Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation
Shao, Qianqian - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Maarten Punt; Dusan Drabik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430500 - 200
agricultural trade - genetically engineered foods - food biotechnology - political economy - food products - agricultural production - agricultural products - food technology - food policy - food security - agrarische handel - genetisch gemanipuleerde voedingsmiddelen - voedselbiotechnologie - politieke economie - voedselproducten - landbouwproductie - landbouwproducten - voedseltechnologie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid

Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (GM) food crops, and forest conservation policy.

The relationship between GM food technology and food supply is a dilemma for policymakers in many countries. Theoretical and empirical studies show that GM food technology helps increase crop yields, reduces pesticide and fertilizer use, and generates economic, environmental, and health benefits. However, many consumers are concerned about the potential risks from using the technology and treat GM and non-GM food products as different products. The differences in public attitude towards GM food technology influence GM food policy-making. Many scientists believe that the public attitude is not purely based on scientific evidence, but is influenced by different interest groups. The two major interest groups involved in the GM food policy debate can be clustered into the GM food-supporting and non-GM food-supporting groups, depending on their attitude towards the GM food technology.

The GM food group points to the high yields, environmental benefits, and potential for sustainable agricultural production. The non-GM food group, however, emphasizes the unconfirmed potential risks of genetic modification to human health and the environment. There are two major GM food policy regimes: the EU Member States have very strict GM food regulations, whereas the US has relatively lenient GM food policy regulations with respect to cultivation and imports. A stricter GM food policy would generate high welfare costs to countries that face food security issues, and possibly reduce a country's food self-sufficiency. Also, different GM food policy regulations give rise to different national standards, differentiate agricultural trade markets, and result in trade disputes.

Environmental policy regulates economic activity. To balance economic interests and environmental benefits, conservation policy is often needed for the protection of natural resources. Forests as a renewable resource provide both economic and environmental benefits. Forest conservation policy often requires governments to settle the trade-off between interests of the timber industry and the environmental benefit of maintaining parts of the forests. Political conflicts may exist between a profit-maximizing timber industry lobby and an environmental lobby. An industry-biased conservation policy could cause faster exploitation of this domestic resource, while a stricter protection of the resource could result in profit reduction for the timber industry, but increase environmental benefits.

I discuss the relationships between food security and GM food policy regulations in Chapter 2. I develop a standard political economy model of GM food policy regulations and model GM food policy as the outcome of a GM-versus-non-GM food lobbying game. I find that stricter GM food policy has negative effects on three aspects of food security: availability, access, and utilization. Politically determined GM food policy has a negative effect on the food security situation if lobbying is costly. I also discuss the situation in which the policymaker weighs the GM food and non-GM food lobbies’ contributions differently, depending on whether the food security target has been reached or not. The GM food lobby becomes more efficient in the political game than the non-GM food group when the country commits itself to improving its food security. If the non-GM food lobby is large and strong, it will make high lobbying contributions for stricter GM food policy, even when the country is food-insecure.

Chapter 3 studies the relationship between politically determined GM food policy and domestic food self-sufficiency. I first develop a theoretical model of a small-open economy and investigate the GM food policy. The government maximizes its own payoff, which is the weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. I take maize production in South Africa as an example for illustrating the politically influenced self-sufficiency rate. I find that the food self-sufficiency rate will decrease with an increase in GM food policy regulation cost. I also specify the mechanism of policy change in this small open economy case. I include changes in the lobby groups' sizes in the model, and assess the effect on food self-sufficiency. In the case of a large non-GM food group, the government payoff does not monotonically decrease when the government weighs social welfare at a low level in the political process. The GM food policy can be strict in this case. In addition, the food self-sufficiency rate can be high when a large non-GM food group is present and the government places a low weight on social welfare. Most importantly, this case demonstrates that the food self-sufficiency rate is not always a good indicator of food availability. In some cases, the food self-sufficiency rate can increase, while food availability may decrease.

In Chapter 4, given the two different GM food policy regimes and in light of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, I discuss a bilateral negotiation regarding GM food trade policies. Two countries pursue an increase in trade volume for both GM and non-GM food products. With a high GM food non-tariff barrier (NTB) on the foreign GM food imports and a relatively high non-GM food NTB in the foreign country, I find that the Nash bargaining solution lies between the two countries’ optimal unilateral stances for a successful negotiation. Simulation results show that the foreign country would not like to reduce much of its non-GM food NTB in the negotiation. The level of the non-GM food NTB only influences the absolute payoffs of the domestic and foreign governments, but not the negotiation results. The outcome of the negotiation only depends on the level of GM food NTB reduction in the domestic country.

In Chapter 5, I discuss the effects of international trade on forest conservation and welfare in a two-country model with an industry-biased policymaker and Cournot-competing firms. I find that opening to trade increases the harvest taxes compared to the taxes under autarky. The tax increase is large enough to decrease the production levels, which increases the conservation level. In addition, the numerical simulation illustrates that the industry bias parameter monotonically decreases the output and increases the welfare gains from trade. As a result, industry-biased policymaking does not necessarily have to increase the environmental costs when opening to trade.

Three main conclusions can be drawn from this thesis. First, strict biotechnology regulations decrease the level of global food security, especially in developing countries. Second, in the GM food trade negotiations, the country that has high trade barriers has to make concessions for a successful trade agreement. Third, second-best conservation policies can still protect the environment in an open economy. This thesis does not provide solutions to either the GM-versus-non-GM or the environmental-versus-trade debates. It does, however, offer some insights into the politically determined GM food and conservation policy-making and the impact of lobbying.

Implications of a UK exit from the EU for British agriculture : study for the National Farmers’ Union (NFU), Warwickshire, UK
Berkum, S. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Vrolijk, H.C.J. ; Leeuwen, M.G.A. van; Jager, J.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI ) - ISBN 9789462577732 - 51 p.
cap - farmers' income - agricultural sector - agricultural production - agricultural trade - uk - european union - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - inkomen van landbouwers - landbouwsector - landbouwproductie - agrarische handel - verenigd koninkrijk - europese unie
This report offers quantification of effects of possible trade and agricultural support scenarios on the
UK agricultural production, trade, farm gate prices and farmers’ income levels in case of the UK
leaving the EU. The results of each scenario show that for most sectors the biggest driver of UK farm
income changes is the level of public support payments available. The positive price impacts on farm
incomes seen through both the FTA and WTO default scenario are offset by the loss of direct support
payments. A reduction of direct payments, or their complete elimination, would exacerbate the
negative impact seen under the UK Trade Liberalisation scenario
Organising trade : a practice-oriented analysis of cooperatives and networks trading cereals in South Mali
Mangnus, E.P.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574311 - 178
coöperaties - voedselcoöperaties - graansoorten - handel - katoen - geschiedenis - platteland - landbouw - agrarische handel - mali - west-afrika - cooperatives - food cooperatives - cereals - trade - cotton - history - rural areas - agriculture - agricultural trade - west africa

Abstract

Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali public as well as private actors encourage farmers to trade through one specific organisational form, namely cooperatives. Nevertheless, in reality the landscape is much more diverse. A wide array of organisations can be observed and the models stimulated by external actors do not always succeed in improving the position of farmers. Considering the gap in knowledge, this dissertation poses the following question:

How and in what ways do people organise trading of cereals in South Mali?

The central aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of organisation of food trade in rural markets, by examining how and in what ways people in South Mali organise trade in cereals and sesame. Trading includes the procurement of cereals or sesame, organisation of finance, information gathering, bargaining, the organisation of transport and selling.

Organisation of trade has been studied from different angles. Studies taking a structural approach explain organisation as emerging from context. Studies that approach organisations from an instrumental perspective regard organisation as a means for efficiently solving a shared problem. Both strands provide insights for understanding organisational functioning and performance but leave open questions regarding how people organise to realise trading and why this results in organisational diversity. This thesis examines organising trade by adopting a practice-oriented approach, which has as entry point that organisation takes shape in the realization of everyday practice. Focus is on what people actually do to realise trading.

Two case study organisations are central to the study. Both are typical for how trade in rural Mali is organised. The first is a cooperative engaged in the trading of sesame in Miena, South-East Mali. The second is a cereal trading network in N’golobougou, in the centre of South Mali. Both provide an example of people collaborating and coordinating to perform trading and as such are excellent cases for tracing the formation of organisational traits that explain performance and diversity in trading cereals in South Mali.

Empirical Chapters

Chapter 2 presents a historical overview of how the organisation of trade of cereals and cotton at farmer level developed in Mali on extensive literature research. It focuses on the efforts of the Malian state to organise rural society, how producers responded, and how the interaction between the two shaped organisation. The analysis starts in the 18th century, in which cotton and cereal trade was intertwined and likewise organised. From the colonial period onwards, organisation dynamics in food and export crops evolved distinctly. For both sectors the most important events and changes are detailed. The chapter found that the political economy at stake influences the set of organisational options people can choose from and that imposed models rarely get adopted in practice.

Chapter 3 traces the emergence and development of the sesame cooperative in Miena. It builds on two strands of literature that emphasize the specific socio-historical context of an organisation. The first body highlights the resilience of existing relations and institutions by showing how these get reproduced in new organisations. The second body of literature claims that individuals involved in collective action have the capacity to influence which institutions get reproduced and which new ones get adopted, also called ‘blended’. To collect the data 35 in depth interviews with cooperative members, (ex) officials from the cotton company CMDT, local officers and NGO-workers active in the research location were collected over a period of three months. Time was spent at the weekly market, in village meetings and at peoples’ homes. Moreover 20 informal talks with villagers and traders on the market were afterwards noted down. Three distinct processes - the historical organisation of cotton farmers, the interaction between state and society and the local trade practices - are found to underlie the current functioning of the cooperative. This chapter shows how both the reproduction and blending happen purposively; in order to (continue) performance in trading.

Chapter 4 addresses the question: How do traders in Mali perform collectively? Following the methodological orientation, labelled as technography, the chapter zooms in on the use of skills and know-how by a group of people coordinating the collection and trade of cereals. Data were collected through 24 in-depth interviews with traders and 37 semi-structured interviews with pisteurs and interviews with key resource persons. Moreover, trade practices were observed during 10 market days in a row. The analysis shows that the success of the traders’ network can be explained by: (i) the use of skills and know-how for adapting to changing economic, social and environmental contexts; (ii) the network’s ability to select capable people and distribute the many trading tasks; and (iii) the network’s effective governance, based on a strict code of conduct specific to each role. The chapter shows how rules steering the distribution of tasks and collaboration in the traders’ network emerge out of the daily practice of trading.

Chapter 5 uses evidence from a network of cereal traders in the market of N’golobougou to examine how the characteristics of traders, their positions within different networks, and different kinds of relationships between traders influence performance in trading. 26 traders were extensively interviewed on the history, functioning and the size of their business. Semi-structured interviews focused on their relations in trading. A social network analysis (SNA) is applied to describe the positions of individual traders in the networks and the type of relations that link them. Qualitative analysis is used to understand the motivations underlying their position and collaboration. The findings demonstrate that trading is a complex and multifaceted activity. Within the network distinct networks have emerged to organise the collection of cereals, to arrange finance and to acquire information. Pre-existing social relations facilitate trading but do not guarantee individual success. Proven ability and reputation are equally important in cooperation and relate to the way powerful members of the network acquire a central position, which goes stepwise and takes time.

Conclusions

Collaboration is crucial for trading under the circumstances of rural Mali. Both case studies highlight the role of key individuals who spotted opportunities and mobilised others to collaborate. Different trading activities require specific skills, know-how and tools and people tend to specialise. Most skills are acquired in practice; few of them can be taught by instruction. Accordingly to what is present in terms of capacities, people’s availability and know-how, and tools, groups will distribute tasks among their members.

People also need to coordinate how skills, know-how and tools are distributed over time and space. Trading in South Mali requires bridging of long distances, adaptation to seasonality, securing finance and transport, and finding buyers. The temporal dimension of trading is visible in how traders adapt to seasonality and to how it is adjusted to people’s availability in time. Trading is also spatially situated. Poor infrastructure and long travel distances are characteristic of rural South Mali. Both the cooperative as well as the trading network therefore have a layered structure of actors close to the field, actors in the central village or market where the sesame or cereals are collected, and actors in the city to which the sesame or cereals are transported.

People do not organise in a random constellation. The range of options they can choose from are importantly influenced by the institutions active in decision-making at village level, the relationship between state and rural communities, the social networks people operate in, and the historically developed rules and regulations in market transactions. Also, previous ways of organising play a role in today’s way of organising. The empirical analyses demonstrate that organising trade is ‘path dependent’. Nevertheless, people only reproduce those procedures, habits and actions that are deemed necessary to perform. They blend old and new ways of coordination and collaboration to allow the practice of trade to continue.

The findings in this thesis show that collaboration does not rely on social relations only. Cooperating to achieve a practical end, i.e. to trade, is also skill and competence based. Organisational sustainability depends on how grouped or networked actors coordinate actions in response to changing circumstances and opportunities. Hence, organisational diversity can be understood from the fact that organisation emerges from a situated practice.

Recommendations

Organisation in trade emerges gradually and adaptively from what is present in terms of skills, capacities, know-how and experience in trading. As this is situation specific it is essential to recognize the uniqueness of each organisational form and suggests reconsidering the one-size-fit-all approaches often promoted in development interventions. Imposed organisational structures may be enabling to some extent but they leave little room for exploring the range of possible ways to achieve trading. For understanding how people organise trade it is important to understand the way they perform the actual practice in the specific social and material circumstances. The empirical chapters argue in favour of tutor–apprentice relations between experienced actors and new members, leaving decision-making power and rule setting in the hands of the most experienced traders. Current development projects supporting links between farmers and buyers often aim to be ‘inclusive’ and ‘pro-poor’, meaning that they should be accessible to anyone. The field research shows that organisations in trade in Mali are very selective in membership to assure the group achieves its objectives. Governments and other development actors should be aware of the trade-offs between inclusive, democratic organisational models, and effectiveness and performance in trading.

DaVinc³i : overzicht
Vorst, Jack van der - \ 2015
ornamental horticulture - agricultural trade - logistics - supply chain management - international trade - telecommunications - electronic commerce - information technology - strategic management - agro-industrial chains
Koepel PPS: Fytosanitaire Robuuste Ketens
Bonants, P.J.M. ; Dijk, A. - \ 2015
plantenziekten - export - landbouw - tuinbouw - gewasbescherming - plantenziektebestrijding - agrarische handel - overheid - particuliere sector - fytosanitair beleid - conferenties - plant diseases - exports - agriculture - horticulture - plant protection - plant disease control - agricultural trade - public authorities - private sector - phytosanitary policies - conferences
Overheid en bedrijfsleven hebben beide een ambitie om fytosanitaire risico’s te voorkomen en te beheersen. Het fytosanitair beleid richt zich op wering, beheersing en garantiestelling ten behoeve van export naar derde landen met betrekking tot schadelijke organismen. Kennis die nodig is voor de korte, middellange en lange termijn om deze ambitie te realiseren, speelt hierin een belangrijke rol. Poster van PlantgezondheidEvent 12 maart 2015.
Vegetables Business Opportunities in Ghana: 2014
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Elings, A. ; Glover-Tay, J. ; Koomen, I. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Nkansah, G. ; Obeng, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : GhanaVeg - 52
vegetables - market competition - markets - entrepreneurship - agricultural trade - farm management - ghana - groenten - marktconcurrentie - markten - ondernemerschap - agrarische handel - agrarische bedrijfsvoering
This report addresses the current performance, overall business climate of the vegetable sector and tries to come up with a number of business opportunities. These include business opportunities for high-quality exports, greenhouse technology, and healthy food for the domestic market. It equally advocates for a ‘system change’, both in the enabling environment and the way business is done, both in the export and domestic sectors: shifting from business as usual to new ways of doing business.
De agrarische handel van Nederland in 2014. Factsheet
Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 8
agrarische economie - import - export - handelsstatistieken - agrarische handel - nederland - duitsland - agricultural economics - imports - exports - trade statistics - agricultural trade - netherlands - germany
De Nederlandse agrarische handel had het in 2014 moeilijker dan in voorgaande jaren. In 2012 en 2013 was er nog een sterke toename in de export van agrarische producten. Voor 2014 wordt er slechts een kleine plus geraamd. Bij de import van agrarische producten is in 2014 zelfs een teruggang. Deze teruggang is vooral veroorzaakt door een lagere import waarde bij granen, oliehoudende zaden en vruchten en dierlijke en plantaardige oliën en vetten. Doordat de agrarische exporten licht stijgen en de agrarische importen dalen, is er ook in 2014, net als in 2013, weer een toename van het agrarisch handelssaldo.
Market intelligence champignons : productie en handel van Nederlandse champignons in context
Logatcheva, K. ; Smit, P.X. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2014
LEI Wageningen UR
eetbare paddestoelen - champignonbedrijven - economische situatie - marktconcurrentie - marktprijzen - consumptie - nederland - agrarische handel - export - edible fungi - mushroom houses - economic situation - market competition - market prices - consumption - netherlands - agricultural trade - exports
De Nederlandse champignonsector staat onder grote druk. De financiële resultaten dalen, evenals het aantal bedrijven en het areaal. Dit komt door de hevige concurrentie in binnen- en buitenland. Deze factsheet geeft informatie over recente ontwikkelingen in productie, handel, consumptie en prijs van champignons.
Bloembollen op pot
Kortstee, H.J.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
bloembollen - verkoopbevordering - marketingtechnieken - agrarische handel - tuincentra - consumenten - potplanten - teleshopping - marketingkanalen - ondernemerschap - bedrijfseconomie - ornamental bulbs - sales promotion - marketing techniques - agricultural trade - garden centres - consumers - pot plants - marketing channels - entrepreneurship - business economics
Gebroeders Straathof over bloembollen op pot en hoe hij met behulp van een business model zich meer gaat inzetten op de verkoop van bloembollen in potten aan consumenten.
IOB Review - Riding the wave of sustainable commodity sourcing. Review of the Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH 2008-2013
Omta, S.W.F. ; Elzakker, B. van; Schoenmakers, W.W.M.E. - \ 2014
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (IOB review, [ISSN 1566-7391] no. 397) - ISBN 9789053284643 - 120
duurzame ontwikkeling - internationale handel - goederenmarkten - publiek-private samenwerking - particuliere ondernemingen - certificering - kennis van boeren - agrarische handel - sustainable development - international trade - commodity markets - public-private cooperation - private firms - certification - farmers' knowledge - agricultural trade
The Sustainable Trade Initiative IDH (Initiatief Duurzame Handel) was set up in 2008 as a multi-stakeholder initiative of private companies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions and the Dutch government with the aim of improving smallholder production systems, market integration and enhancing sustainable sourcing from developing countries. The activities undertaken by IDH focused on improving and transforming the supply chain performance of internationally traded commodities (such as coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, timber, palm oil and fish). They rely on promoting good agricultural practice, farmers’ training and certification as key activities.
'Meer concurrentie door handelsakkoord'
Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2014
trade liberalization - international trade - trade agreements - trade barriers - agricultural trade - european union - usa - exports
Effects of an EU-US trade agreement on the Dutch agro-food sector
Berkum, S. van; Rutten, M.M. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-021) - ISBN 9789086156801 - 84
agrarische handel - handelsakkoorden - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - europese unie - vs - agricultural trade - trade agreements - food products - agricultural products - european union - usa
‘Denk na over een slechtweerscenario’ : Rente en schandalen vormen risico’s
Sleurink, D. ; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2014
Boerderij 99 (2014)34. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. R5 - R7.
melkveehouderij - sojaproducten - risicofactoren - landbouwprijzen - krachtvoeding - agrarische handel - dairy farming - soyabean products - risk factors - agricultural prices - force feeding - agricultural trade
Bij alle euforie over groei in de melkveehouderij is het belangrijk risicofactoren in de gaten te houden. Deze kunnen melkveehouders plots in zwaar weer brengen.
Local for local in Europees perspectief - Verkennende marktstudie voor de Nederlandse glastuinbouw
Stokkers, R. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 52
glastuinbouw - agrarische handel - agrarische productiesystemen - europa - landbouwhervorming - ontwikkelingsplannen - modellen - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - marktverkenningen - aanpassing van de productie - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural trade - agricultural production systems - europe - agrarian reform - development plans - models - farm planning - market surveys - adjustment of production
Het doel van deze deelstudie is om inzicht te verschaffen in de kansen en bedreigingen van het concept ‘local for local’ op de belangrijkste Europese afzetmarkten en aanknopingspunten te bieden voor Nederlandse producentenorganisaties en handels-bedrijven in de tuinbouw bij het ontwikkelen van nieuwe business modellen gericht op 'local for local'.
Duurzame verslogistiek Sierteelt
Dalfsen, Pieter van - \ 2013
forest nurseries - nurseries - farm management - agricultural trade - diversity - logistics - objectives - methodology
Food supply, demand and trade. Aspects of the economic relationship between town and countryside (Middle ages - 19th century)
Cruyningen, P.J. van; Thoen, E. - \ 2012
Turnhout, Belgium : Brepols Publishers (CORN publication series 14) - ISBN 9782503512839 - 215
voedselvoorziening - economisch gedrag - agrarische handel - platteland - stedelijke gebieden - geschiedenis - agrarische geschiedenis - europa - noordwest-europa - food supply - economic behaviour - agricultural trade - rural areas - urban areas - history - agricultural history - europe - northwestern europe
The impact of regulatory heterogeneity on agri-food trade
Winchester, N. ; Rau, M.L. ; Goetz, C. ; Larue, B. ; Otsuki, T. ; Shutes, K. ; Wieck, C. ; Burnquist, H.L. ; Pinto de Souza, M.J. ; Nunes de Faria, R. - \ 2012
The World Economy 35 (2012)8. - ISSN 0378-5920 - p. 973 - 993.
general coefficient - agricultural trade - similarity - agreements - patterns - gravity - model - sps
We estimate the impact of regulatory heterogeneity on agri-food trade using a gravity analysis that relies on detailed data on non-tariff measures (NTMs) collected by the NTM-Impact project. The data cover a broad range of import requirements for agricultural and food products for the EU and nine of its major trade partners. We find that trade is significantly reduced when importing countries have stricter maximum residue limits (MRLs) for plant products than exporting countries. For most other measures, due to their qualitative nature, we were unable to infer whether the importer has stricter standards relative to the exporter, and we do not find a robust relationship between these measures and trade. Our findings suggest that, at least for some import standards, harmonising regulations will increase trade. We also conclude that tariff reductions remain an effective means to increase trade even when NTMs abound.
Eén zwaluw maakt nog geen zomer : nu hogere seizoensprijzen, maar financiering vindt plaats op basis van gemiddelde prijzen
Roelofs, P.F.M.M. - \ 2012
De Fruitteelt 102 (2012)48. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 6 - 7.
fruitteelt - rassen (planten) - agrarische handel - marketing - aanbod - marktprijzen - gemiddelde prijzen - fruit growing - varieties - agricultural trade - supply - market prices - average prices
De commissie prijsprognoses appel en peer boog zich onlangs over de lange termijnverwachtingen voor de afzetprijzen van de belangrijkste appel- en perenrassen. Gelukkig zijn de tekenen voor het huidige afzetseizoen gunstig. Bij het opstellen van bedrijfsplannen en financiringsaanvragen moeten telers daarentegen rekenen met te verwachten afzetprijzen op de langere termijn. Die zijn gebaseerd op de (bij voorkeur bedrijfseigen) prijzen van de afgelopen vijf jaar en die stegen gemiddeld niet.
Plantenhandel kan niet zonder klok?!
Galen, Michiel van - \ 2012
auctions - marketing channels - agricultural trade - vegetables - horticulture - ornamental horticulture - change - marketing - agricultural economics
Land- en tuinbouwcijfers 2012
Wijsman, J.C.G. - \ 2012
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR / CBS (LEI-rapport 2012-56) - 260
landbouwstatistieken - oppervlakte (areaal) - eu regelingen - landbouw - agrarische handel - natuurbeheer - akkerbouw - tuinbouw - veehouderij - agricultural statistics - acreage - eu regulations - agriculture - agricultural trade - nature management - arable farming - horticulture - livestock farming
Met deze gezamenlijke publicatie bieden het LEI en het CBS een veelzijdige en handzame bron van gegevens over de ontwikkeling van de sector. Tabellen uit de publicatie met langere tijdreeksen zijn naar wens te downloaden via www.lei.wur.nl/NL/statistieken. Aanvullende actuele informatie staat op onze websites: CBS: www.cbs.nl/statline
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