Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Voortgang realisatie nationaal natuurbeleid : technische achtergronden van een aantal indicatoren uit de digitale Balans van de Leefomgeving 2016
Sanders, M.E. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Wegman, R.M.A. ; Clement, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 79) - 74
ecologische hoofdstructuur - ecologie - ecosystemen - verdroging (milieu) - verzuring - depositie - natuurbeleid - ecological network - ecology - ecosystems - groundwater depletion - acidification - deposition - nature conservation policy
The Dutch government is, together with its partners, taking measures to create a coherent network ofprotected nature areas and to improve environmental conditions. This in order to halt the decline in the areaof natural habitat and biodiversity and to improve their conservation status. The Government wants to stayinformed on the progress of this policy. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) has selectedindicators that should provide answers to the question: ‘What is the progress of the policy measures taken,especially for realising the nature network, improving the nature quality and the environmental conditions aswell?’ The selected indicators have been updated and analysed in order to assess this progress. This reportdescribes the results of the policy measures taken on the basis of the indicators, the technical setting of thedata and methods used to bring these indicators up to date and the reliability and acceptability of it
Terug naar de basis
Willems, Arno ; Schreppers, Harrie ; Jans, Rino ; Klingen, Simon ; Ouden, J. den; Schoonderwoerd, Henny ; Wijdeven, Sander ; Staak, Erik van der - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 13 (2016)127. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 40 - 41.
bosbeheer - houtachtige planten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosgronden - bodemuitputting - bosecologie - voedingsstoffenbalans - verzuring - bodemverdichting - mechanisatie - forest administration - woody plants - sustainability - forest soils - soil exhaustion - forest ecology - nutrient balance - acidification - soil compaction - mechanization
Als bosbeheerders gaan we er prat op dat we het begrip duurzaamheid hebben uitgevonden. Dat is inderdaad iets om trots op te zijn en bewijst dat we als sector gewend zijn ver vooruit te kijken en te denken. Het is echter de vraag of we onze bossen nog wel volgens de principes van duurzaamheid beheren. Met name over de mogelijke uitputting van de bodem en de invloed van de exploitatie op de bodem bestaan veel vragen waarvan de antwoorden niet voor het oprapen liggen. Op 17 mei 2016 ging de Studiekring van de KNBV terug naar de basis: de bosbodem.
Arme bossen verdienen beter : OBN Deskundigenteam Droog zandlandschap
Burg, A. Van den; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Bobbink, R. - \ 2015
VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 24 p.
bossen - bosbeheer - zandgronden - zure regen - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - biodiversiteit - verzuring - voedingsstoffenbalans - verstoorde bossen - bosecologie - forests - forest administration - sandy soils - acid rain - nutrient availability - biodiversity - acidification - nutrient balance - disturbed forests - forest ecology
Bossen van het droog zandlandschap van Noordwest- Europa staan bekend als ‘arme bossen’. Het landschap waarin ze voorkomen was tot in de 20ste eeuw overwegend een heidelandschap. Op de voedselarme heide- en stuifzandbodems zijn vanaf 1900 vooral naaldbossen geplant. Inmiddels zijn in deze voormalige plantages volop kenmerken aanwezig van oudere, meer natuurlijke bossen, zoals dikke levende en dode bomen, natuurlijke verjonging van inheemse loofbomen en een gevarieerd lichtklimaat. Veel soorten hebben sterk geprofiteerd van deze natuurlijke ontwikkeling die nog steeds doorzet. In de loop van 20ste eeuw zijn echter eerst zwaveldepositie (‘zure regen’) en later ook stikstofdepositie een grote negatieve invloed gaan uitoefenen op het landschap. Dit raakt niet alleen de biodiversiteit, maar ook de hout- en biomassaproductie en daarmee de duurzaamheid van het bosgebruik. We hebben directe gevolgen vastgesteld voor soorten en nutriëntenvoorraden in de bodem en indirecte effecten op concurrentieverhoudingen en voedselketens. Er zijn echter ook onzekerheden en belangrijke kennisleemten waar het gaat om de precieze mechanismen, het experimenteel vastleggen van oorzaak-gevolg relaties en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen. De achtergronden van deze problematiek in droge bossen staan centraal in deze brochure.
Eikensterfte: een serieus en complex probleem
Oosterbaan, A. ; Bobbink, R. ; Decuyper, M. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap (2015)113. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 10 - 14.
quercus - bodem-plant relaties - bodemchemie - verzuring - droogte - bomen - groeiplaatsen - soil plant relationships - soil chemistry - acidification - drought - trees - sites
Steeds meer beheerders zien met lede ogen aan hoe de eiken in hun bossen langzaam maar zeker afsterven. Over de precieze oorzaak is nog niet zo heel veel bekend. Wel maakt onderzoek duidelijk dat er meerdere oorzaken zijn die elkaar lijken te versterken. Droogte en aantasting door insecten zijn zeker een deel van het probleem, maar ook de snelle uitspoeling van basische kationen zijn waarschijnlijk een heel belangrijke factor
How to assess species richness along single environmental gradients? Implications of potential versus realized species distributions
Goethem, T.M.W.J. van; Huijbregts, M.A.J. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Schipper, A.M. - \ 2015
Environmental Pollution 200 (2015). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 120 - 125.
sensitivity distributions - field data - plant - diversity - abundance - macroinvertebrates - acidification - consequences - biodiversity - assemblages
Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches.
Restoration of acidified and eutrophied rich fens: Long-term effects of traditional management and experimental liming
Diggelen, J. van; Bense, I.H.M. ; Brouwer, E. ; Limpens, J. ; Schie, J.M. van; Smolders, A.J.P. ; Lamers, L.P.M. - \ 2015
Ecological Engineering 75 (2015). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 208 - 216.
laagveengebieden - eutrofiëring - verzuring - ecologisch herstel - bekalking - fens - eutrophication - acidification - ecological restoration - liming - vegetation development - nutrient availability - nitrogen deposition - surface-water - groundwater - phosphorus - level - limitation - wetlands
Rich fens are known for their high botanical diversity encompassing many endangered species. For decades, several management measures, including mowing and burning, have been applied to maintain a high biodiversity by means of slowing down the natural succession from calcareous rich fens to acidic poor fens or woodland. In this study, we assessed the long-term effects of these traditional management measures, and explored the effectiveness of liming as a measure to restore rich fen vegetation. Effects of summer mowing, and of burning after winter mowing, were assessed by comparing current (2013) and historical (1967) vegetation data. Effects of experimental liming, using different levels of lime addition (0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 kg Dolokal/ha), were monitored in the field during 7.5 years. Summer mowing led to more acidic and nutrient-poor conditions as indicated by a shift from rich to poor fen vegetation, including a well-developed bryophyte cover dominated by Sphagnum with some threatened species. Burning (after winter mowing) counteracted acidification but increased nutrient availability, as indicated by dominance of vascular species characteristic of productive tall-herb grasslands and a sparse bryophyte cover with common species. We conclude that the traditional measures were unable to maintain rich fen composition in the long term. Given the fact that the restoration of hydrological conditions, favouring rich fens, is not always feasible, liming could be an alternative to counteract acidification and improve rich fen conditions in the short term. This measure, however, appeared to be unsustainable as the re-establishment and dominance of Sphagnum spp. seriously complicated the development of rich fen vegetation in the longer term.
Onderzoek naar de relatie van eikensterfte met droogte en bodemchemie
Oosterbaan, A. ; Bobbink, R. ; Decuyper, M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2575) - 29
quercus - bodem-plant relaties - bodemchemie - verzuring - droogte - bomen - groeiplaatsen - soil plant relationships - soil chemistry - acidification - drought - trees - sites
In verband met verhevigde eikensterfte is onderzocht of er verband is tussen de eikensterfte en droogte en/of bodemchemie. Hiervoor is op tien locaties in een opstand met veel sterfte en een opstand met weinig sterfte de jaarringbreedte van de laatste 50 jaar vergeleken met weersgegevens van de dichtstbijzijnde weerstations, de hoeveelheid fijne wortels op 0-25 cm en 25-50 cm diepte bepaald en aan de hand van grondmonsters de bodemchemie gekarakteriseerd. Uit dit onderzoek is gebleken dat er een duidelijk verband is tussen de van tijd tot tijd optredende sterke groeivermindering van eiken en droogteperioden. Niet alle sterke groeiverminderingen zijn hiermee te verklaren. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat het aantal vorstdagen in de lente ook een rol speelt. In opstanden met veel sterfte zitten gemiddeld bovenin het bodemprofiel meer wortels en onderin minder dan in opstanden met weinig sterfte. In opstanden met veel sterfte heeft de bodem in de meeste gevallen lagere gehaltes aan uitwisselbaar Ca en/of K en/of Mg (dus een lagere buffercapaciteit). Het gehele proces van primaire oorzaken en secundaire factoren, die verantwoordelijk zijn voor de sterfte, is nog niet helder. Hiervoor is een breder en fundamenteler onderzoek noodzakelijk. Voor het beheer van eikenbossen worden voorlopige adviezen gegeven.
Expansion of acidophytic late-successional bryophytes in Dutch fens between 1940 and 2000
Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. ; During, H.J. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Verhoeven, J.T.A. - \ 2014
Journal of Vegetation Science 25 (2014)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 525 - 533.
nitrogen deposition - co westmeath - scragh-bog - vegetation - mire - acidification - netherlands - ammonium - water - metaanalyses
Question How did frequency and local abundance of key bryophytes in Dutch fens change between 1940 and 2000? Location The Netherlands. Methods A total of 1939 vegetation relevés, objectively assigned to the class Parvocaricetea and dating from the period 1940–1999 inclusive, were extracted from a national Netherlands database. From this relevé set, two additional data sets were derived; these were syntaxonomically homogeneous at the association level. One contained 418 Scorpidio-Caricetum diandrae relevés and the other 956 Pallavicinio-Sphagnetum relevés. The following analyses were done for these three data sets: frequency and local abundance change of 13 bryophyte species over three 20-yr periods were described using logistic regression and the nonparametric Jonckheere–Terpstra test, respectively. Results Acidophytic, late-successional species, notably Sphagnum palustre and Polytrichum uliginosum, have replaced relatively early-successional species such as brown mosses, Sphagnum subnitens and Sphagnum squarrosum during the studied period. The results were mostly consistent across the three data sets. Local abundance patterns generally paralleled those of frequency, although cover trends were often less robust. Conclusions Drastic changes have taken place in the bryophyte layer of Dutch fens between 1940 and 2000. Our study has shown that acidophytic, late-successional bryophytes have replaced relatively early-successional brown moss and Sphagnum species. Both hydrological changes and nutrient shifts (in particular phosphorus enrichment and ammonium toxicity) appear to have been responsible for the observed rapid shifts in the bryophyte layer of Dutch fens.
Soil pH and earthworms affect herbage nitrogen recovery from solid cattle manure in production grassland
Rashid, M.I. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Corral Nunez, G.A. ; Brussaard, L. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2014
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 68 (2014). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 1 - 8.
carbon-dioxide - decomposition - mineralization - acidification - population - mesocosms - emissions - litter - slurry - oxide
Long term use of inorganic fertilisers and reduced organic matter inputs have contributed to acidification of agricultural soils. This strongly affects the soil dwelling fauna and nutrient mineralisation. Organic fertilisers such as solid cattle manure (SCM) resurge as an option to overcome this acidification problem and to provide the required blend of essential macro- and micronutrients for plant growth. We assessed the effects of earthworm density (400 or 700 m-2) at two levels of soil pH (ambient and increased), with or without application of solid cattle manure (SCM), on herbage nitrogen (N) uptake, and CO2 and N2O emissions over a period of 134 days using undisturbed soil cores from an acid peat grassland in a mesocosm experiment. Liming proved to be beneficial for earthworm performance and grassland productivity. A higher soil pH and earthworm density resulted in a higher soil biological activity measured as soil respiration. The combined application of lime and earthworms increased herbage apparent N recovery from SCM by 83% compared to SCM only. In the manured treatments, herbage N uptake was positively correlated with earthworm density (R2 = 0.92). N2O emissions increased by 37% when SCM was applied compared to the unfertilised control. Following SCM application, the cumulative increase in herbage N uptake was almost ten times greater than the measured total N2O losses. No relationship was observed between earthworm density and level of N2O emission. N mineralisation and herbage N uptake from SCM in acidic peat grasslands were greatly stimulated by the combined increase in soil pH and earthworm density. This stimulated the activity of soil biota, resulting in an increased herbage N recovery from the applied SCM.
Integrale rapportage bodem- en grondwaterkwaliteit Drenthe
Roelsma, J. ; Baggelaar, P. ; Meulen, E.C.J. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2419) - 177
grondwaterkwaliteit - bodemchemie - milieubeleid - nitraten - verzuring - bemesting - monitoring - meetnetten - drenthe - groundwater quality - soil chemistry - environmental policy - nitrates - acidification - fertilizer application - monitoring networks
Dit rapport presenteert een integrale rapportage van toestanden en trends van de Drentse bodem- en grondwaterkwaliteit, waarbij gebruik gemaakt is van de meetgegevens van vier grootschalige Drentse meetnetten. Voor elke beschouwde parameter van de bodem- en / of grondwaterkwaliteit is de toestand op verschillende wijzen weergegeven en beschreven. Tevens is voor elke beschouwde parameter een statistische trendanalyse uitgevoerd om objectief vast te kunnen stellen of er sprake is van een trend.
Differential Effects of Oxidised and Reduced Nitrogen on Vegetation and Soil Chemistry of Species-Rich Acidic Grasslands
Dorland, E. ; Stevens, C.J. ; Gaudnik, C. ; Corcket, E. ; Rotthier, S.L.F. ; Wotherspoon, K. ; Jokerud, M. ; Vandvik, V. ; Soons, M.B. ; Hefting, M.M. ; Aarrestad, P.A. ; Alard, D. ; Diekmann, M. ; Dupre, C. ; Dise, N.B. ; Gowing, D.J.G. ; Bobbink, R. - \ 2013
Water Air and Soil Pollution 224 (2013)9. - ISSN 0049-6979
biological nitrification inhibition - terrestrial ecosystems - seminatural grasslands - heathland vegetation - deposition - plant - acidification - biodiversity - diversity - eutrophication
Emissions and deposition of ammonia and nitrogen oxides have strongly increased since the 1950s. This has led to significant changes in the nitrogen (N) cycle, vegetation composition and plant diversity in many ecosystems of high conservation value in Europe. As a consequence of different regional pollution levels and of the increased importance of reduced N in the near future, determining the effect of different forms of N is an important task for understanding the consequences of atmospheric N inputs. We have initiated three replicated N addition experiments in species-rich, acidic grasslands spanning a climatic gradient in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe in Norway, Wales and France at sites with low levels of pollution. N was added in two doses (0 and 70 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) above background) and in three forms (oxidised N, reduced N and a 50-50 combination). After 2.5 years of N additions, the effects of these treatments on plant biomass, plant nutritional status, soil pH and soil nutrient availability were determined. Impacts of the N additions were observed within the 2.5-year research period. In some cases, the first signs of differential effects of N form could also be demonstrated. In the French site, for example, grass biomass was significantly increased by the oxidised N treatments but decreased by the reduced N treatments. In the Norwegian site, the reduced N treatments significantly reduced soil pH, whereas oxidised N did not. Effects on nutrient availability were also observed. These experiments will be continued to elucidate the longer term impacts of N deposition on these grasslands.
Final report on impact of catchment scale processes and climate change on cause-effect and recovery-chains
Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Spears, B. ; Brucet, S. ; Johnson, R. ; Feld, C. ; Kernan, M. - \ 2012
Brussel : European Commission - 116
ecologisch herstel - beheer van waterbekkens - rivieren - meren - estuaria - kustwateren - degradatie - biologische indicatoren - verzuring - eutrofiëring - morfologie - ecologische beoordeling - ecological restoration - watershed management - rivers - lakes - estuaries - coastal water - degradation - biological indicators - acidification - eutrophication - morphology - ecological assessment
Catchment wide integrated basin management requires knowledge on cause-effect and recovery chains within water bodies as well as on the interactions between water bodies and categories. In the WISER WP6.4 recovery processes in rivers, lakes and estuarine and coastal waters were evaluated. The major objectives were: - to analyse and compare (cause-effect and) recovery chains within water categories based on processes and structural and functional features; - to detect commonalities among different chains in different water categories ( to compare recovery chains between water categories); - to link recovery chains to over-arching biological processes and global change; - to develop a method to combine recovery effects in a summarising ‘catchment’ metric. The main stressors studied to reach these objectives were acidification, eutrophication and hydromorphological changes.
Ocean Acidification: a review of the current status of research and institutional developments
Beek, I.J.M. van; Dedert, M. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C116/12) - 60
verzuring - mariene gebieden - oceanen - kooldioxide - luchtverontreiniging - acidification - marine areas - oceans - carbon dioxide - air pollution
Ocean acidification is defined as the change in ocean chemistry driven by the oceanic uptake of chemical inputs to the atmosphere, including carbon, nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Ocean acidification is also referred to as ‘the other CO2 problem’ of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions alongside climate change. Ocean acidification has become a hot topic on the international research agenda, whereby most publications are less than a decade old. Ocean acidification has also become an emerging topic on the international policy agenda. UNESCO supported the first global meeting on ocean acidification in 2004 and in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) first recognized ocean acidification in its 4th assessment report as an associated disturbance of climate change caused by increasing CO2 emission. Recommendations to get ocean acidification on the Dutch policy agenda are to focus on important economic activities such as fisheries and aquaculture and on vulnerable habitats such as deltas and coral reefs.
Bestrijdingsmogelijkheden provincies beperkt in Natura 2000-gebieden
Kros, J. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2011
Milieu dossier 17 (2011)3. - p. 32 - 36.
natuurgebieden - nitraatreductie - verzuring - emissie - stikstof - natura 2000 - natural areas - nitrate reduction - acidification - emission - nitrogen
De provincies hebben de taak om te zorgen voor een goede milieukwaliteit in onze natuurgebieden. Zij zijn dan ook aan zet om de hoge depositie van stikstof aan te pakken. Probleem daarbij is dat een groot deel van de stikstofdepositie wordt veroorzaakt door bronnen waar de provincies geen invloed op kunnen uitoefenen. Extra generieke maatregelen vanuit het Rijk zijn noodzakelijk om tot een succesvolle aanpak van het stikstofprobleem te komen.
Using advanced surface complexation models for modelling soil chemistry under forests: Solling forest, Germany
Bonten, L.T.C. ; Groenenberg, J.E. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2011
Environmental Pollution 159 (2011)10. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 2831 - 2839.
acid deposition - heavy-metals - hydraulic conductivity - contaminated soils - atmosphere models - ion-binding - speciation - ecosystems - water - acidification
Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well.
Effecten van verzuring op bodemleven en stikstofstromen in bossen : verkenning van mogelijkheden voor herstelmaatregelen
Kemmers, R.H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2204) - 42
verzuring - bodemchemie - bodembiodiversiteit - bosgronden - stikstofbalans - stikstofkringloop - ecologisch herstel - acidification - soil chemistry - soil biodiversity - forest soils - nitrogen balance - nitrogen cycle - ecological restoration
Dit rapport geeft een samenvatting van de resultaten van de analyses van het bodemleven, de stikstofstromen en bodemcondities over een brede range van bosgronden. In dit rapport staat de vraag centraal of door verzuring de relatie tussen ondergrondse en bovengrondse biodiversiteit via de N-kringloop is beinvloed. De conclusie is dat door verzuring de activiteit van bacterien (protozoa) en regenwormen is afgenomen en die van schimmels, nematoden en potwormen is toegenomen. Hierdoor is een verschuiving opgetreden in de stikstofbalans van N-immobilisatie naar netto N-mineralisatie. Hiervan profiteren opportunistische soorten in de ondergroei door het extra N-aanbod om te zetten in biomassa waardoor kritischer soorten worden benadeeld. Herstelmaatregelen moeten gericht zijn op herstel van de N-balans tussen bovengronds en ondergronds leven in de richting van een grotere N-retentie door het bodemleven. Hierin kan via het beheer worden gestuurd.
Plant species diversity indicators for impacts of nitrogen and acidity and methods for their simulation: an overview
Dobben, H.F. van; Hettelingh, J.P. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Vries, W. de; Slootweg, J. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 2010
In: Progress in the modelling of critical thresholds and dynamic modelling, including impacts on vegetation in Europe / Posch, M., Hettlingh, J.P., Slootweg, J., Bilthoven : RIVM (Status Report 680359001) - ISBN 9789069602493 - p. 55 - 64.
bodemchemie - vegetatie - biodiversiteit - verzuring - eutrofiëring - zware metalen - luchtverontreiniging - inventarisaties - stikstof - soil chemistry - vegetation - biodiversity - acidification - eutrophication - heavy metals - air pollution - inventories - nitrogen
This report describes the status of the impact assessment of nitrogen, sulphur and heavy metal depositions in Europe and the progress made regarding the relation between nitrogen deposition and loss of biodiversity.
Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil
Hartemink, A.E. - \ 2010
In: Proceedings 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Brisbane, Australia, 01 - 06 August, 2010. - - p. 13 - 15.
suikerriet - bodemdegradatie - verzuring - brandstofgewassen - uitspoelen - verliezen uit de bodem - verontreiniging - biobased economy - sugarcane - soil degradation - acidification - fuel crops - leaching - losses from soil - pollution
An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater contamination, eutrophication of surface waters, soil pollution and acidification. This paper reviews the effect of commercial sugarcane production on soil chemical, physical and biological properties using data from the main producing areas. Although variation is considerable, soil organic C decreased in most soils under sugarcane and, also, soil acidification is common as a result of the use of N fertilizers. Increased bulk densities, lower water infiltration rates and lower aggregate stability occur in mechanized systems. There is some evidence for high leaching losses of fertilizer nutrients as well as herbicides and pesticides. Eutrophication of surface waters occurs in high-input systems. Sugarcane cultivation can substantially contribute to the supply of renewable energy, but that improved crop husbandry and precision farming principles are needed to sustain and improve the resource base on which production depends.
Assessing the Impacts of Long-Range Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition on Arctic and Sub-Arctic Ecosystems
Forsius, M. ; Posch, M. ; Aherne, J. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Christensen, J. ; Hole, L. - \ 2010
Ambio 39 (2010)2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 136 - 147.
critical loads - terrestrial ecosystems - forest ecosystems - air-pollution - model - soil - acidification - uncertainty - simulation - pechenga
For more than a decade, anthropogenic sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition has been identified as a key pollutant in the Arctic. In this study new critical loads of acidity (S and N) were estimated for terrestrial ecosystems north of 60A degrees latitude by applying the Simple Mass Balance (SMB) model using two critical chemical criteria (Al/Bc = 1 and ANC(le) = 0). Critical loads were exceeded in large areas of northern Europe and the Norilsk region in western Siberia during the 1990s, with the more stringent criterion (ANC(le) = 0) showing the larger area of exceedance. However, modeled deposition estimates indicate that mean concentrations of sulfur oxides and total S deposition within the Arctic almost halved between 1990 and 2000. The modeled exceeded area is much reduced when currently agreed emission reductions are applied, and almost disappears under the implementation of maximum technically feasible reductions by 2020. In northern North America there was no exceedance under any of the deposition scenarios applied. Modeled N deposition was less than 5 kg ha(-1) y(-1) almost across the entire study area for all scenarios; and therefore empirical critical loads for the eutrophying impact of nitrogen are unlikely to be exceeded. The reduction in critical load exceedances is supported by observed improvements in surface water quality, whereas the observed extensive damage of terrestrial vegetation around the mining and smelter complexes in the area is mainly caused by direct impacts of air pollution and metals.
Modelling the long-term soil response to atmospheric deposition at intensively monitored forest plots in Europe
Reinds, G.J. ; Posch, M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2009
Environmental Pollution 157 (2009)4. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 1258 - 1269.
integrated assessment - acidic deposition - organic nitrogen - chemical status - ecosystems - impacts - carbon - acidification - switzerland - simulation
The dynamic soil chemistry model SMART was applied to 121 intensive forest monitoring plots (mainly located in western and northern Europe) for which both element input (deposition) and element concentrations in the soil solution were available. After calibration of poorly known parameters, the model accurately simulated soil solution concentrations for most plots as indicated by goodness-of-fit measures, although some of the intra-annual variation especially in nitrate and aluminium concentrations could not be reproduced. Model evaluations of two emission–deposition scenarios (current legislation and maximum feasible reductions) for the period 1970–2030 show a strong reduction in sulphate concentrations between 1980 and 2000 in the soil due to the high reductions in sulphur emissions. However, current legislation hardly reduces future nitrogen concentrations, whereas maximum feasible reductions reduces them by more than half. Maximum feasible reductions are also more effective in increasing pH and reducing aluminium concentrations, mostly below ‘critical’ values.
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