as screening and vaccination. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that film is effective in disseminating information on cervical cancer and its prevention to women and men in Lusaka. A pilot intervention study was carried out at churches in Lusaka city from August to September 2017. A sample size of 38 women and 43 men filled in both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. A knowledge grade (range, 1–10 points) which linked causes to risk factors for cervical cancer was used to assess the knowledge of a respondent. Significant results (p < 0.01) were obtained at follow-up for watching the film and having awareness and knowledge. The main finding is that a short informational film can be an effective means of disseminating information on cervical cancer and its prevention to women and men.
Identifying ecosystem service hotspots for targeting land degradation neutrality investments in south-eastern Africa
Willemen, Louise ; Crossman, Neville D. ; Quatrini, Simone ; Egoh, Benis ; Kalaba, Felix K. ; Mbilinyi, Boniface ; Groot, Dolf de - \ 2018
Journal of Arid Environments 159 (2018). - ISSN 0140-1963 - p. 75 - 86.
Participatory mapping - South-Africa - Spatial assessment - Tanzania - UNCCD - Zambia
Land degradation response actions need motivated stakeholders and investments to improve land management. In this study we present methods to prioritise locations for degradation mitigation investments based on stakeholder preferences for ecosystem services. We combine participatory and spatial modelling approaches and apply these for Zambia, South Africa, and Tanzania to: i) prioritise ecosystem services in each country; ii) to map the supply of these ecosystem services in each country, and; iii) prioritise areas important for investment for the continuous delivery of these ecosystem services based on their vulnerability to land degradation. We interviewed 31 stakeholders from governmental and non-governmental organizations to select the most important ecosystem services per county. Stakeholders were also asked to indicate on national maps the hotspots of these ecosystem services and locations with a high degradation risk. We then assessed the supply of the stakeholder-selected ecosystem services and land degradation risk using GIS-based spatial models. We found that for each country the spatial extent and magnitude of ecosystem services supply and land degradation based on GIS data coincides with stakeholder knowledge in some locations. In the context of supporting national level policy to achieve land degradation neutrality as proposed by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification we argue that the correct representation, the level of acceptance, and use of modelled outputs to support decisions will be greater when model outputs are corroborated by stakeholder knowledge. Ecosystem services that are identified as "important" by diverse stakeholder groups have a broader level of awareness and could therefore drive motivations, commitments, and actions towards improved land management, contributing to land degradation neutrality.
The dendrochronological potential of Baikiaea plurijuga in Zambia
Ngoma, Justine ; Speer, James H. ; Vinya, Royd ; Kruijt, Bart ; Moors, Eddy ; Leemans, Rik - \ 2017
Dendrochronologia 41 (2017). - ISSN 1125-7865 - p. 65 - 77.
Africa - Baikiaea plurijuga - Dendrochronology - Dendroclimatology - Tree ring - Zambezi teak forest - Zambia
Climate has been demonstrated to change at different scales for as far back as we have been able to reconstruct it. However, anthropogenic factors have accelerated and are predicted to cause significant changes in temperature and precipitation around the globe. As a consequence, vegetation is being affected. To understand the historical behaviour of individual tree species and have insight on the potential effects of climate change, tree-ring studies have been applied. In this study, we examined a genus new to dendrochronology, namely Baikiaea plurijuga (Spreng.) Harm that dominates the Zambezi teak forests in Zambia with the objective of determining whether B. plurijuga forms annual rings and if so, whether these rings are cross-datable. We further determined the relationship between ring- width of B. plurijuga and climatic variables with the aim of understanding the potential climate change effects on the growth of these species in Zambia. We collected tree-ring samples from three Zambezi Teak forest reserves: Zambezi, Ila, and Masese located in Kabompo, Namwala, and Sesheke study sites respectively. Our examination of wood anatomical structures reviewed that the wood of B. plurijuga is diffuse porous and forms annual rings which were confirmed with samples of known age. The analysis resulted in three strong tree-ring chronologies of B. plurijuga. These chronologies were correlated with climate data from local weather stations which correlated negatively with evaporation and temperature and positively with rainfall. Our regression analysis indicated that evaporation has the highest influence on tree growth at all the study sites compared to temperature and rainfall alone. Evaporation in November and March, for example, explained almost a third of the radii's variance at the Namwala and Sesheke sites. The likely future temperature increase and rainfall decrease that are projected by IPCC for Southern Africa are likely to adversely affect B. plurijuga in Zambia.
Determinants of child nutritional status in the eastern province of Zambia : the role of improved maize varieties
Manda, Julius ; Gardebroek, Koos ; Khonje, Makaiko G. ; Alene, Arega D. ; Mutenje, Munyaradzi ; Kassie, Menale - \ 2016
Food Security 8 (2016)1. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 239 - 253.
Children’s nutritional status - Endogenous switching probit - Stunting - Zambia
Using household survey data from a sample of 810 households, this paper analyses the determinants of children’s nutritional status and evaluates the impacts of improved maize varieties on child malnutrition in eastern Zambia. The paper uses an endogenous switching regression technique, combined with propensity score matching, to assess the determinants of child malnutrition and impacts of improved maize varieties on nutritional status. The study finds that child nutrition worsens with the age of the child and improves with education of household head and female household members, number of adult females in the household, and access to better sanitation. The study also finds a robust and significant impact of improved maize varieties on child malnutrition. The empirical results indicate that adoption of improved maize varieties reduces the probability of stunting by an average of about 26 %.
Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia : An economic analysis
Drabik, Dusan ; Gorter, Harry de; Timilsina, Govinda R. - \ 2016
Food Policy 59 (2016). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 103 - 109.
Biodiesel - Biofuel policy - Biofuels - Soybean - Sub-Saharan Africa - Zambia
Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model, this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate using soybean oil. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate would reduce social welfare, mainly because of the welfare loss to fuel consumers and net reduction in foreign exchange earnings due to soybean oil imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply, as well as oil yield, soybean-based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial. The country's welfare is found to be the highest under expanded soybean production and its domestic processing but with no biodiesel mandate.
|Urban agriculture between allotment and market gardening: contribution to the sustainability of African and Asian cities
Berg, L.M. van den - \ 2002
In: The sustainable city II; urban regeneration and sustainability. Southampton (UK) etc., WIT, 2002 / Brebbia, C.A., Martin-Duque, J.F., Wadhwa, L.C., - p. 945 - 959.
Nigeria - Burkina Faso - Mali - Vietnam - stadslandbouw - tuinbouw - Afrika - Azië - Zambia - Zimbabwe