Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==acid deposition
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Voedselkwaliteit en biodiversiteit in bossen van de hoge zandgronden
Burg, A. Van den; Dees, A. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2014
Bosschap, bedrijfschap voor bos en natuur - 128
zandgronden - ecosystemen - bosecologie - insect-plant relaties - bodem-plant relaties - bossen - fauna - zure depositie - veluwe - sandy soils - ecosystems - forest ecology - insect plant relations - soil plant relationships - forests - acid deposition
Terrestrische ecosystemen die geen invloed kennen van grondwater en bovendien een van nature matig tot slecht gebufferde bodem hebben, zijn heel erg gevoelig voor verzuring. Hierbij horen bijvoorbeeld de natuurlijke standplaatsen van Oude eikenbossen (H9190) en Beuken-Eikenbos met hulst (H9120), waarvoor het moeilijk is om beheerstrategieën te ontwerpen die de effecten van verzuring en vermesting tegengaan. Er is in dit OBN-project gewerkt aan de volgende drie onderzoeksvragen: (1) Via welk mechanisme kan de bodem-plant interactie bijgestuurd worden, zodat herstel optreedt van de voedingsbalans van planten en vervolgens ook van de daarvan afhankelijke fauna (plant-insect interactie), (2) Onder wat voor omstandigheden (bodem, depositie, evt. maatregelen in verleden) treedt een verstoorde voedingsbalans op en (3) wat zijn mogelijke praktische maatregelen.
Ammoniakdepositie op de Gelderse Natura 2000-gebieden : ontwikkeling van de ammoniakdepositie als gevolg van stal- en opslagemissies in de periode 2004 en 2009 - versie 2
Kros, J. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. ; Voogd, J.C.H. - \ 2011
wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2226) - 48
zure depositie - ammoniakemissie - stikstofverliezen - intensieve veehouderij - dierlijke meststoffen - opslag - natura 2000 - veluwe - gelderland - acid deposition - ammonia emission - nitrogen losses - intensive livestock farming - animal manures - storage
In dit rapport wordt de ontwikkeling in beeld gebracht van de netto toe- of afname van de stikstofdepositie als gevolg van de stal- en opslagemissies tussen 7 december 2004 en 1 februari 2009 op de verschillende habitattypen in de Natura 2000-gebieden in de provincie Gelderland. Voor de Veluwe is ook de ontwikkeling ten opzichte van het jaar 2000 in beeld gebracht. Daarnaast wordt inzicht geven in de verschillen in dieraantallen en stalsystemen tussen het milieuvergunningbestand van de provincie Gelderland en GIAB (Landbouwtelling) van Alterra en het effect daarvan op de ammoniakemissie en -depositie.
Dalende stikstofdepositie is nog niet afdoende voor herstel van droge heischrale graslanden
Dorland, E. ; Bobbink, R. ; Soons, M. ; Rotthier, S.L.F. - \ 2011
De Levende Natuur 112 (2011)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 220 - 224.
graslanden - zure depositie - bodemchemie - stikstof - vegetatie - biodiversiteit - heidegebieden - grasslands - acid deposition - soil chemistry - nitrogen - vegetation - biodiversity - heathlands
Droge heischrale graslanden zijn zeer gevoelig voor verzuring en vermesting als gevolg van atmosferische depositie van zwavel- en stikstofverbindingen. De stikstofdepositie neemt de laatste jaren iets af, maar tegelijk blijken stikstofaccumulatie en verzuring in de bodem van grotere betekenis te zijn dan eerst gedacht. Dit blijkt zelfs reden te zijn om de ‘critial loads’ of kritische depositiewaarden bij te stellen, zoals onlangs in Europees verband is gebeurd. De auteurs wijzen er daarbij op dat ook bij verdergaande, noodzakelijke verlaging van de stikstofdepositie aanvullende herstelmaatregelen nodig zullen zijn voor behoud of herstel van droge heischrale graslanden
Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2011
Environmental Pollution 159 (2011)10. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 2831 - 2839.
acid deposition - heavy-metals - hydraulic conductivity - contaminated soils - atmosphere models - ion-binding - speciation - ecosystems - water - acidification
Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well.
Perspectieven voor hoogveenherstel in Nederland : samenvatting onderzoek en handleiding hoogveenherstel 1998-2010
Duinen, G.J. ; Tomassen, H. ; Limpens, J. ; Smolders, F. ; Schaaf, S. van der; Verberk, W. ; Groenendijk, D. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Roelofs, J. - \ 2011
Nijmegen [etc.] : Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Onderzoekcentrum B-WARE [etc.] (Rapport / DKI nr. 2011/OBN150-NZ) - 76
hoogveengebieden - hydrologie - ecologie - ecologisch herstel - zure depositie - stikstof - natura 2000 - moorlands - hydrology - ecology - ecological restoration - acid deposition - nitrogen
Het hoogveenareaal in Nederland is door ontginning, turfwinning, boekweitbrandcultuur en verdroging sterk gereduceerd. De water- en nutriëntenhuishouding van de hoogvenen zijn sterk verstoord door deze aantastingen en bovendien door de neerslag van atmosferisch stikstof (N). Verder is door deze aantastingen de variatie in terreincondities die aanwezig is in intacte hoogveenlandschappen, met name gradiënten van de zure, mineraalarme hoogveenkern naar de gebufferde, mineraalrijkere omgeving, afgenomen. Herstelmaatregelen in de hoogveenrestanten hadden wisselend succes: soms herstelden of ontwikkelden zich vegetaties met bultvormende veenmossen, meestal ontstond een drijvende laag Waterveenmos (Sphagnum cuspidatum) of een zure waterplas. Verder bleef Pijpenstrootje (Molinia caerulea) over grote oppervlakten de vegetatie domineren en vestigden zich Berken (Betula spec.). In het kader van het kennisnetwerk ‘Ontwikkeling en Beheer Natuurkwaliteit’ (OBN) is onderzoek gedaan naar de perspectieven voor hoogveenherstel in Nederland. Twee vragen stonden daarbij centraal: 1. Is hoogveenherstel mogelijk bij de huidige hoge atmosferische N-depositie? 2. Onder welke voorwaarden is succesvol herstel van de karakteristieke flora en fauna mogelijk? De belangrijkste conclusies uit dit onderzoek worden in dit rapport beschreven.
Modelling the impact of nitrogen deposition, climate change and nutrient limitations on tree carbon sequestration in Europe for the period 1900–2050
Vries, W. de; Posch, M. - \ 2011
Environmental Pollution 159 (2011)10. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 2289 - 2299.
forest ecosystems - elevated co2 - terrestrial ecosystems - primary productivity - tropospheric ozone - temperate forests - projected changes - acid deposition - boreal forests - douglas-fir
We modelled the combined effects of past and expected future changes in climate and nitrogen deposition on tree carbon sequestration by European forests for the period 1900–2050. Two scenarios for deposition (current legislation and maximum technically feasible reductions) and two climate scenarios (no change and SRES A1 scenario) were used. Furthermore, the possible limitation of forest growth by calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus is investigated. The area and age structure of the forests was assumed to stay constant to observations during the period 1970–1990. Under these assumptions, the simulations show that the change in forest growth and carbon sequestration in the past is dominated by changes in nitrogen deposition, while climate change is the major driver for future carbon sequestration. However, its impact is reduced by nitrogen availability. Furthermore, limitations in base cations, especially magnesium, and in phosphorus may significantly affect predicted growth in the future. A modelling exercise indicates that nitrogen deposition mainly enhanced tree carbon sequestration in Europe in the past, while climate change will do so in the future
Stikstofdepositie in de provincie Utrecht : onderzoek in de Natura 2000-gebieden en beschermde natuurmonumenten
Kros, J. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Klimkowska, A. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Voogd, J.C.H. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2003) - 62
natuurgebieden - natura 2000 - zure depositie - ammoniakemissie - inventarisaties - utrecht - natural areas - acid deposition - ammonia emission - inventories
Voor veel van de Utrechtse natuurbeschermingswetgebieden is stikstofdepositie een punt van aandacht. Een te hoge stikstofdepositie op de natuurlijke ecosystemen kan leiden tot een verstoring en verslechtering van de biodiversiteit van deze ecosystemen. In veel Natura 2000-gebieden is de stikstofdepositie zo hoog dat daarmee niet wordt voldaan aan de instandhoudingsdoelstellingen voor deze gebieden. Extra beschermde maatregelen zijn noodzakelijk. Om inzicht te krijgen in deze problematiek geeft dit rapport per gebied de totale, actuele stikstofdepositie, uitgesplitst naar verschillende bronnen (landbouw, overige bronnen, buitenland, enz.), de actuele gebiedseigen stikstofdepositie (binnen 10 km zone) als gevolg van de landbouw uitgesplitst naar sector en stallen en mestopslag, aanwendingen beweiding in zones van 0-3 km, 3-5 km en 5-10 km per Natura 2000-gebied en inzicht in omvang (emissie en depositie) en aantal bedrijven in de zone 1-3 km. Daarnaast geeft het onderzoek inzicht in de knelpunten en de urgentie van maatregelen met betrekking tot stikstofdepositie voor drie beschermingsgebieden
Impacts of sampling design and estimation methods on nutrient leaching of intensively monitored forest plots in the Netherlands
Vries, W. de; Wieggers, H.J.J. ; Brus, D.J. - \ 2010
Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12 (2010). - ISSN 1464-0325 - p. 1515 - 1523.
european forests - regional assessment - acid deposition - output fluxes - ecosystems - nitrate - aluminum - soils - stand
Element fluxes through forest ecosystems are generally based on measurements of concentrations in soil solution at regular time intervals at plot locations sampled in a regular grid. Here we present spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes in three Dutch forest monitoring plots using a new sampling strategy in which both sampling locations and sampling times are selected by probability sampling. Locations were selected by stratified random sampling with compact geographical blocks of equal surface area as strata. In each sampling round, six composite soil solution samples were collected, consisting of five aliquots, one per stratum. The plot-mean concentration was estimated by linear regression, so that the bias due to one or more strata being not represented in the composite samples is eliminated. The sampling times were selected in such a way that the cumulative precipitation surplus of the time interval between two consecutive sampling times was constant, using an estimated precipitation surplus averaged over the past 30 years. The spatially averaged annual leaching flux was estimated by using the modeled daily water flux as an ancillary variable. An important advantage of the new method is that the uncertainty in the estimated annual leaching fluxes due to spatial and temporal variation and resulting sampling errors can be quantified. Results of this new method were compared with the reference approach in which daily leaching fluxes were calculated by multiplying daily interpolated element concentrations with daily water fluxes and then aggregated to a year. Results show that the annual fluxes calculated with the reference method for the period 2003–2005, including all plots, elements and depths, lies only in 53% of the cases within the range of the average ±2 times the standard error of the new method. Despite the differences in results, both methods indicate comparable N retention and strong Al mobilization in all plots, with Al leaching being nearly equal to the leaching of SO4 and NO3 with fluxes expressed in molc ha-1 yr-1. This illustrates that Al release, which is the clearest signal of soil acidification, is mainly due to the external input of SO4 and NO3.
Uncertainties in critical loads and target loads of sulphur and nitrogen for European forests: Analysis and quantification
Reinds, G.J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2010
Science of the Total Environment 408 (2010)8. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1960 - 1970.
soil acidification model - quantifying uncertainty - terrestrial ecosystems - atmospheric deposition - bayesian calibration - acid deposition - aluminum - sensitivity - solubility - horizons
An analysis of the uncertainties in critical loads and target loads of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) for 182 European forest soils was carried out using the Very Simple Dynamic (VSD) model. The VSD model was calibrated with a Bayesian approach using prior probability functions for model parameters based on literature data, data from 200 Dutch forest sites and from simulated denitrification rates from a detailed ecosystem model. The calibration strongly improved the fit of the model to observed soil and soil solution concentrations, especially for pH and base saturation. Calibration also narrowed down the ranges in input parameters. The uncertainty analysis showed which parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in the critical loads and target loads. Base cation weathering and deposition and the parameters describing the H–Al equilibrium in the soil solution determine the uncertainty in the maximum critical loads for S, CLmax(S), when based on the aluminium to base cation (Al/Bc) criterion. Uncertainty in CLmax(S) based on an acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) criterion is completely determined by base cation inputs alone. The denitrification fraction is the most important source of uncertainty for the maximum critical loads of N, CLmax(N). N uptake and N immobilisation determine the uncertainties in the critical load for N as a nutrient, CLnut(N). Calibration of VSD reduced the uncertainty: the coefficient of variation (CV) was reduced for all critical loads and criteria. After calibration, the CV for CLmax(S) was below 0.4 for almost all plots; however for CLmax(N) high values occurred for plots with high denitrification rates. Model calibration also improved the robustness of target load estimates: after calibration, no target loads were needed in any of the simulations for 40% of the plots, with the uncalibrated model there was a positive probability for the need of a target load for almost all plots
Use of dynamic soil–vegetation models to assess impacts of nitrogen deposition on plant species composition: an overview
Vries, W. de; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Kros, J. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Smart, S.M. ; Evans, D.R. ; Rowe, E. ; Belyazid, S. ; Sverdrup, H. ; Hinsberg, A. van; Posch, M. ; Hettelingh, J.P. ; Spranger, T. ; Bobbink, R. - \ 2010
Ecological Applications 20 (2010)1. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 60 - 79.
bodemchemie - emissie - stikstof - modellen - bodem-plant relaties - soil chemistry - emission - nitrogen - models - soil plant relationships - ellenberg indicator values - need phytosociological classes - field-measurements - acid deposition - critical loads - netherlands - resilience - prediction - regression - reduction
Field observations and experimental data of effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on plant species diversity have been used to derive empirical critical N loads for various ecosystems. The great advantage of such an approach is the inclusion of field evidence, but there are also restrictions, such as the absence of explicit criteria regarding significant effects on the vegetation, and the impossibility to predict future impacts when N deposition changes. Model approaches can account for this. In this paper, we review the possibilities of static and dynamic multispecies models in combination with dynamic soil–vegetation models to (1) predict plant species composition as a function of atmospheric N deposition and (2) calculate critical N loads in relation to a prescribed protection level of the species composition. The similarities between the models are presented, but also several important differences, including the use of different indicators for N and acidity and the prediction of individual plant species vs. plant communities. A summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the various models, including their validation status, is given. Furthermore, examples are given of critical load calculations with the model chains and their comparison with empirical critical N loads. We show that linked biogeochemistry–biodiversity models for N have potential for applications to support European policy to reduce N input, but the definition of damage thresholds for terrestrial biodiversity represents a major challenge. There is also a clear need for further testing and validation of the models against long-term monitoring or long-term experimental data sets and against large-scale survey data. This requires a focused data collection in Europe, combing vegetation descriptions with variables affecting the species diversity, such as soil acidity, nutrient status and water availability. Finally, there is a need for adaptation and upscaling of the models beyond the regions for which dose–response relationships have been parameterized, to make them generally applicable
Analyses of the impact of changes in atmospheric deposition and climate on forest growth in European monitoring plots: A stand growth approach
Solberg, S. ; Dobbertin, M. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Andreassen, K. ; Lange, H. ; Garcia Fernandez, P. ; Hildingsson, A. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2009
Forest Ecology and Management 258 (2009)8. - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 1735 - 1750.
nitrogen deposition - acid deposition - picea-abies - tree growth - carbon sequestration - soil acidification - density index - norway - spruce - responses
During the last 15 years a number of studies have shown increasing forest growth in central Europe, rather than a decline as was expected due to negative effects of air pollution. We have here used data from intensive monitoring plots spread over Europe for a five year period in order to examine the influence of environmental factors on forest growth. Evaluations focussed on the influence of nitrogen, sulphur and acid deposition, temperatures, precipitation and on a drought index calculated as deviation from the long-term mean. The study included the main tree species Norway spruce, Scots pine, common beech as well as European and sessile oak and was based on data from 363 plots. As many other factors besides nitrogen and temperature influence tree growth, expected stem volume increments were modelled using site productivity, stand age and a stand density index. Relative volume increment was then calculated as actual increment in % of expected increment. The site productivity, assumed to be given by site conditions and past environmental conditions, was either taken from expert estimates or computed from site index curves from northern, central and southern Europe. The model explained between 18% and 39% of the variance with site productivity being positively related and age negatively related to actual increment. The various models and statistical approaches were fairly consistent, and indicated a fertilizing effect of nitrogen deposition, with slightly above one percent increase in volume increment per kg of nitrogen deposition per ha and year. This was most clear for spruce and pine, and most pronounced for plots having soil C/N ratios above 25. Also, we found a positive relationship between relative increment and summer temperature, i.e. May–August mean temperature deviation from the 1961–1990 means. The cause–effect relationship here is, however, less certain. Other influences were uncertain. Possibly, sulphur and acid deposition have effects on growth, but these effects are obscured by, and outweighed by the positive effect of nitrogen deposition, because of collinearity between these variables. Drought effects were uncertain also, and one reason for this might be large uncertainties in the precipitation data: precipitation measured on some 50% of the plots correlated poorly with the precipitation data obtained from Europe-wide databases. The major finding of this study was a positive relationship between higher than normal volume increment on one hand and nitrogen deposition on the other hand.
A very simple dynamic soil acidification model for scenario analyses and target load calculations
Posch, M. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 2009
Environmental Modelling & Software 24 (2009)3. - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 329 - 340.
acid deposition - bayesian calibration - reduction agreements - europe - chemistry - waters
A very simple dynamic soil acidification model, VSD, is described, which has been developed as the simplest extension of steady-state models for critical load calculations and with an eye on regional applications. The model requires only a minimum set of inputs (compared to more detailed models) and execution time is minimised by reducing the set of model equations to a single non-linear equation. To facilitate the exploration of model behaviour at individual sites, the model is linked to a graphical user interface (GUI). This GUI allows easy (Bayesian) calibration, forward simulation (scenario analyses) and can also be used to compute target loads and delay times between deposition reductions and ecosystem recovery. VSD compares well to other widely used more complex models and is currently used in several European countries in the support of effects-based emission reduction policies.
Predicting dissolved inorganic nitrogen leaching in European forests using two independent databases
Dise, N.B. ; Rothwell, J.J. ; Gauci, V. ; Salm, C. van der; Vries, W. de - \ 2009
Science of the Total Environment 407 (2009)5. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1798 - 1808.
regional assessment - temperate forest - acid deposition - output fluxes - new-hampshire - c/n ratios - ecosystems - nitrate - saturation - dynamics
Regional-scale databases can be particularly useful for identifying relationships between dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) leaching in forests and environmental drivers, which in turn allow an assessment of the risk of ecosystem damage, such as forest acidification and eutrophication of downstream water bodies. However, detecting the ‘signal’ of a significant correlate to N leaching against a background of wide variability in other factors requires a large number of sites, and the validation of models developed requires a similarly large number of independent sites. Here we use two large and fully independent databases of forest ecosystems across Europe to develop and validate indicators of N saturation and leaching. One database was used for model development and the other for validating these models. Among 35 variables considered, the most significant indicators of N leaching in the model development database were: the flux of dissolved inorganic N in deposition, mean annual temperature, mean altitude, the site drainage (plot vs catchment), needle- and litter-N concentration, organic horizon C:N ratio, and subsoil pH. Altitude was not a consistent predictor (it was significant in the development database but not in the validation database), and needle and litter N concentration, plot vs catchment, and subsoil pH all showed high intercorrelation with N deposition and so were not significant in models already including N deposition. The most consistent and useful indicators of N leaching were throughfall N deposition, organic horizon C:N ratio and mean annual temperature. Sites receiving low levels of N deposition (<8 kg N ha- 1 y- 1) showed very low output fluxes of N and were simulated separately from more polluted forests. In general, the models successfully predicted N leaching (mean of ± 5 kg N ha- 1 y- 1 between observed and predicted) from forests at early to intermediate stages of nitrogen saturation but not from nitrogen-saturated sites. Thus, simple relationships developed from combining (1) external drivers (deposition, temperature) and (2) site conditions (nitrogen status of soils) can successfully estimate nitrogen leaching from forests that have not yet been highly damaged by N deposition.
Bayesian calibration of the VSD soil acidification model using European forest monitoring data
Reinds, G.J. ; Oijen, M. van; Heuvelink, G.B.M. ; Kros, J. - \ 2008
Geoderma 146 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 475 - 488.
acid deposition - critical loads - atmospheric deposition - chemistry - ecosystems - reduction - water
Over the past years, Bayesian calibration methods have been successfully applied to calibrate ecosystem models. Bayesian methods combine prior probability distributions of model parameters, based on assumptions about their magnitude and uncertainty, with estimates of the likelihood of the simulation results by comparison with observed values. Bayesian methods also quantify the uncertainty in the updated posterior parameters, which can be used to perform an analysis of model output uncertainty. In this paper, we applied Bayesian techniques to calibrate the VSD soil acidification model using data from 182 intensively monitored forest sites in Europe. Out of these 182 plots, 122 plots were used to calibrate VSD and the remaining 60 plots to validate the calibrated model. Prior distributions for the model parameters were based on available literature. Since the available literature shows a strong dependence of some VSD parameters on, for example, soil texture, prior distributions were allowed to depend on soil group (i.e. soils with similar texture or C/N ratio). The likelihood was computed by comparing modelled soil solution concentrations with observed concentrations for the period 1996¿2001. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) was used to sample the posterior parameter space. Two calibration approaches were applied. In the single-site calibration, the plots were calibrated separately to obtain plot-specific posterior distributions. In the multi-site approach priors were assumed constant in space for each soil group, and all plots were calibrated simultaneously yielding one posterior probability distribution for each soil group. Results from the single-site calibrations show that the model performed much better after calibration compared to a run with standard input parameters when validated on the 60 validation plots. Posterior distributions for H-Al equilibrium constants narrowed down, thus decreasing parameter uncertainty. For base cation weathering of coarse textured soils the posterior distribution shifted to larger values, indicating an initial underestimation of the weathering rate for these soils. Results for the parameters related to nitrogen modelling showed that the nitrogen processes model formulations in VSD may have to be reconsidered as the relationship between nitrogen immobilization and the C/N ratio of the soil, as assumed in VSD, was not substantiated by the validation. The multi-site calibration also strongly decreased model error for most model output parameters, but model error was somewhat larger than the median model error from the single-site calibration except for nitrate. Because the large number of plots calibrated at the same time provided very many observations, the Markov Chain converged to a very narrow parameter space, leaving little room for posterior parameter uncertainty. For an uncertainty analysis with VSD on the European scale, this study provides promising results, but more work is needed to investigate how the results can be used on a European scale by looking at regional patterns in calibrated parameters from the site calibration or by calibrating for regions instead of all of Europe.
Verzuring: oorzaken, effecten, kritische belastingen en monitoring van de gevolgen van ingezet beleid
Vries, W. de - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1699) - 88
bodemchemie - verzuring - zure depositie - zure regen - monitoring - nadelige gevolgen - effecten - nederland - bodem-plant relaties - soil chemistry - acidification - acid deposition - acid rain - adverse effects - effects - netherlands - soil plant relationships
Het milieuthema ‘verzuring’ heeft zich sinds de negentiger echter ontwikkeld van een ‘single issue’, zure regen, naar het integraal aanpakken van grootschalige luchtverontreiniging. Dit rapport geeft antwoord op een tiental relevante vragen over dit onderwerp, te weten: 1 Wat wordt precies verstaan onder verzuring en wat zijn de oorzaken daarvan? 2 Wat is de bijdrage van zure depositie aan de verzuring van de bodem? 3 Wat zijn de effecten van verzuring 4 Wat zijn de monitoring systemen waarmee de uitstoot, depositie en effecten van verzuring in beeld worden gebracht 5 Wat zijn de trends in de emissie en depositie van verzurende stoffen 6 Wat zijn de trends in de effecten van verzuring op de abiotische kwaliteit: bodem, bodemvocht en grondwater 7 Wat zijn de trends in de effecten van verzuring op de ecologische kwaliteit: 8 Wat zijn kritische depositieniveaus voor verzurende stoffen en hun overschrijding? 9 Wat zijn de beleidsdoelen voor verzuring en de beleidsinstrumenten waarmee de verzuring wordt aangepakt 10 Hoe haalbaar en noodzakelijk zijn de lange termijn depositiedoelstellingen
Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification in life-cycle assessment based on forest plant species occurrence in Europe
Zelm, R. van; Huijbregts, M.J.A. ; Jaarsveld, H.A. van; Reinds, G.J. ; Zwart, D. de; Struijs, J. ; Meent, D. van de - \ 2007
Environmental Science and Technology 41 (2007)3. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 922 - 927.
terrestrial ecosystems - impact assessment - acid deposition - pollutants - soil - transport
This paper describes a new approach in life-cycle impact assessment to derive characterization factors for acidification in European forests. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification were calculated, whereas before only steady-state factors were available. The characterization factors indicate the change in the potential occurrence of plant species due to a change in emission, and they consist of a fate and an effect factor. The fate factor combines the results of an atmospheric deposition model and a dynamic soil acidification model. The change in base saturation in soil due to an atmospheric emission change was derived for 20, 50, 100, and 500 year time horizons. The effect factor was based on a dose-response curve of the potential occurrence of plant species, derived from multiple regression equations per plant species. The results showed that characterization factors for acidification increase up to a factor of 13 from a 20 years to a 500 years time horizon. Characterization factors for ammonia are 4.0-4.3 times greater than those for nitrogen oxides (NOx), and characterization factors for sulfur dioxide are 1.4-2.0 times greater than those for NOx. Aggregation of damage due to acidification with other impact categories on the European scale becomes feasible with the applied approach.
Quantification of nitrate leaching from forest soils at a national scale in the Netherlands
Kros, J. ; Tietema, A. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2004
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8 (2004)4. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 813 - 822.
nitrogen deposition - acid deposition - european forests - acidification - ecosystems - throughfall - fluxes - models - nitrex - impact
To evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) emission policies, reliable information on nitrate concentrations and leaching fluxes from forest ecosystems is necessary. Insight into the regional variability of nitrate concentrations to support local policy on emission abatement strategies us desirable. In this paper, three methods is especially ods for the calculation of a spatial distribution of soil nitrate concentrations in Dutch forest ecosystems are compared. These are (i) a regression model based on observed nitrate concentrations and additional data on explanatory variables such as soil type, tree species and nitrogen deposition (ii) a semi-empirical dynamic model W-ANDA and (iii) a process-oriented dynamic model SMART2. These two dynamic models are frequently used to evaluate the effects of reductions in nitrogen deposition at scales ranging from regional to countrywide. The results of the regression model evaluated the performance of the two dynamic models. Furthermore, the results of the three methods are compared with the steady-state approach currently used for the derivation of nitrogen critical loads. Both dynamic models, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, give similar results on a national scale. Regional variability is predicted differently by both models. Discrepancies are caused mainly by a difference in handling forest filtering and denitrification. All three methods show that, despite the high nitrogen inputs, Dutch forests still accumulate more N than they release. This implies that, in respect of groundwater quality, presently acceptable nitrogen deposition is higher than the (long-term) critical loads. However, in areas with high atmospheric nitrogen input, all three methods indicate that the EU standard for nitrate in groundwater (50 mg NO3 1(-1)) is exceeded. Steady-state with nitrogen deposition seems to have been reached in about 10% of the forested area, with a nitrate concentration greater than 50 mg NO, 1-1.
Effectgerichte maatregelen tegen verdroging, verzuring en stikstofdepositie in beekdalen (Gelderse Vallei)
Delft, S.P.J. van; Jansen, P.C. ; Kemmers, R.H. - \ 2004
Ede : Expertisecentrum LNV (Rapport / EC-LNV nr. 2004/283-O) - 32
ecologisch herstel - hydrologie - verzuring - verdroging - zure depositie - beekdalen - grondwaterstand - ecohydrologie - gelderland - gelderse vallei - ecological restoration - hydrology - acidification - desiccation - acid deposition - brook valleys - groundwater level - ecohydrology
Voor natte ecosystemen is een aantal referentiegebieden geselecteerd met als doel om hier herstelmaatregelen in praktijksituaties te kunnen toetsen. Het voorliggende rapport bevat de resultaten van het onderzoek door Alterra in de natteschraalgraslanden van het natuurterrein Groot Zandbrink. In 1991 is de uitgangssituatie vastgelegd en zijn effectgerichte maatregelen uitgevoerd. Sindsdien werden de ontwikkelingen in vegetatie, bodem en grondwater gevolgd en jaarlijksgerapporteerd. Na 2 en 5 en 9 jaar zijn rapporten verschenen met een evaluatie van de maatregelen. Dit rapport markeert het einde van de 4e onderzoekstranche en kan tevens als een eindrapport worden beschouwd (in het kader van obn). Het bevat naast de resultaten van hetonderzoek ook de consequenties voor de praktijk van het terreinbeheer
Effectgerichte maatregelen tegen verdroging, verzuring en stikstofdepositie op trilvenen (Noord-Hollland, Utrecht en Noordwest- Overijsssel)
Barendregt, A. ; Beltman, B. ; Schouwenberg, E.P.A.G. ; Wirdum, G. van - \ 2004
Ede : Expertisecentrum LNV (Rapport / EC-LNV nr. 2004/281-O) - 65
herstel - hydrologie - verzuring - verdroging - zure depositie - moerassen - veengronden - nederland - ecohydrologie - noord-holland - utrecht - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel - rehabilitation - hydrology - acidification - desiccation - acid deposition - marshes - peat soils - netherlands - ecohydrology
De centrale probleemstelling van het obn onderzoek is of het mogelijk is met lokale maatregelen de natuur, zich manifesterend in soortensamenstelling, soortenrijkdom en bedekking van plantengemeenschappen te herstellen in laagvenen?
Effectgerichte maatregelen tegen verdroging, verzuring en stikstofdepositie in beekdalen (Gelderse Achterhoek)
Hoek, D. van der; Walsem, J.D. van - \ 2004
Ede : Expertisecentrum LNV (Rapport / EC-LNV nr. 2004/282-O) - 59
bodemchemie - herstel - hydrologie - verzuring - verdroging - zure depositie - nederland - ecohydrologie - beekdalen - achterhoek - gelderland - soil chemistry - rehabilitation - hydrology - acidification - desiccation - acid deposition - netherlands - ecohydrology - brook valleys
Dit eindrapport in het kader van obn bevat de ontwikkelingen in water, bodem en vegetatie gedurende 1991-2002 als gevolg van de genomen maatregelen. Het rapport bevat naast de resultaten van het onderzoek ook de consequenties voor de praktijk van het terreinbeheer
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