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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife, food-producing, and companion animals : a systematic review
Köck, R. ; Daniels-Haardt, I. ; Becker, K. ; Mellmann, A. ; Friedrich, A.W. ; Mevius, D. ; Schwarz, S. ; Jurke, A. - \ 2018
Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2018). - ISSN 1198-743X
Antibiotic resistance - Carbapenemase - Enterobacteriales - Epidemiology - Livestock - Zoonosis
Objectives: The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in healthcare settings challenges clinicians worldwide. However, little is known about dissemination of CRE in livestock, food, and companion animals and potential transmission to humans. Methods: We performed a systematic review of all studies published in the PubMed database between 1980 and 2017 and included those reporting the occurrence of CRE in samples from food-producing and companion animals, wildlife, and exposed humans. The primary outcome was the occurrence of CRE in samples from these animals; secondary outcomes included the prevalence of CRE, carbapenemase types, CRE genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Results: We identified 68 articles describing CRE among pigs, poultry, cattle, seafood, dogs, cats, horses, pet birds, swallows, wild boars, wild stork, gulls, and black kites in Africa, America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. The following carbapenemases have been detected (predominantly affecting the genera Escherichia and Klebsiella): VIM, KPC, NDM, OXA, and IMP. Two studies found that 33–67% of exposed humans on poultry farms carried carbapenemase-producing CRE closely related to isolates from the farm environment. Twenty-seven studies selectively screened samples for CRE and found a prevalence of <1% among livestock and companion animals in Europe, 2–26% in Africa, and 1–15% in Asia. Wildlife (gulls) in Australia and Europe carried CRE in 16–19%. Conclusions: The occurrence of CRE in livestock, seafood, wildlife, pets, and directly exposed humans poses a risk for public health. Prospective prevalence studies using molecular and cultural microbiological methods are needed to better define the scope and transmission of CRE.
Knowledge gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of hepatitis E virus infection
Poel, W.H.M. Van der; Dalton, H.R. ; Johne, R. ; Pavio, N. ; Bouwknegt, M. ; Wu, T. ; Cook, N. ; Meng, X.J. - \ 2018
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2018)S1. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 22 - 29.
Hepatitis E virus - HEV research priorities - Zoonosis
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, is a main cause of epidemic hepatitis in developing countries and sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis in industrialized countries. There are an increasing number of reported cases in humans especially in industrialized countries, and there is a high potential for transboundary spread of zoonotic genotypes of the virus through the transport of pigs, pig products and by-products. Bloodborne transmission of the virus has been reported with a significant medical concern. To better coordinate HEV research and design better control measures of HEV infections in animals, a group of HEV experts reviewed the current knowledge on the disease and considered the existing disease control tools. It was concluded that there is a lack of in-depth information about the spread of the virus from pigs to humans. The role of animals other than pigs in the zoonotic transmission of the virus to humans and the extent of foodborne transmission are poorly understood. Factors involved in development of clinical disease such as infectious dose, susceptibility and virulence of virus strains need to be studied more extensively. However, such studies are greatly hindered by the absence of a broadly applicable, efficient and sensitive in vitro cell culture system for HEV. Diagnostic tools for HEV are available but need to be further validated, harmonized and standardized. Commercially available HEV vaccines for the control of HEV infection in animal populations are needed as such vaccines can minimize the zoonotic risk for humans. Anti-HEV drugs for treatment of HEV-infected patients need to be studied more extensively. The detailed expert review can be downloaded from the project website at http://www.discontools.eu/.
Temporal and spatial analysis of psittacosis in association with poultry farming in the Netherlands, 2000-2015
Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Holstege, Manon M.C. ; Benincà, Elisa ; Dijkstra, Frederika ; Hoek, Wim van der - \ 2017
Bmc Infectious Diseases 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1471-2334
Avian chlamydiosis - Poultry - Psittacosis - Spatial analysis - Zoonosis
Background: Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands. Methods: We analysed data on 700 human cases of psittacosis notified between 01-01-2000 and 01-09-2015. First, we studied the temporal behaviour of psittacosis notifications by applying wavelet analysis. Then, to identify possible spatial patterns, we applied spatial cluster analysis. Finally, we investigated the possible spatial association between psittacosis notifications and data on the Dutch poultry sector at municipality level using a multivariable model. Results: We found a large spatial cluster that covered a highly poultry-dense area but additional clusters were found in areas that had a low poultry density. There were marked geographical differences in the awareness of psittacosis and the amount and the type of laboratory diagnostics used for psittacosis, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the correlation between the large cluster and poultry density. The multivariable model showed that the presence of chicken processing plants and slaughter duck farms in a municipality was associated with a higher rate of human psittacosis notifications. The significance of the associations was influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of farm density in the model. Conclusions: Our temporal and spatial analyses showed weak associations between poultry-related variables and psittacosis notifications. Because of the low number of psittacosis notifications available for analysis, the power of our analysis was relative low. Because of the exploratory nature of this research, the associations found cannot be interpreted as evidence for airborne transmission of psittacosis from poultry to the general population. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in Dutch poultry. Also, efforts to promote PCR-based testing for C. psittaci and genotyping for source tracing are important to reduce the diagnostic deficit, and to provide better estimates of the human psittacosis burden, and the possible role of poultry.
Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands
Burt, Sara A. ; Veltman, Jorg ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate ; Schmitt, Heike ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der - \ 2016
Food and Environmental Virology 8 (2016)3. - ISSN 1867-0334 - p. 227 - 229.
Hepatitis E - HEV - Rabbits - Zoonosis
Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.
Carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in pig farmers is associated with occurrence in pigs
Dohmen, W. ; Bonten, M.J.M. ; Bos, M.E.H. ; Marm, S. van; Scharringa, J. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Heederik, D.J.J. - \ 2015
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 21 (2015)10. - ISSN 1198-743X - p. 917 - 923.
Animal reservoirs - Animals - Antimicrobial resistance - CTX-M - Epidemiology - Escherichia coli - Zoonosis
Livestock may serve as a reservoir for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of carriage with ESBL-PE in pig farmers, family members and employees, and its association with carriage in pigs. Rectal swabs were taken from 2388 pigs (398 pooled samples) on 40 pig farms and faecal samples were obtained from 142 humans living or working on 34 of these farms. Presence of ESBL-PE was determined by selective plating (agar). ESBL genes were analysed by PCR or microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Genotypes and plasmids were determined by multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing for selected isolates. ESBL genes were detected in Escherichia coli from eight humans (6%) (blaCTX-M-1, n = 6; blaTEM-52, n = 1 and blaCTX-M-14, n = 1) on six farms. In 157 pig isolates (107 pooled samples) on 18 farms (45%) ESBL genes were detected (blaCTX-M-1, n = 12; blaTEM-52, n = 6; and blaCTX-M-14, n = 3). Human and pig isolates within the same farm harboured similar ESBL gene types and had identical sequence and plasmid types on two farms (e.g. E. coli ST-453, blaCTX-M-1, IncI1), suggesting clonal transmission. For the remaining farms, sequence types, but not plasmid types, differed. Human ESBL carriage was associated with average number of hours working on the farm per week (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) and presence of ESBLs in pigs (OR = 12.5, 95% CI 1.4-111.7). Daily exposure to pigs carrying ESBL-PE is associated with ESBL carriage in humans.
Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats : An opinionated review
Brom, R. Van den; Engelen, E. van; Roest, H.I.J. ; Hoek, W. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2015
Veterinary Microbiology 181 (2015)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 119 - 129.
Coxiella burnetii - Goat - Q fever - Sheep - Zoonosis
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.