Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Understanding smallholder farmers’ capacity to respond to climate change in a coastal community in Central Vietnam
Phuong, Le Thi Hong ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Sen, Le Thi Hoa ; Wals, Arjen E.J. - \ 2018
Climate and Development 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 1756-5529 - p. 701 - 716.
adaptive capacity - agricultural production - barrier to adaptation - climate change adaptation - smallholder farmers - Vietnam
Climate change as expressed by erratic rainfall, increased flooding, extended droughts, frequency tropical cyclones or saline water intrusion, poses severe threats to smallholder farmers in Vietnam. Adaptation of the agricultural sector is vital to increase the resilience of smallholder farmers’ livelihoods in times of climate change. To complement efforts already implemented by farmers to reduce social vulnerability it is important to understand how farmers perceive their current and future capacity to adapt to climate change. This paper aims to explore smallholder farmers’ capacity to respond to climate change in current and future agricultural production. We carried out open, in-depth interviews (n = 13), focus group discussions, and structured interviews (n = 114) in the Thua Thien Hue province. Our findings show that farmers nowadays experience more extreme climate variability. Farmers report increasing stresses due to temperature increase and droughts. The autonomous adaptation strategies adopted by farmers include; adjusting the season calendar, using tolerant varieties and breeds, applying integrated crop production models, and income diversification. The motives for adopting particular planned adaptation options differ between farmers in crop production and livestock production. Four factors were found to be significant (p < .05) in influencing the spread of adaptation measures (AMs) farmers adopted: farm income, the number of available information sources, number of workers on the farm, and farmable land available during the summer season. Farmers report several barriers to implement adaptation strategies including; market price fluctuations, lack of skilled labour, lack of climate change information, and lack of capacity to learn and apply techniques in their daily practice. While both crop and livestock farmers participated in one or several training courses on climate change in the past years, livestock farmers were still uncertain about their future capacity and possible AMs.
Environmental impact of mineral fertilizers: possible improvements through the adoption of eco-innovations
Hasler, Kathrin - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436922 - 156
environmental impact - business management - fertilizers - agricultural production - germany - milieueffect - bedrijfsmanagement - kunstmeststoffen - landbouwproductie - duitsland

Agricultural production has kept pace with the population growth (FAO, 2012). One major input for a productive agriculture are fertilizers. Despite their effect on yield and quality, they also have considerable effects on the environment leading to emission of greenhouse gases, acidification, eutrophication and use of scare resources (Ruttan, 2002; Kitzes et al., 2007). However, unlike other agricultural inputs, fertilizers cannot be substituted and a reduction in the fertilizer use can lead to major yield decreases or a production shifting to less suitable areas. By considering the above mentioned statements this thesis aims to expand the knowledge of the environmental impact of fertilizers in general and innovation supply chain thinking, knowledge exchange and innovation adoption within the fertilizer supply chain in particular with the main research question:

To what extended can the environmental impact of fertilizers be improved by accelerate the adoption and diffusion of (eco)-innovations within the fertilizer supply chain?

To answer this question, the thesis was divided into two main theoretical perspectives. The first part focuses on the environmental impact of mineral fertilizers and relevant alternatives. The second part focuses on innovation adoption and diffusion.

In these thesis LCA calculations of different fertilizer types (e.g. urea, ammonium nitrate) and production types (single nutrient fertilizers, bulk blends or complex fertilizers) try to examine the amount of emissions during fertilizer production, transportation and application. With literature data of emissions during the fertilizer production, completed with data from expert interviews along the fertilizer supply chain a holistic LCA calculation was conducted. The results showed that especially urea should be used with special care in temperate climate zone and produced with best production technologies. Additionally, the production and application of phosphorus should always be part of agricultural LCA studies, because this plant nutrient also can have effects on the results in the impact categories use of scare resources and salt water eutrophication. With an optimized fertilization strategy, the environmental burden can be reduced by up to 15%.

Chapter 3 focuses on greenhouse gas emissions. The carbon footprint, used with special care and an accurate developed framework, can be a good tool to estimate these greenhouse gas emissions (Finkbeiner, 2009; Hillier et al., 2009; Pandey et al., 2011). By calculating the carbon footprint with a basic LCA approach a scientific accepted method was used. The carbon footprint of different mineral fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate and urea ammonium nitrate), stabilized nitrogen fertilizers (using different inhibitors), secondary raw materials (feather meals, blood-and-bone-meals and leguminous crops meals) and a combined irrigation and fertilization were compared in order to find a more sustainable solution. Here especially the uses of a double inhibitor to delay the nitrogen transformation in the soils can have an effect on the carbon footprint results.

The second part of this thesis concentrates on the fertilizer supply chain and the adoption of eco-innovations. Eco-innovations are one option to reduce the environmental impact of fertilizers without compromising on fertilizer productivity. Although numerous eco-innovations in the domain of fertilizers are available, they have no sufficient adoption rate. Here a systematic literature review combined with the types of eco-innovations within an expanded technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to estimate the main drivers. The study distinguishes between disruptive and continuous as well as process, product and other types of innovations to get a better understanding for specific situations. The distinction between the types of innovations was made, because it was assumed that the nature of the specific innovation influences the adoption. The results lead to the assumption that disruptive innovations are mostly pushed by a high quality support and a well-functioning information flow; continuous innovations are more pushed by a good access to credits and an informative environment.

Chapter 5 tries to explaining the low adoption of eco-innovation in the German fertilizer supply chain in particular. Expert interviews along the fertilizer supply chain (researcher, producer, traders) and a detailed questionnaire with closed and open questions were used to estimate the necessity to change. Furthermore, the knowledge of different eco-innovations was used to evaluate the knowledge sharing of the fertilizer supply chain. Findings suggest that drivers for eco-innovations are perceived differently by the various actors in the fertilizer supply chain. The overall knowledge on eco-innovations decreases downstream the chain.

Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa
Ross, Martha - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Maarten Voors. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431910 - 174
social networks - agricultural development - economic development - agricultural production - networks - technology transfer - innovations - innovation adoption - diffusion - interpersonal relations - communication - observation - social learning - social interaction - sociale netwerken - landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwproductie - netwerken - technologieoverdracht - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - diffusie - intermenselijke relaties - communicatie - observatie - sociaal leren - sociale interactie

This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members. Diffusion channels for new innovation are therefore limited to word-of-mouth communication, observation, and personal experience.

Chapter 2 of this thesis analyses two policy tools in targeting these information gaps. The first is through social learning as part of a farmer extension program. The second combines social learning with experiential learning, reducing the cost to personal experimentation with subsidized improved input packages. Our results indicate that farmers who are exposed to both social learning and learning-by-doing more significantly impacts farmer productivity relative to those receiving no intervention and those exposed only to social learning. I interpret this result as an indication of learning-by-doing combined with social learning being a more effective strategy for facilitating adoption of technologies that have more heterogeneous returns to adoption.

Chapter 3 of this thesis tests the difference in diffusion patterns that result by varying the network contact- point. Specifically, network contact-points are selected as being either the most central or least central individuals within the network. I find evidence that centrality affects the speed of distribution but does not affect the width of diffusion nor which individuals are participating within the diffusion process. Furthermore, large attenuation is observed throughout the diffusion process, which suggests the importance of selecting a sufficiently large set of lead community members for the spread of new technology.

Chapter 4 combines a community-wide polling of network entry-points combined with detailed community network and socio-economic data. First we explore what attributes are prioritized by community members in nominating a resident farmer as an extension contact-point. Second, we use simulations to compare the diffusion spread of top-nominated individuals as network entry-points compared to entry-points that achieve maximal spread within diffusion simulations. We find that community members prioritize network connectedness, pro-social preferences, and socioeconomic indicators of gender, age, formal leadership, and education levels within their nomination decisions. Furthermore, receiving the top three most amount of nominations is found to be significantly correlated with selection as an optimal entry-point within the diffusion simulation. These results suggest that community-wide polling offers a less data-intensive opportunity to realize gains in diffusion warranted through network-based seeding.

Chapter 5 explore whether an individual’s observed social preferences is correlated with an individual’s centrality within the network structure. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality are more trusting and more trustworthy than individuals with lower centrality. Moreover, individuals with low centrality are treated worse in these interactions—people trust them less initially, and return less money to them. Within a group context, little evidence is found of more central individuals displaying more cooperative behavior. Instead, for group cooperation, when a single monitor can observe contribution decisions, the presence of a direct link and more mutual network connections with a monitor correlates to more cooperative behavior by that individual. Our results suggest that network centrality and pro-social preferences are related but more localized network ties are more strongly correlated with pro-sociality than overall network connectedness.

Agricultural extension, technology adoption and household food security : evidence from DRC
Santos Rocha, Jozimo - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434485 - 231
agricultural extension - technology - adoption - food security - households - development economics - agricultural production - knowledge transfer - congo democratic republic - landbouwvoorlichting - technologie - adoptie - voedselzekerheid - huishoudens - ontwikkelingseconomie - landbouwproductie - kennisoverdracht - democratische republiek kongo

In this thesis, I use experimental and quasi-experimental data from 25 villages and a total of 1,105 farmers from eastern DRC to investigate the relationship among agricultural training, the adoption of agricultural technologies, crop productivity, and household food insecurity and dietary diversity. I present evidence that contributes to narrow the gap in the literature on the role of input subsidies fostering small-scale farmers' uptake of productivity-enhancing technologies, how farmer field school and farmer-to-farmer trainings affect the adoption of agricultural technologies, how F2F training may reduce the costs of FFS implementation, how adoption materializes on yields of food crops, and how training through the adoption of improved agricultural technologies impacts household food insecurity and the diet diversification of target households.

As a complement to econometric evidence and in order to understand the main findings, I also discuss behavioral features and farmer driven initiatives which somehow condition these impacts. Throughout the four main chapters, I identify practical implications that are highly important for the design and implementation of new programs and policies aimed to address agricultural productivity issues and reduce household food insecurity. In Chapter 1 I develop a general introduction to the research which discusses the evolution of agricultural extension in the last few decades, and describe FFS and F2F training methodologies. Chapter 2 provides a detailed description of the project intervention, technologies promoted, research settings and the data collection process. In Chapter 3, I report the results of an experimental study that analyses the impact of one-shot input starter packs on the adoption of productivity-enhancing complementary practices, which have the potential to maximize the impact of starter pack inputs. Additionally, I assess the levels of persistence on farmers’ use of improved crop seeds which are included in the starter packs. Overall, I find no evidence of starter packs’ impact on small-scale farmers’ adoption of productivity-enhancing technologies. Similarly, the levels of persistence regarding the use of seeds following the delivery of starter packs were not significant. These results are consistent with studies that have found minimal or no persistence on the use of inputs following the provision of subsidies, including Duflo, Kremer et al. (2011). The limited impact that starter packs had on yields in the first year may logically explain that farmers refrained from using improved seeds subsequently because the inputs are not economically attractive.

Chapter 4 studies the effectiveness of knowledge transmission from farmers trained in FFS through farmer-to-farmer training (F2F), which could potentially result in lower extension costs and higher impacts. I find that FFS training has a higher impact than F2F training in the first period, but the magnitude of the treatment effect in the second period is not statistically different between the two training methods. I argue that the dissemination of technologies promoted in FFS groups can well be formalized through farmer-to-farmer deliberate training attached to the FFS approach. Given the low costs of F2F training compared to FFS, the introduction of F2F training may substantially alleviate a major constraint to the large-scale introduction of FFS as a training method, its high costs.

In Chapter 5, I study the impact of farmer’s participation in FFS and F2F training on small-scale agricultural productivity. A multi-crop yield-index and the yields of cassava were used as impact indicators. The results indicate that both FFS and F2F trainings contribute to a significant increase in farmers’ yields, especially in the second period when the magnitude of the effect substantially increased. We also learned that the effect size does not differ between the two training approaches in neither period, suggesting that F2F communications are a suitable alternative or complement to FFS training. While the chapter was unable to confirm if training materializes in higher yields through technology adoption, I argue that in the context of the sample the adoption of productivity-enhancing practices and inputs are likely the most important impact mechanism.

I also study the relationship between agricultural training, the adoption of improved technologies and household food insecurity. I find that farmers’ participation in agricultural trainings has a positive effect, through the adoption of improved technologies, on improvements in household dietary diversity (HDDS). Nonetheless, the impact on household access to food (HFIAS) is less evident. These results suggest that FFS/F2F training can well reduce household food insecurity, which is mostly achieved through the adoption of improved agricultural technologies. Yet, there are farm and household specific factors which constrain how training impacts technology adoption and how adoption affect household food insecurity and diet diversification. In Chapter 7, I synthesize the results of the four main chapters and articulate the sequence of results from training to adoption to productivity to food security.

Microcredit to women and its contribution to production and household food security
Namayengo, Mayanja Muyonga Faith - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431101 - 235
credit - women - agricultural production - food security - crop production - animal production - household income - household budgets - food supply - uganda - krediet - vrouwen - landbouwproductie - voedselzekerheid - gewasproductie - dierlijke productie - gezinsinkomen - huishoudbudgetten - voedselvoorziening

The contents of this dissertation are based on a quantitative and qualitative survey that was conducted to assess the contribution of microcredit access of women to production and household food security status, and the factors associated with enterprise performance and food security outcomes. In order to do so four main issues were addressed: (a) assessment of the borrowing context and the match or mismatch between lender and borrower goals and objectives; (b) the extent to which taking microcredit affected business input expenditures and performance of non-farm MEs; (c) the extent to which taking microcredit affected production input expenditures and outputs from farming activities; (d) the changes in household food security associated with microcredit.

The study was conducted among female microcredit clients of BRAC, one of the largest micro lenders in Uganda. The overall study design was a panel approach, involving two waves of data collection. In one analytical approach, baseline data for a group of existing borrowers (Old borrowers=OB) and incoming borrowers (New borrowers=NB) before they received their first loan, was used in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design to assess the effect of borrowing as the difference between the two groups using propensity score matching (PSM).

In an alternative approach, two waves of data for the NB and a control group (CG) of women who never borrowed from BRAC or other MFI, was subjected to difference-in-difference analysis (DID), with Kernel matching, to assess differences between borrowers and non-borrowers.

We found that BRAC reaches poor, less educated subsistence farmers who also run diverse non-farm microenterprises (MEs). The group-lending model BRAC uses is effective in ensuring loan repayment. However, much as BRAC gives out production loans, many women borrow to meet lump-sum monetary needs, in addition to investment in non-farm MEs. High costs of borrowing, limited loan amounts, the stress caused by weekly loan repayment and resolution of lump-sum cash needs were identified as reasons for women to stop borrowing. The diversion of loans to non-production activities, the size and types of businesses, and loan terms and processes were identified and factors that could diminish the contribution of microcredit to ME expansion and income increase.

Assessment of the effect of borrowing on non-farm ME performance revealed that much as borrowers invested reasonable fractions of received loans into non-farm MEs leading to improvement in monetary worth, the borrowing context, loan repayment terms, type and size of microenterprises did favour higher profits.

In regard to farm production, borrowing did not lead to extra recurrent crop and animal production expenditures. The prevailing subsistence nature of crop and animal production did not seem to favour extra investment. As such, borrowing did not improve household food availability, through own production.

Assessment of the effect of borrowing on household food security revealed a decline in food security following the uptake of microcredit. The analysis reveals robustly lower dietary diversity among long-time borrowers than among new borrowers, and larger reductions in dietary diversity scores among new borrowers, after one year, compared to controls. The reduction in dietary diversity was traced to a reduction in animal-source food, fruit and sugar intake. This was partly explained by observation of an apparent shift from own production to reliance on food purchase by households, which is not accompanied by substantial increase in income.

Overall, we found that taking microcredit did not lead to improved farm and non-farm production or food security among the rural women borrowers studied. This was mainly attributed to nature of activities the women engage in, the loan terms and processes, and the local context the women operate under.

Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation
Shao, Qianqian - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Maarten Punt; Dusan Drabik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430500 - 200
agricultural trade - genetically engineered foods - food biotechnology - political economy - food products - agricultural production - agricultural products - food technology - food policy - food security - agrarische handel - genetisch gemanipuleerde voedingsmiddelen - voedselbiotechnologie - politieke economie - voedselproducten - landbouwproductie - landbouwproducten - voedseltechnologie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid

Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (GM) food crops, and forest conservation policy.

The relationship between GM food technology and food supply is a dilemma for policymakers in many countries. Theoretical and empirical studies show that GM food technology helps increase crop yields, reduces pesticide and fertilizer use, and generates economic, environmental, and health benefits. However, many consumers are concerned about the potential risks from using the technology and treat GM and non-GM food products as different products. The differences in public attitude towards GM food technology influence GM food policy-making. Many scientists believe that the public attitude is not purely based on scientific evidence, but is influenced by different interest groups. The two major interest groups involved in the GM food policy debate can be clustered into the GM food-supporting and non-GM food-supporting groups, depending on their attitude towards the GM food technology.

The GM food group points to the high yields, environmental benefits, and potential for sustainable agricultural production. The non-GM food group, however, emphasizes the unconfirmed potential risks of genetic modification to human health and the environment. There are two major GM food policy regimes: the EU Member States have very strict GM food regulations, whereas the US has relatively lenient GM food policy regulations with respect to cultivation and imports. A stricter GM food policy would generate high welfare costs to countries that face food security issues, and possibly reduce a country's food self-sufficiency. Also, different GM food policy regulations give rise to different national standards, differentiate agricultural trade markets, and result in trade disputes.

Environmental policy regulates economic activity. To balance economic interests and environmental benefits, conservation policy is often needed for the protection of natural resources. Forests as a renewable resource provide both economic and environmental benefits. Forest conservation policy often requires governments to settle the trade-off between interests of the timber industry and the environmental benefit of maintaining parts of the forests. Political conflicts may exist between a profit-maximizing timber industry lobby and an environmental lobby. An industry-biased conservation policy could cause faster exploitation of this domestic resource, while a stricter protection of the resource could result in profit reduction for the timber industry, but increase environmental benefits.

I discuss the relationships between food security and GM food policy regulations in Chapter 2. I develop a standard political economy model of GM food policy regulations and model GM food policy as the outcome of a GM-versus-non-GM food lobbying game. I find that stricter GM food policy has negative effects on three aspects of food security: availability, access, and utilization. Politically determined GM food policy has a negative effect on the food security situation if lobbying is costly. I also discuss the situation in which the policymaker weighs the GM food and non-GM food lobbies’ contributions differently, depending on whether the food security target has been reached or not. The GM food lobby becomes more efficient in the political game than the non-GM food group when the country commits itself to improving its food security. If the non-GM food lobby is large and strong, it will make high lobbying contributions for stricter GM food policy, even when the country is food-insecure.

Chapter 3 studies the relationship between politically determined GM food policy and domestic food self-sufficiency. I first develop a theoretical model of a small-open economy and investigate the GM food policy. The government maximizes its own payoff, which is the weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. I take maize production in South Africa as an example for illustrating the politically influenced self-sufficiency rate. I find that the food self-sufficiency rate will decrease with an increase in GM food policy regulation cost. I also specify the mechanism of policy change in this small open economy case. I include changes in the lobby groups' sizes in the model, and assess the effect on food self-sufficiency. In the case of a large non-GM food group, the government payoff does not monotonically decrease when the government weighs social welfare at a low level in the political process. The GM food policy can be strict in this case. In addition, the food self-sufficiency rate can be high when a large non-GM food group is present and the government places a low weight on social welfare. Most importantly, this case demonstrates that the food self-sufficiency rate is not always a good indicator of food availability. In some cases, the food self-sufficiency rate can increase, while food availability may decrease.

In Chapter 4, given the two different GM food policy regimes and in light of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, I discuss a bilateral negotiation regarding GM food trade policies. Two countries pursue an increase in trade volume for both GM and non-GM food products. With a high GM food non-tariff barrier (NTB) on the foreign GM food imports and a relatively high non-GM food NTB in the foreign country, I find that the Nash bargaining solution lies between the two countries’ optimal unilateral stances for a successful negotiation. Simulation results show that the foreign country would not like to reduce much of its non-GM food NTB in the negotiation. The level of the non-GM food NTB only influences the absolute payoffs of the domestic and foreign governments, but not the negotiation results. The outcome of the negotiation only depends on the level of GM food NTB reduction in the domestic country.

In Chapter 5, I discuss the effects of international trade on forest conservation and welfare in a two-country model with an industry-biased policymaker and Cournot-competing firms. I find that opening to trade increases the harvest taxes compared to the taxes under autarky. The tax increase is large enough to decrease the production levels, which increases the conservation level. In addition, the numerical simulation illustrates that the industry bias parameter monotonically decreases the output and increases the welfare gains from trade. As a result, industry-biased policymaking does not necessarily have to increase the environmental costs when opening to trade.

Three main conclusions can be drawn from this thesis. First, strict biotechnology regulations decrease the level of global food security, especially in developing countries. Second, in the GM food trade negotiations, the country that has high trade barriers has to make concessions for a successful trade agreement. Third, second-best conservation policies can still protect the environment in an open economy. This thesis does not provide solutions to either the GM-versus-non-GM or the environmental-versus-trade debates. It does, however, offer some insights into the politically determined GM food and conservation policy-making and the impact of lobbying.

'Discussie over gangbaar versus bio is gedateerd'
Schulte, Rogier - \ 2017
cropping systems - sustainability - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - agricultural production - certification
A new Global Agro-Environmental Stratification (GAES)
Mücher, Sander ; Simone, Lorenzo De; Kramer, Henk ; Wit, Allard de; Roupioz, Laure ; Hazeu, Gerard ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Schuiling, Rini ; Fritz, Steffen ; Latham, John ; Cormont, Anouk - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2761) - 69
stratification - agriculture - environment - monitoring - agricultural production - sustainable agriculture - observation - stratificatie (zaden) - landbouw - milieu - landbouwproductie - duurzame landbouw - observatie
The GAES database (Version 01a) is a newly developed Global Agro-Environmental Stratification within the EU SIGMA (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) project. GAES will serve as a new agro-environmental stratification for better global monitoring of the agricultural production on the basis of Earth Observation data and crop growth models. It is anticipated that GAES will be exploited for a wider range of applications, some within SIGMA, towards data gap analysis that identifies agro-environmental strata with limited capacity and monitoring data on agricultural production. GAES was produced by applying segmentation techniques to newly available global agroenvironmental data with a high spatial resolution re-sampled to 1 km spatial resolution. The datasets were able to stratify the agricultural production zones according to the region’s agro-environmental characteristics, including climatic regimes, soil, terrain, elevation conditions, water availability and land cover proprieties. The GAES strata obtained by segmentation at four different spatial levels (with Level 4 as the most detailed) have been further characterised and described in terms of phenology (e.g. start and peak of the growing season), agricultural (water) management practices, field size, biotic constraints, national and sub-national crop production statistics, GDP, transport infrastructure conditions or market accessibility. The GAES database has four hierarchical layers, with 92 attributes. GAES Level 1 has 194 agro-environmental (AE) types (818 strata); GAES Level 2 has 300 AE types (1,688 strata); GAES Level 3 has 374 AE types (2,087 strata); GAES Level 4 has 516 AE types (3,208 strata). GAES typology is a combination of temperature, altitude, parent material and land cover characteristics. GAES Version 01 has become freely available.
Landbouwecoloog Pablo Tittonell ziet geen noodzaak voedselproductie te vedubbelen "kleinschalige landbouw voedt halve wereld"
Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2016
food supply - agricultural production - sustainability - small farms - world
Visie integraal bodembeheer Algemeen
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2016
arable farming - soil management - water management - soil quality - soil fertility - farm management - rotations - fertilizer application - tillage - agricultural production - biodiversity - climatic factors - ecosystem services - organic matter - teaching materials
Meer voedsel, minder broeikasgas : landbouw en voedselproductie na Parijs
Verhagen, Jan ; Vellinga, Pier - \ 2016
climatic change - climate adaptation - agriculture and environment - greenhouse gases - agricultural production - groundwater depletion - heat - salinization - emission reduction - food production - food security

De klimaatconferentie in Parijs markeert het retour van de fossiele brandstoffen, vindt scheidend hoogleraar Pier Vellinga. Hij hoopt dat nu ook de uitstoot van broeikasgassen uit de landbouw omlaag gaat. Wageningse wetenschappers zijn daar al mee bezig, maar ook proberen ze de gevolgen van klimaatverandering het hoofd te bieden. Hoe valt er voldoende te produceren bij verdroging, hitte en verzilting?

Implications of a UK exit from the EU for British agriculture : study for the National Farmers’ Union (NFU), Warwickshire, UK
Berkum, S. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Vrolijk, H.C.J. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Jager, J.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI ) - ISBN 9789462577732 - 51 p.
cap - farmers' income - agricultural sector - agricultural production - agricultural trade - uk - european union - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - inkomen van landbouwers - landbouwsector - landbouwproductie - agrarische handel - verenigd koninkrijk - europese unie
This report offers quantification of effects of possible trade and agricultural support scenarios on the
UK agricultural production, trade, farm gate prices and farmers’ income levels in case of the UK
leaving the EU. The results of each scenario show that for most sectors the biggest driver of UK farm
income changes is the level of public support payments available. The positive price impacts on farm
incomes seen through both the FTA and WTO default scenario are offset by the loss of direct support
payments. A reduction of direct payments, or their complete elimination, would exacerbate the
negative impact seen under the UK Trade Liberalisation scenario
Cybersecurity in the Agrifood sector
Bogaardt, M.J. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Viool, V. ; Zuidam, E. van - \ 2016
Capgemini Consulting - 8 p.
food production - agricultural production - data management - information systems - computer sciences - safety - crime - voedselproductie - landbouwproductie - gegevensbeheer - informatiesystemen - computerwetenschappen - veiligheid - misdaad
Every day new digital applications find their way into our lives. Digitization has brought our society many benefits and will do so for the coming years as key enabler for our economy. It is an important driver behind innovation and economic growth. However, to create sustainable innovation and frequent use, security is absolutely essential. Due to the increased frequency of high tech possibi¬lities, the chance of technical failure or severe misusage and abuse of vulnerabilities can become a realistic threat. This article deals with cybersecurity in the agrifood sector.
Het einde van Nederland productieland?
Versluis, K. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 26 - 31.
landbouwproductie - landbouwtechniek - agrotechnologie - mechanisatie - nederland - innovaties - agrarische economie - scenario-analyse - agricultural production - agricultural engineering - agrotechnology - mechanization - netherlands - innovations - agricultural economics - scenario analysis
Tomatentelers en varkenshouders hebben het moeilijk in Nederland; veredelaars en machinebouwers floreren. Doet Nederland er goed aan de kaarten te zetten op techniek en de bulkproductie aan andere landen over te laten? Het LEI denkt na over dat scenario.
Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions

Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia

Mequanint Biset Melesse

Abstract

Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of different fertilizer product types
Hasler, K. ; Broering, S. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Olfs, H.W. - \ 2015
European Journal of Agronomy 69 (2015). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 41 - 51.
environmental-impact assessment - greenhouse-gas emissions - crop production - agricultural production - production systems - wheat production - nitrogen - sustainability - methodology - future
Appropriate use of fertilizer in crop production to limit the environmental impact is essential for sustainable agriculture. While much is known about the environmental impact of fertilizer production only a limited amount of data is available covering the whole fertilizer supply chain. Up to now no comparison was done on the environmental impact of different fertilizer types (i.e., complex fertilizer, bulk blend fertilizer and single nutrient fertilizer). A cradle-to-field life cycle assessment (LCA) for the fertilizer supply chain in Germany, from extraction of raw materials, via fertilizer production, transportation and storage until final application in the field was carried out. Two different complex fertilizers were compared with single nutrient fertilizers (containing only one nutrient) and bulk blend fertilizers (containing more than one nutrient as a dry mixture). The five most relevant impact categories (i.e., climate change, acidification, eutrophication, fossil fuel depletion and resource depletion) were selected to cover different environmental impacts. Additionally, a scenario analysis was carried out focusing on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as new catalytic reduction techniques for the manufacturing of nitrogen (N) containing fertilizers are available that can lead to drastic reductions of N2O emissions. Production of fertilizers causes high values in the impact categories climate change, fossil fuel depletion and acidification, whereas resource depletion is dominant for production and transportation. For the impact category eutrophication, the application of fertilizer is the most important factor. For a fertilizer strategy with low phosphorus application rate, a bulk blend or single nutrient fertilizer with calcium ammonium nitrate is the most sustainable choice, while for a fertilizer strategy with a balanced nutrient formula, a bulk blend or single nutrient fertilizer with calcium ammonium nitrate or a standard complex fertilizer are sustainable options. Scenario calculations with reduced N2O emission during the production process reveals that this reduction technique is not relevant for urea based fertilizers leading to the conclusion that products containing urea need different emission reduction techniques to keep up with the environmental improvements of other nitrogen fertilizers. With an optimized fertilization strategy the environmental burden can be reduced up to 15%. As nitrogen application rates strongly affect the LCA results it is essential that the right amounts of N are used and that for N fertilizer production the best available technique should be installed. Furthermore, a careful consideration concerning the fertilizer product type should be part of every LCA of food and agricultural products, as this has a great impact on LCA results.
Benchmark Agrofood : de positie van regio FoodValley in Nederland
Agricola, H.J. ; Kuhlman, T. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2637) - 32
landbouwsector - agro-industriële sector - agro-industriële complexen - landbouwindustrie - voedselindustrie - landbouwproductie - voedselproductie - agro-industriële ketens - werkgelegenheid - gelderse vallei - veehouderij - agricultural sector - agroindustrial sector - agroindustrial complexes - agribusiness - food industry - agricultural production - food production - agro-industrial chains - employment - livestock farming
Gemeente Ede wil meer inzicht krijgen in de economische betekenis van het regionale agrofoodcomplex. Meer specifiek luidt de vraag: hoe verhoudt de bedrijvigheid van de agrofoodsector in de regio FoodValley – in termen van werkgelegenheid en toegevoegde waarde – zich tot andere agrofoodregio’s in Nederland? Om de positie van regio FoodValley en gemeente Ede te duiden, zal een vergelijking worden gemaakt met de deelgebieden Oost-Brabant, Rotterdam Foodcluster en Amsterdam-Zaanstreek.
Agricultural potential and food se-curity in Central Asia in the light of climate change
Berkum, S. van - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Issue brief / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-092) - 26
voedselzekerheid - klimaatverandering - landbouwsituatie - centraal-azië - landbouwproductie - turkmenistan - oezbekistan - kirgizstan - tadzjikistan - food security - climatic change - agricultural situation - central asia - agricultural production - uzbekistan - kyrgyzstan - tajikistan
What is the agricultural potential of the Central Asian region, comprised of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, in the light of food secu-rity and the intensification of regional agricultural production? The focus should be on animal husbandry, arable farming and horticulture. What are the most obvious issues for the region in terms of agricultural devel-opment? Where possible, consider the agricultural potential in the light of the known and possible effects brought about by climate changes. How will a global rise in temperatures affect greenhouse gas emissions and, as a consequence, impact on land use and revenues per hectare? What does further intensification involving more input usage mean for both current and possible environmental issues and present and future greenhouse gas emissions? This report provides an overview of readily available and relevant data and litera-ture. It contains a number of indicators which demonstrate a country's agricultural potential and food security.
'Wie zegt eigenlijk dat de voedselproductie moet verdubbelen?'
Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2014
food production - food security - food consumption - eating patterns - food supply - agricultural production - agricultural production systems

Grootschalige intensieve landbouw gaat de wereld niet voeden, stelt Pablo Tittonell, sinds vorig jaar hoogleraar Farming Systems Ecology aan de Wageningen Universiteit. Het model dat na de oorlog is ontwikkeld in Nederland en West- Europa is niet houdbaar en zeker niet geschikt om naar andere landen te exporteren. Joost van Kasteren interviewt hem.

10 stellingen over het delen van kostprijsinformatie : kostprijsdeling stellingsgewijs benaderd : focus op kostprijsinformatie
Hoste, R. ; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2014
Varkensbedrijf: onafhankelijk maandblad voor de Varkenshouderij 7 (2014)8. - ISSN 0777-5091 - p. 14 - 17.
varkenshouderij - landbouwproductie - landbouwprijzen - publiciteit - informatieverspreiding - bedrijfseconomie - pig farming - agricultural production - agricultural prices - publicity - diffusion of information - business economics
Er is het laatste jaar meerdere malen geroepen dat de varkenssector moet ophouden met het voortdurend openbaar maken van informatie zoals kostprijzen, inkomens, technische cijfers. “De groenteboer vertelt toch ook niet wat een krop sla werkelijk kost?”, zo luidt dan een argument. Als LEI Wageningen UR hebben we met deze discussie te maken. De oorsprong van het LEI hangt samen met de wens tot inzicht in de productiekosten van de landbouw - in de jaren na de Tweede Wereldoorlog - toen er behoefte was om de voedselvoorziening veilig te stellen. We dragen in dit artikel ons steentje bij aan de discussie door een aantal stellingen en reacties daarop.
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