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Spatial boundary of urban ‘acid islands’ in China
Du, E. ; Vries, W. de; Liu, X. ; Fang, J. ; Galloway, J.N. ; Jiang, Y. - \ 2015
Scientific Reports 5 (2015). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 9 p.
atmospheric deposition - nitrogen deposition - air-pollution - soil acidification - emissions - canopy - forest - rain - ecosystems - cities
Elevated emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia in China have resulted in high levels of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, being contributors to soil acidification, especially in and near large cities. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the way that large cities shape spatial patterns of acid deposition. Here, we assessed the patterns of pH, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall in southern China’s forests by synthesizing data from published literature. Concentrations and fluxes of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall exhibited a power-law increase with a closer distance to the nearest large cities, and accordingly pH showed a logarithmic decline. Our findings indicate the occurrence of urban ‘acid islands’ with a critical radius of approximately 70¿km in southern China, receiving potential acid loads of more than 2 keq ha-1 yr-1. These urban acid islands covered an area of 0.70¿million km2, accounting for nearly 30% of the land area in southern China. Despite a significant capacity to neutralize acids in precipitation, our analysis highlights a substantial contribution of ammonium to potential acid load. Our results suggest a joint control on emissions of multiple acid precursors from urban areas in southern China
Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands
Winkel, A. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2015
Atmospheric Environment 111 (2015). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 202 - 212.
livestock buildings - northern europe - carbon-dioxide - aerial pollutants - ventilation flow - broiler activity - air-pollution - dust - balance - health
In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.
Equivalence testing of filter-based, beta-attenuation, TEOM, and light-scattering devices for measurement of PM10 concentration in animal houses
Winkel, A. ; Llorens Rubio, J. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Vonk, J.A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Aerosol Science 80 (2015). - ISSN 0021-8502 - p. 11 - 26.
particulate matter concentrations - pig fattening facilities - emission rates - indoor concentrations - gaseous pollutant - greenhouse gases - broiler houses - air-pollution - layer house - ammonia
Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from poultry and pig houses may contribute significantly to ambient concentrations. Yet, our knowledge on the accuracy and comparability of samplers available for measuring the high PM10 concentrations (>100 µg m–3) in the inside air directly upstream of the ventilation exhausts of these buildings is very limited. The aim of this study was to provide insight into this matter for five candidate samplers: a filter-based cyclone sampler (CYS), the Thermo Scientific FH 62 I-R beta-attenuation sampler (BAS), the Thermo Scientific Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance, model 1400ab (TEOM), the TSI DustTrak model 8520 (DT), and the GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer model 1.109 (PAS). Equivalence tests were carried out following European Standard EN 12341 using two devices for each candidate sampler (CAS) and four filter-based low-volume reference samplers (RES). Measurements were performed inside three major animal housings (a fattening pig house, a laying hen house, and a broiler house) and inside an office room. Our key results and conclusions are: (1) neither one of the five CASs, nor the RES itself, met the EN 12341 requirement for comparability between devices of the same sampler type. Using a less strict boundary for this aspect – in concert with performing duplicate sampling – may be appropriate. (2) The CYS met the EN 12341 accuracy requirements in pigs and layers, but overestimated the RES concentration in broilers. The BAS, TEOM, and DT underestimated, and the PAS overestimated, RES concentrations in a systematic manner. The use of correction factors seems to be a promising method to calibrate measured values to RES concentrations. (3) The BAS, TEOM, DT, and PAS started to show scattered regression after 432–500 h of sampling, which stresses the need for shortened time intervals between full services. In conclusion, some of the samplers tested could be regarded acceptable when appropriate measures (such as duplicate sampling, correction factors, and more frequent servicing) are applied.
Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation
Rogelj, J. ; Schaeffer, M. ; Meinshausen, M. ; Shindell, D.T. ; Hare, W. ; Klimont, Z. ; Velders, G.J.M. ; Amann, M. ; Schellnhuber, H.J. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)46. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 16325 - 16330.
greenhouse-gas emissions - cumulative carbon emissions - air-pollution - black carbon - copenhagen accord - human health - pathways - benefits - challenges - consistent
Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.
Inorganic nitrogen deposition in China's forests: Status and characteristics
Du, E. ; Jiang, Y. ; Fang, J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2014
Atmospheric Environment 98 (2014). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 474 - 482.
atmospheric deposition - canopy uptake - throughfall measurements - ammonia emissions - reduced nitrogen - bulk deposition - wet deposition - air-pollution - higher-plants - transport
Nitrogen (N) deposition in China has been dramatically enhanced by anthropogenic emissions and has aroused great concerns of its impacts on forest ecosystems. This study synthesized data on ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) contents in bulk precipitation and throughfall from 38 forest stands in published literature to assess the status and characteristics of N deposition to typical forests in China between 1995 and 2010. Our results showed that ammonium dominated N deposition in this period, with a mean NH4+–N:NO3-–N ratio of ~2.5 in bulk deposition and throughfall. Mean throughfall N deposition in China's forests was as high as 14.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for ammonium, 5.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for nitrate and 21.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for total inorganic N (TIN), respectively. Mean bulk deposition was 9.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for ammonium, 3.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for nitrate and 14.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for TIN, respectively. Canopy captured dry deposition, calculated as the difference between throughfall and bulk deposition, was thus approximately half of the bulk deposition. Spatial patterns of N deposition were in accordance with our urban hotspot hypothesis, showing a strong power-law reduction of ammonium with increasing distance to large cities but only slightly lower nitrate deposition. Our results suggest that high N deposition, especially of ammonium, exceeds critical N loads for large areas of China's forests.
Towards the integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe
Danielewska, A. ; Paoletti, E. ; Clarke, N. ; Olejnik, J. ; Urbaniak, M. ; Baran, M. ; Siedlecki, P. ; Hansen, K. ; Lundin, L. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2013
Forest Systems 22 (2013)3. - ISSN 2171-5068 - p. 535 - 545.
eddy covariance measurements - carbon balance - climate-change - air-pollution - mixed forest - heat fluxes - water-vapor - co2 - exchange - boreal
Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN), based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012. Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included. Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European Networks were identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called “Supersites” concept, defined as a “highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions” was discussed. Main results: The result of the survey indicate that the vast majority of the Action FP0903 countries participate in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forest (ICP Forest). The multi-disciplinary International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICPIM) is the second most widespread forest programme. Research highlights: To fully understand biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems, long-term monitoring is needed. Hence, a network of “Supersites”, is proposed. The application of the above infrastructure can be an effective way to attain a better integration of research and monitoring networks at forest sites in Europe
Beyond the research–policy interface. Boundary arrangements at research–stakeholder interfaces in the policy debate on biofuel sustainability in Mozambique
Schut, M. ; Paassen, A. van; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2013
Environmental Science & Policy 27 (2013). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 91 - 102.
air-pollution - science - systems - coproduction - netherlands - information - work
This paper explores the relationships and division of tasks and responsibilities (boundary arrangements) between research and stakeholders in policy processes in competing claims contexts. The paper starts from the idea that better understanding about the role of research in multi-stakeholder policy processes requires going beyond the research–policy interface, by analysing boundary arrangements at multiple research–stakeholder interfaces. The paper describes five episodes in the policy debate on biofuel sustainability in Mozambique. Within each episode, the boundary arrangements at the different research–stakeholder interfaces in relation to the policy context, research activities and stakeholder dynamics inside and outside the policy arena are described and analysed. The analysis creates awareness about the complexities, pitfalls and opportunities of actively engaging in multi-stakeholder policy processes, as this is likely to result in situations where multiple boundary arrangements at different research–stakeholder interfaces co-emerge and coexist. The direction in which boundary arrangements at a research–stakeholder interface develop over time is affected by the credibility, legitimacy and salience of the research as perceived by the specific stakeholder group, the changing policy context and boundary arrangements at other research–stakeholder interfaces. Different boundary arrangements relating to policy content and policy process can coexist at a research–stakeholder interface. Furthermore, boundary arrangements show patterns of path dependency in terms of their credibility, legitimacy and salience for different stakeholders through time.
Effect of Bedding Material on Dust and Ammonia Emission from Broiler Houses
Harn, J. van; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Riel, J.W. van; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 55 (2012)1. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 219 - 226.
foot-pad dermatitis - particulate matter - air-pollution - laying hens - livestock buildings - northern europe - lung-function - litter - poultry - chickens
Ammonia emission, Bedding material, Broilers, Dust emission The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different bedding materials on fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) and ammonia emissions from broiler houses. The effects on broiler performance and footpad lesions were also studied. The study was carried out in a mechanically ventilated broiler house with eight identical rooms, each accommodating 2260 broilers; it compromised two production cycles (rounds) of 35 days. The broilers were raised on four bedding materials: white wood shavings, chopped wheat straw, ground rapeseed straw, and silage maize. PM10, PM2.5, and ammonia concentrations and ventilation rates were measured. Production results and the incidence of footpad lesions were assessed. The results showed that compared with wood shavings, silage maize had 19% lower PM2.5 emission (p <0.05). The PM2.5 emissions of silage maize were not different from those of wheat straw and rapeseed straw. Type of bedding had no effect on PM10 emission. PM2.5 mass was on average 4.8% of PM10 mass and increased with the age of the birds (p <0.001). Ammonia emission from silage maize was 36% lower than from wood shavings, 47% less than from wheat straw, and 34% less than from rapeseed straw. Bedding material had no effect on broiler performance or on footpad lesions. It was concluded that silage maize can be a good alternative bedding to wood shavings and wheat straw in broiler houses
Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations
Ferreira, M.J. ; Oliveira, A.P. de; Soares, J. ; Codato, G. ; Wilde Barbaro, E. ; Escobedo, J.F. - \ 2012
Theoretical and Applied Climatology 107 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0177-798X - p. 229 - 246.
urban heat-island - land-surface - longwave radiation - solar-radiation - energy-balance - satellite data - st-louis - climate research - air-pollution - rural-areas
The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation (Q*), downwelling and upwelling shortwave radiation (SWDW, SWUP), and longwave radiations (LWDW, LWUP) in February were, respectively, 37%, 14%, 19%, 11%, and 5% larger than they were in August. The monthly average daily values indicate a variation of 60% for Q*, with a minimum in June and a maximum in December; 45% for SWDW, with a minimum in May and a maximum in September; 50% for SWUP, with a minimum in June and a maximum in September; 13% for LWDW, with a minimum in July and a maximum in January; and 9% for LWUP, with a minimum in July and a maximum in February. It was verified that the atmospheric broadband transmissivity varied from 0.36 to 0.57; the effective albedo of the surface varied from 0.08 to 0.10; and the atmospheric effective emissivity varied from 0.79 to 0.92. The surface effective emissivity remained approximately constant and equal to 0.96. The albedo and surface effective emissivity for São Paulo agreed with those reported for urban areas Europe and North America cities. This indicates that material and geometric effects on albedo and surface emissivity in São Paulo are similar to ones observed in typical middle latitudes cities. On the other hand, it was found that São Paulo city induces an urban heat island with daytime maximum intensity varying from 2.6°C in July (16:00 LT) to 5.5°C in September (15:00 LT). The analysis of the radiometric properties carried out here indicate that this daytime maximum is a primary response to the seasonal variation of daily values of net solar radiation at the surface.
Sources, distribution, and acidity of sulfate–ammonium aerosol in the Arctic in winter–spring
Fisher, J.A. ; Jacob, D.J. ; Wang, Q. ; Bahreini, R. ; Carouge, C.C. ; Cubison, M.J. ; Dibb, J.E. ; Diehl, T. ; Jiminez, J.L. ; Leibensperger, E.M. ; Lu, Z. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Pye, H.O.T. ; Quinn, P.K. ; Sharma, S. ; Streets, D.G. ; Donkelaar, A. van; Yantosca, R.M. - \ 2011
Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011)39. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 7301 - 7318.
circulation model assessment - cloud resolving simulations - dry deposition - chemical-composition - asian pollution - ice nucleation - air-pollution - intex-b - atmospheric transport - ozone depletion
We use GEOS-Chem chemical transport model simulations of sulfate–ammonium aerosol data from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC aircraft campaigns in the North American Arctic in April 2008, together with longer-term data from surface sites, to better understand aerosol sources in the Arctic in winter–spring and the implications for aerosol acidity. Arctic pollution is dominated by transport from mid-latitudes, and we test the relevant ammonia and sulfur dioxide emission inventories in the model by comparison with wet deposition flux data over the source continents. We find that a complicated mix of natural and anthropogenic sources with different vertical signatures is responsible for sulfate concentrations in the Arctic. East Asian pollution influence is weak in winter but becomes important in spring through transport in the free troposphere. European influence is important at all altitudes but never dominant. West Asia (non-Arctic Russia and Kazakhstan) is the largest contributor to Arctic sulfate in surface air in winter, reflecting a southward extension of the Arctic front over that region. Ammonium in Arctic spring mostly originates from anthropogenic sources in East Asia and Europe, with added contribution from boreal fires, resulting in a more neutralized aerosol in the free troposphere than at the surface. The ARCTAS and ARCPAC data indicate a median aerosol neutralization fraction [NH4+]/(2[SO42-] + [NO3-]) of 0.5 mol mol-1 below 2 km and 0.7 mol mol-1 above. We find that East Asian and European aerosol transported to the Arctic is mostly neutralized, whereas West Asian and North American aerosol is highly acidic. Growth of sulfur emissions in West Asia may be responsible for the observed increase in aerosol acidity at Barrow over the past decade. As global sulfur emissions decline over the next decades, increasing aerosol neutralization in the Arctic is expected, potentially accelerating Arctic warming through indirect radiative forcing and feedbacks.
Economic benefits generated by protected areas: the case of the Hoge Veluwe forest, the Netherlands
Hein, L.G. - \ 2011
Ecology and Society 16 (2011)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. Art. 13 - Art. 13.
ecosystem services - environmental services - air-pollution - land-use - conservation - biodiversity - europe - information - valuation - mortality
Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in spite of the large share of forests in the protected area system in most countries. An economic valuation of the ecosystem services supplied by the Hoge Veluwe forest in the Netherlands is presented. The Hoge Veluwe forest is one of the largest and most well-known protected areas in the country. The services included in the study are wood production, supply of game, groundwater recharge, carbon sequestration, air filtration, recreation, and nature conservation. A conservative estimate of the total economic benefits generated by the forest is around 2000 Euro/ha/year, which is more than three times higher than the per hectare-value generated by nearby agricultural land. The study provides an analysis of the economic value of eight ecosystem services, discusses the uncertainties of the value estimates, and examines the implications for financing protected area management.
The European aerosol budget in 2006
Brugh, J.M.J. Aan de; Schaap, M. ; Vignati, E. ; Dentener, F. ; Kahnert, M. ; Sofiev, M. ; Huijnen, V. ; Krol, M.C. - \ 2011
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11 (2011)3. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 1117 - 1139.
general-circulation model - evaluation program emep - light absorbing carbon - air-pollution - sulfuric-acid - sea-salt - tropospheric aerosols - 3-dimensional model - size distributions - particulate matter
This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension). We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95%) and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%). We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match), while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional) aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study
Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?
Spier, L. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Dort, K.W. van - \ 2010
Environmental Pollution 158 (2010)12. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 3607 - 3611.
epiphytic lichens - air-pollution - ammonia - netherlands - communities - nh3
To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH.
Assessing the Impacts of Long-Range Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition on Arctic and Sub-Arctic Ecosystems
Forsius, M. ; Posch, M. ; Aherne, J. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Christensen, J. ; Hole, L. - \ 2010
Ambio 39 (2010)2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 136 - 147.
critical loads - terrestrial ecosystems - forest ecosystems - air-pollution - model - soil - acidification - uncertainty - simulation - pechenga
For more than a decade, anthropogenic sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition has been identified as a key pollutant in the Arctic. In this study new critical loads of acidity (S and N) were estimated for terrestrial ecosystems north of 60A degrees latitude by applying the Simple Mass Balance (SMB) model using two critical chemical criteria (Al/Bc = 1 and ANC(le) = 0). Critical loads were exceeded in large areas of northern Europe and the Norilsk region in western Siberia during the 1990s, with the more stringent criterion (ANC(le) = 0) showing the larger area of exceedance. However, modeled deposition estimates indicate that mean concentrations of sulfur oxides and total S deposition within the Arctic almost halved between 1990 and 2000. The modeled exceeded area is much reduced when currently agreed emission reductions are applied, and almost disappears under the implementation of maximum technically feasible reductions by 2020. In northern North America there was no exceedance under any of the deposition scenarios applied. Modeled N deposition was less than 5 kg ha(-1) y(-1) almost across the entire study area for all scenarios; and therefore empirical critical loads for the eutrophying impact of nitrogen are unlikely to be exceeded. The reduction in critical load exceedances is supported by observed improvements in surface water quality, whereas the observed extensive damage of terrestrial vegetation around the mining and smelter complexes in the area is mainly caused by direct impacts of air pollution and metals.
Evaluation of approaches to calculate critical metal loads for forest soils
Vries, W. de; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2009
Environmental Pollution 157 (2009)12. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 3422 - 3432.
biotic ligand model - scots pine-seedlings - organic-matter - humic substances - soil solution - kola-peninsula - surface waters - acute toxicity - air-pollution - fresh-waters
This paper evaluates approaches to calculate acceptable loads for metal deposition to forest ecosystems, distinguishing between critical loads, stand-still loads and target loads. We also evaluated the influence of including the biochemical metal cycle on the calculated loads. Differences are illustrated by examples of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn for a deciduous forest on five major soil types in the Netherlands. Stand-still loads are generally lower than critical loads, which in turn are lower than the target loads indicating that present levels are below critical levels. Uncertainties in the calculated critical loads are mainly determined by the uncertainty in the critical limits and the chemical speciation model. Including the metal cycle has a small effect on the calculated critical loads. Results are discussed in view of the applicability of the critical load concept for metals in future protocols on the reduction in metal emissions.
Modelling recovery from soil acidification in European forests under climate change
Reinds, G.J. ; Posch, M. ; Leemans, R. - \ 2009
Science of the Total Environment 407 (2009)21. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 5663 - 5673.
air-pollution - elevated co2 - integrated assessment - nitrogen deposition - acid precipitation - chemical status - organic-carbon - ecosystems - impacts - temperature
A simple soil acidification model was applied to evaluate the effects of sulphur and nitrogen emission reductions on the recovery of acidified European forest soils. In addition we included the effects of climate change on soil solution chemistry, by modelling temperature effects on soil chemical processes and including temperature and precipitation effects on nitrogen uptake and on leaching. Model results showed a strong effect of the emission reduction scenarios on soil solution chemistry. Using the Current Legislation (CLE) scenario, the forest area in Europe with soil solution Al/Bc >1 mol mol(-1) (a widely used critical limit) decreased from about 4% in 1990 to about 1.7% in 2050. Under Maximum Feasible Reductions (MFR), the exceeded area will be
Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)
Hamers, T.H.M. ; Berg, J.H.J. van den; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Schooten, F.J. van; Murk, A.J. - \ 2006
Environmental Pollution 144 (2006)2. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 581 - 595.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - earthworms eisenia-andrei - polychlorinated-biphenyls - lumbricus-terrestris - contaminated soil - air-pollution - dna-adducts - exposure - bioavailability - accumulation
A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus.
Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia
Cofala, J. ; Amann, M. ; Gyarfas, F. ; Schoepp, F. ; Boudri, J.C. ; Hordijk, L. ; Kroeze, C. ; Li Junfeng, ; Dai Lin, D. ; Panwar, T.S. ; Gupta, S. - \ 2004
Journal of Environmental Management 72 (2004)3. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 149 - 161.
air-pollution - energy - sulfur - trends - strategies - deposition - china
Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation routine that can be used to identify cost-effective emission control strategies that achieve environmental targets for ambient SO2 concentrations and sulphur deposition at least costs. Example scenarios developed with this optimisation module demonstrate a potential for significant cost savings in Asia, if emission controls are allocated to those sources that have the largest environmental impact and are cheapest to control. It is shown that strategies that simultaneously address harmful population exposure and the risk of vegetation damage from acid deposition result in the most cost-effective use of resources spent for emission controls. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants
Dobben, H.F. van; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Braak, C.J.F. ter - \ 2001
Environmental Pollution 112 (2001)2. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 163 - 169.
korstmossen - mossen - zware metalen - toxicologie - monitoring - biologische monitoring - lichens - mosses - heavy metals - toxicology - biomonitoring - air-pollution - sensitivity - netherlands - deposition - conifers - dioxide - copper - growth - bark
A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to estimate concentrations of these elements in the environment. In a field study in The Netherlands the abundance of epiphytic lichen species was estimated, and their supporting bark was collected. Concentrations of a range of trace elements were determined in the bark, and concentrations of atmospheric trace gases were estimated at the sites of collection. Multivariate statistics were used to determine the relation between the abundance of the species and pollutant concentrations. Atmospheric SO2 and NO2 appeared to be the most important factors determining lichen biodiversity. Nearly all species were sensitive to these compounds. The effect of the other trace elements was very slight; only Sb had a significantly negative effect on the abundance of a few species. It is concluded that lichens can safely be used as accumulator organisms in pollution studies, provided that concentration in lichen thalli reflect atmospheric concentrations