Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Geëcologiseerde samenleving versus arme mensen
Gils, S.H. van; Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)4. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 22 - 29.
voedselvoorziening - voedselzekerheid - milieueffect - meerlagenteelt - alternatieve landbouw - voedselproductie - agro-ecologie - boeren - inkomen van landbouwers - food supply - food security - environmental impact - multi-layer cultivation - alternative farming - food production - agroecology - farmers - farmers' income
Niemand weet hoeveel milieubelasting de aarde precies kan hebben, maar een ecologische crisis van ongekende proporties ligt voortdurend op de loer, stellen Stijn van Gils en Louise Vet. Ze pleiten voor radicale veranderingen in de maatschappij. Zo’n ‘geëcologiseerde samenleving’ is volgens hen niet alleen goed voor de aarde, het geeft ook nieuw economisch perspectief. Ralf Bodelier vindt echter dat de ecologen Vet en Van Gils te weinig rekening houden met miljarden armen.
Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food
Veen, E.J. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Andries Visser; Bettina Bock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573383 - 265
publieke tuinen - tuinieren - stedelijke gebieden - bewonersparticipatie - buurtactie - stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - volkstuinen - voedingsmiddelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - sociologie - public gardens - gardening - urban areas - community participation - community action - urban agriculture - alternative farming - allotment gardens - foods - organic foods - sociology
Summary

Introduction

The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system.

I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communally or individually by people from the direct neighbourhood or the wider city, or in which urbanites are involved in other ways than gardening, and to which there is a collective element. Over the last years, community gardens have sprung up in several Dutch cities. Although there are various reasons for an increasing interest in community gardens, there are two that I focus on in this thesis in particular. The first is the assumption made that community gardens stimulate social cohesion in inner-city neighbourhoods, to be seen in the light of the ‘participatory society’. The second is community gardens’ contribution to the availability of locally produced food, in the context of an increased interest in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs).

The Dutch government aims to transform the Dutch welfare state into a participatory society in which citizens take more responsibility for their social and physical environment. This way the government not only hopes to limit public spending, but also wishes to increase social bonding and the self-organisational capacity of society. Community gardens fit the rhetoric around the participatory society, as they are examples of organised residents taking responsibility for their living environment. Moreover, the literature suggests that gardens are physical interventions that may decrease isolation by acting as meeting places. However, both the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion and under what conditions they may do so are unclear, especially as gardens come in various designs, shapes and sizes.

The popularity of community gardens also seems to be related to an overall increasing societal interest in food, and can be discussed in relation to Alternative Food Networks. AFNs are food systems that are different in some way from the mainstream, and are seen as a reaction to consumer concerns about the conventional food system. They are often considered to be dictated by political motivations and injected with a ‘deeper morality’. The category ‘AFN’ is however a heterogeneous category, as is the conventional food system; neither can be easily defined. The degree to which community gardens can be seen as AFNs is therefore unclear. While they do improve the availability of local food and operate outside of the market economy, we do not know how much and how often people eat from their gardens, nor do we know to what extent they are involved in the gardens in order to provide an alternative to the industrial food system. Hence, there is a lack of knowledge about the sense in which community gardens are alternative alternatives.

Research questions

The overall research question of this thesis is:

What is the significance of community gardening in terms of its intention to promote social cohesion as well as its representation as an alternative food system?

This broad question is instructed by the following sub-questions:

Why do people get involved in community gardens? What are their motivations?How, to what extent, and under which conditions does community gardening promote the development of social relations between participants? How do participants value these social effects? To what extent do the diets of community garden participants originate from the gardens in which they are involved? What is the importance of food in community gardens?What is the importance of growing or getting access to alternative food for participants of community gardens? Methodology

An important theoretical lens in this research is the theory of practice. Practices are defined as concrete human activity and include things, bodily doings and sayings. By performing practices people not only draw upon but also feed into structure. Routinisation – of practices, but also of daily life – therefore plays a central role in practice theory. Practice theory allows for an emphasis on practical reality as well as a study of motivations. This focus on how people manage everyday life, and how gardening fits within that, makes it particularly useful for this thesis.

I define social cohesion as the way in which people in a society feel and are connected to each other (De Kam and Needham 2003) and operationalised it by focusing on ‘social contacts, social networks, and social capital’, one of the elements into which social cohesion is often broken up. This element was operationalised as 1) contacts (the width of social cohesion) and 2) mutual help (the depth of social cohesion).

This research has a case study design; I studied four Dutch community gardens over a two-year period of time, and later supplemented these with an additional three cases. As practices consist of both doings and sayings, analysis must be concerned with both practical activity and its representation. I used participant observations to study practical activities, and interviews, questionnaires and document study to examine the representation of these activities.

Findings

Chapters 3 to 7 form the main part of this thesis. They are papers/book chapters that have been submitted to or are published by scientific journals or books. All of them are based on the field work.

In chapter 3 we compare two of the case studies and determine to what extent they can be seen as ‘alternative’. We argue that although reflexive motivations are present, most participants are unwilling to frame their involvement as political, and mundane motivations play an important role in people’s involvement as well. By using the concept of ‘food provisioning practices’ we show that participants of community gardens are often required to be actively involved in the production of their food. This means that participants are both producers and consumers: the gardens show a ‘sliding scale of producership’. This chapter also shows that political statements are not a perfect predictor of actual involvement in community gardening. This finding was one of the main reasons for starting to use the theory of practice, which is the main topic of the next chapter.

In chapter 4 we compare one of my case studies with an urban food growing initiative in New York City. By comparing the internal dynamics of these two cases and their relations with other social practices, we investigate whether different urban food growing initiatives can be seen as variations of one single practice. We also study the question of whether the practice can be seen as emerging. In particular, we take the elements of meaning, competences and material (Shove et al. 2012) into account. We found both similarities and differences between the two cases, with the main difference relating to the meanings practitioners attach to the practice. We conclude, therefore, that it is not fully convincing to see these cases as examples of the same social practice. We also argue that urban food growing may be considered an emerging practice, because it combines various practices, both new and established, under one single heading.

In chapter 5 we use the theory of practice to explore how urban food growing is interwoven with everyday life. We compare four community gardens - two allotments and two cases which we define as AFNs. We found that participants of the allotments are involved in the practice of gardening, while members of the AFNs are involved in the practice of shopping. The gardening practice requires structural engagement, turning it into a routine. The produce is a result of that routine and is easily integrated into daily meals. As AFNs are associated with the practice of shopping, they remain in competition with more convenient food acquisition venues. Eating from these gardens is therefore less easily integrated in daily life; every visit to the garden requires a conscious decision. Hence, whether members are primarily involved in shopping or in growing has an impact on the degree to which they eat urban-grown food. This shows that motivations are embedded in the context and routine of everyday life, and ‘only go so far’.

Chapter 6 concerns the organisational differences between the seven case studies in this thesis and the extent to which these influence the enhancement of social cohesion. We study people’s motivations for being involved in the gardens and compare these with the three main organisational differences. This comparison reveals that the gardens can be divided into place-based and interest-based gardens. Place-based gardens are those in which people participate for social reasons – aiming to create social bonds in the neighbourhood. Interest-based gardens are those in which people participate because they enjoy growing vegetables. Nevertheless, all of these gardens contribute to the development of social cohesion. Moreover, while participants who are motivated by the social aspects of gardening show a higher level of appreciation for them, these social aspects also bring added value for those participants who are motivated primarily by growing vegetables.

In chapter 7 we present a garden that exemplifies that gardens may encompass not only one, but indeed several communities, and that rapprochement and separation take place simultaneously. While this garden is an important meeting place, thereby contributing to social cohesion, it harbours two distinct communities. These communities assign others to categories (‘us’ and ‘them’) on the basis of place of residence, thereby strengthening their own social identities. Ownership over the garden is both an outcome and a tool in that struggle. We define the relationship between these two communities as instrumental-rational – referring to roles rather than individuals - which explains why they do not form a larger unity. Nevertheless, the two communities show the potential to develop into a larger imagined garden-community.

Conclusions

This thesis shows that the different organisational set-ups of community gardens reflect gardeners’ different motivations for being involved in these gardens. The gardens studied in this thesis can be defined as either place-based or interest-based; gardens in the first category are focused on the social benefits of gardening, whereas gardens in the second category are focused on gardening and vegetables. Nevertheless, social effects occur in both types of gardens; in all of the gardens studied, participants meet and get to know others and value these contacts. Based on this finding, I conclude that community gardens do indeed enhance social cohesion.

Place-based community gardens specifically have the potential to become important meeting places; they offer the opportunity to work communally towards a common goal, and once established, can develop into neighbourhood spaces to be used for various other shared activities. Most interest-based gardens lack opportunities to develop the social contacts that originated at the garden beyond the borders of the garden. These gardens are often maintained by people who do not live close to the garden or to each other, and those who garden are generally less motivated by social motivations per se. Important to note is that community gardens do not necessarily foster a more inclusive society; they often attract people with relatively similar socio-economic backgrounds and may support not one, but several communities.

Most participants from place-based gardens eat from their gardens only occasionally; others never do so. This type of community garden can therefore hardly be seen as a reaction to the industrialised food system, let alone an attempt to create an alternative food system. Nevertheless, certain aspects of these gardens are in line with the alternative rhetoric. By contrast, most gardeners at interest-based gardens eat a substantial amount of food from their gardens, and to some of them the choice to consume this locally-grown food relates to a lifestyle in which environmental considerations play a role. However, this reflexivity is not expressed in political terms and participants do not see themselves as part of a food movement. Participants who buy rather than grow produce showed the greatest tendency to explain their involvement in political terms, but many of them have difficulty including the produce in their diets on a regular basis. I therefore conclude that community gardens cannot be seen as conscious, ‘alternative’ alternatives to the industrial food system. Nonetheless, the role of food in these gardens is essential, as it is what brings participants together – either because they enjoy gardening or because the activities which are organised there centre around food.

Theoretical contributions

In this thesis I used and aimed to contribute to the theory of practice. Using participant observations to study what people do in reality was particularly useful. It turned research into an embodied activity, enabling me to truly ‘live the practice’, and therefore to understand it from the inside.

Deconstructing the practice of food provisioning into activities such as buying, growing and cooking was helpful in gaining an understanding of how people manage everyday life, and how food acquisitioning fits into their everyday rhythms. It sheds light on how and to what extent people experience the practice of community gardening as a food acquisitioning practice, and to what degree they relate it to other elements of food provisioning such as cooking and eating. The focus on the separate elements of food provisioning practices helped me realise that acquiring food from community gardens represents a different practice to different people; some are engaged in the practice of growing food, others in the practice of shopping for food.

This thesis showed that motivations delineate how the practice ‘works out in practice’; the way in which a practice such as community gardening is given shape attracts people with certain motivations, who, by reproducing that practice, increase the attractiveness of the practice for others with similar motivations. This implies that while community gardening appears to be one practice, it should in fact be interpreted as several distinct practices, such as the practice of food growing or the practice of social gathering. Motivations therefore influence a garden’s benefits and outcomes. This thesis thus highlights that motivations should not be overlooked when studying practices.

Apprehending the motivations of community gardeners is also an important contribution to the literature around AFNs, since it helps us to understand the extent to which urban food production is truly alternative. By studying motivations, this thesis reveals that AFNs do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, or that not all food growing initiatives in the city can be defined as alternative. However, participants of community gardens are often both producers and consumers (there is a ‘sliding scale of producership’); the gardens are thus largely independent from the conventional food system. Moreover, for participants who buy produce, the meaning of the gardens often goes beyond an economic logic (there is a ‘sliding scale of marketness’). Hence, while the gardens studied in this thesis are no alternative alternatives, most of them can be qualified as ‘actually existing alternatives’ (after Jehlicka and Smith 2011).

This thesis showed that even those gardens in which the commodification of food is being challenged do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, which is contrary to what is argued by Watts et al. (2005). This implies that understanding whether or not initiatives resist incorporation into the food system is insufficient to be able to determine whether or not they can be defined as alternative food networks. However, determining whether or not deeper moral reflection is present is not a satisfactory way of defining food networks as alternative either, as this neglects the fact that motivations do not always overlap with practical reality. This suggests that establishing whether a food network can be regarded as alternative requires studying both motivations and practical reality. The thesis also raises the question to what extent the label AFN is still useful. Since it is unclear what ‘alternative’ means exactly, it is also unclear whether a given initiative can be considered alternative. Moreover, the world of food seems too complex to be represented by a dichotomy between alternative and conventional food systems; the gardens presented in this thesis are diverse and carry characteristics of both systems. I therefore suggest considering replacing the term AFN with that of civic food networks, as Renting et al. (2012) advocate.

Smart Seafood
Ketelaars, J.J.M.H. ; Tacken, W. - \ 2014
zout water - voedselproductie - nieuwe producten - zoutwaterlandbouw - landbouw - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - alternatieve landbouw - teelt - saline water - food production - new products - saline agriculture - agriculture - novel foods - alternative farming - cultivation
Met de slogan ‘Land in Zee’ profileert de provincie Zeeland zich als de plek waar de zee altijd en overal dichtbij is. Die nabijheid nodigt uit om te profiteren van de unieke mogelijkheden van zoutwater voor recreatie en natuur, maar ook voor de productie van voedsel. Met het programma Smart Seafood wil de provincie slim gebruik van zoutwater en zilte omstandigheden binnendijks bevorderen. Dat kan door kennis en kennisontwikkeling te verbinden met ondernemerschap. Waar liggen de kansen voor nieuwe producten uit een zout of zilt milieu?
Why we need small cows : ways to design for urban agriculture
Roggema, R.E. ; Keeffe, G. - \ 2014
Velp : VHL University of Applied Sciences - ISBN 9789082245110 - 329 p.
stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - stedelijke gebieden - landbouw bedrijven - landbouw - voedselproductie - innovaties - stedelijke samenleving - urban agriculture - alternative farming - urban areas - farming - agriculture - food production - innovations - urban society
Assessing climate change and associated socio-economic scenarios for arable farming in the Netherlands: An application of benchmarking and bio-economic farm modelling
Kanellopoulos, A. ; Reidsma, P. ; Wolf, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
European Journal of Agronomy 52 (2014)Part A. - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 69 - 80.
akkerbouw - klimaatverandering - opbrengsten - groeimodellen - scenario-analyse - alternatieve landbouw - arable farming - climatic change - yields - growth models - scenario analysis - alternative farming - agricultural land-use - integrated assessment - european-community - future - crop - efficiency - impacts - systems
Future farming systems are challenged to adapt to the changing socio-economic and bio-physical environment in order to remain competitive and to meet the increasing requirements for food and fibres. The scientific challenge is to evaluate the consequences of predefined scenarios, identify current “best” practices and explore future adaptation strategies at farm level. The objective of this article is to assess the impact of different climate change and socio-economic scenarios on arable farming systems in Flevoland (the Netherlands) and to explore possible adaptation strategies. Data Envelopment Analysis was used to identify these current “best” practices while bio-economic modelling was used to calculate a number of important economic and environmental indicators in scenarios for 2050. Relative differences between yields with and without climate change and technological change were simulated with a crop bio-physical model and used as a correction factors for the observed crop yields of current “best” practices. We demonstrated the capacity of the proposed methodology to explore multiple scenarios by analysing the importance of drivers of change, while accounting for variation between individual farms. It was found that farmers in Flevoland are in general technically efficient and a substantial share of the arable land is currently under profit maximization. We found that climate change increased productivity in all tested scenarios. However, the effects of different socio-economic scenarios (globalized and regionalized economies) on the economic and environmental performance of the farms were variable. Scenarios of a globalized economy where the prices of outputs were simulated to increase substantially might result in increased average gross margin and lower average (per ha) applications of crop protection and fertilizers. However, the effects might differ between different farm types. It was found that, the abolishment of sugar beet quota and changes of future prices of agricultural inputs and outputs in such socio-economic scenario (i.e. globalized economy) caused a decrease in gross margins of smaller (in terms of economic size) farms, while gross margin of larger farms increased. In scenarios where more regionalized economies and a moderate climate change are assumed, the future price ratios between inputs and outputs are shown to be the key factors for the viability of arable farms in our simulations
Identifying agroecological mixed farming strategies for local conditions in San Antonio de Los Baños, Cuba
Monzote, F.R.F. ; Bello, R. ; Alvarex, A. ; Hernández, A. ; Lantinga, E.A. ; Keulen, H. van - \ 2012
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 10 (2012)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 208 - 229.
bedrijfssystemen - cuba - alternatieve landbouw - gemengde landbouw - agro-ecologie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzame landbouw - plattelandsontwikkeling - farming systems - alternative farming - mixed farming - agroecology - farm management - sustainable agriculture - rural development - systems - agriculture - indicators - diversity - impact - asia
Building on previous research at the experimental and national scales, this study was carried out at the local scale over a four-year period on three farms of reference: one specialized dairy farm ‘Vaquería 10’ (33.7 ha) and two mixed farms, ‘Remedio’ (9.4 ha) and ‘La Sarita’ (47 ha). All three farms are located in the San Antonio de Los Baños municipality, Havana, Cuba. This study illustrates the application of the Ecological Framework for the Assessment of Sustainability (ECOFAS). This methodology consists of a cyclical structure of six steps, aimed at guiding the process of implementing innovative mixed (crop–livestock) farming strategies. Local stakeholders (farmers, researchers, extension officers and representatives of the ministry of agriculture in the municipality) identified alternative strategies for agriculture in the region, based on the critical technological, environmental and socio-economic factors constraining the current performance of farming systems. The results show that implementation of ‘best practice’ mixed farming systems management strategies in the region potentially can lead to a strong positive impact on land productivity, food self-sufficiency as well as improve socio-economic performance.
Sustainability indicators, alternative strategies and trade-offs in peasant agroecosystems : analysing 15 case studies from Latin America
Astier, M. ; Speelman, E.N. ; López-Ridaura, S. ; Masera, O.R. ; Gonzalez-Esquivel, C.E. - \ 2011
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9 (2011)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 409 - 422.
agro-ecosystemen - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - alternatieve landbouw - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gevalsanalyse - latijns-amerika - agroecosystems - peasant farming - alternative farming - sustainability indicators - sustainability - case studies - latin america - agricultural sustainability - developing-countries - framework - systems - biodiversity - methodology - landscapes - poverty - lessons
In view of the urgent need to improve agroecosystem sustainability, several efforts have been made to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies on key environmental and socioeconomic variables at the farm, community and regional levels. Most peasant farmers manage complex and diverse agroecosystems, and constantly adapt management strategies with multiple aims. A sustainability evaluation framework for peasant systems has been applied in over 40 case studies in Latin America, from which 15 were analysed, focusing on the choice of indicators, the effect of alternative strategies on agroecosystem sustainability and the trade-offs involved. Common indicators include yields, income, agrodiversity and external input dependence. Alternative strategies include crop/product diversification and soil conservation practices. Yields, income and agrodiversity improved in most cases, but in some cases the establishment costs increased external input use. Trade-offs observed include improved performance of a subsystem (i.e. crops) vs. decreased one in others (livestock, forestry) and increases in productivity vs. decreases in stability, resilience and reliability. The difficulty of assessing systems in transition towards alternative management was acknowledged by some evaluation teams. Applying the framework to such a vartiety of cases allowed making the sustainability concept operational, promoted alternatieve strategies and generated knowledge on agroecosystem processes among stakeholders.
MKBA EcoLaNa grondfonds : De maatschappelijke gevolgen van de implementatie van een aantal duurzaamheidcriteria op veehouderij en akkerbouwbedrijven
Blaeij, A.T. de; Dekking, A.J.G. ; Gaaff, A. - \ 2010
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 42
alternatieve landbouw - duurzame landbouw - plattelandsontwikkeling - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - land - fondsen - financiën - alternative farming - sustainable agriculture - rural development - farm management - farm structure - funds - finance
Het EcoLaNa plan houdt in dat boeren overstappen op een duurzamere vorm van landbouw dan gangbare landbouw. Wat er onder duurzaamheid wordt verstaan blijkt uit de maatregelen die voor EcoLaNa zijn opgesteld. Door in te zetten op duurzame landbouw zal het EcoLaNa plan bijdragen aan het realiseren van de doelen die gesteld zijn door verschillende overheden, onder andere in het Europese Plattelandsontwikkelingsbeleid. Het gaat hierbij om doelen als het bevorderen van een sterke en dynamische agrofoodsector, instandhouding van de biodiversiteit en van landbouwsystemen met hoge natuurwaarden en uitvoering van de kaderrichtlijn water (POP2). In deze studie is middels een MKBA onderzocht of overschakeling naar duurzamere EcoLaNa landbouw voor de samenleving interessant is.
Presentatie “Burgerparticipatie in BO-12-08”
Alebeek, Frans van - \ 2010
participation - agroindustrial sector - alternative farming - community involvement - community participation - experiential value - public support
De ontwikkeling van Bioconnect tot innovatiemakelaar in de biologische sector : spiegelingen aan ervaringen elders
Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Steuten, C.D.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Communicatie & Innovatie Studies - 53
kennis - informatie - informatieverspreiding - bedrijfsvoering - landbouwsector - communicatie - alternatieve landbouw - innovaties - nederland - kennismanagement - netwerken - knowledge - information - diffusion of information - management - agricultural sector - communication - alternative farming - innovations - netherlands - knowledge management - networks
Het kennisnetwerk Bioconnect is in 2005 van start gegaan, met als doel de kennisvoorziening voor de biologische landbouw te optimaliseren door middel van vraaggestuurd onderzoek. Agrarische ondernemers, ketenpartners en overheid bepalen daarbij in overleg met kennisdienstverleners de onderzoeksagenda. De sector wordt vervolgens ook betrokken bij de uitvoering van onderzoek, en de daaruit voortvloeiende kennis wordt op een gecoördineerde wijze beschikbaar gemaakt. In 2007 is Bioconnect geëvalueerd (Klerkx en Leeuwis, 2007). Uit deze evaluatie kwam naar voren dat Bioconnect een formalisering van eindgebruikersparticipatie met zich mee heeft meegebracht, met meer inspraak en sturingsmacht maar ook een grotere collectieve verantwoordelijkheid. Bioconnect als ‘virtueel’ kennis- en innnovatienetwerk kan dus worden gezien als een gelaagd systeem waarbinnen verschillende netwerkverbanden zitten met verschillende doelen: dit kan zijn het uitwerken van toekomstvisies in een ambitieagenda van de biologische sector in verbinding met de Task Force Marktontwikkeling Biologische Landbouw, het aansturen van onderzoek gericht op zowel korte, middellange en lange termijn, en het stimuleren van sectorleren in de bedrijfsnetwerken. Dit vraagt ook verschillende wijzen van faciliteren, en schakelen tussen de verschillende lagen. Doel van het project wat ten grondslag ligt aan deze rapportage, is het ondersteunen van de Bioconnect organisatie bij het herontwerp van Bioconnect, in reactie op de uitdagingen die op Bioconnect afkomen.
Perspectieven van sojavervanging in voer : op zoek naar alternatieven voor soja
Kamp, J.A.L.M. ; Berkum, S. van; Sukkel, W. ; Timmer, R.D. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2008
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO nr. 3250119600) - 88
sojaproducten - sojabonen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - alternatieve landbouw - veevoeder - soyabean products - soyabeans - sustainability - alternative farming - fodder
Dit artikel bespreekt mogelijke alternatieven voor de sojabonenteelt voor veevoer. Dit vanwege hudige negatieve effecten van sojabonenteelt, zoals kaalkap. Ten eeste zijn de reststromen van de biobrandstofproductie zijn zeer geschikt om een belangrijk deel van de soja te vervangen. Het tweede alternatief , de stroom sojavervangers in de vorm van erwten of velbonen/lupinen, zal niet zonder meer beschikbaar komen. De teelt ervan in Nederland en Noordwest Europa is economisch gezien niet aantrekkelijk genoeg en zal alleen van de grond komen als deze gestimuleerd wordt via een teeltsubsidie of toeslag Stimulering Teelt en rassenonderzoek. Bevordering van de marktinitiatieven gericht op een duurzame sojaproductie wordt als laatste optie genoemd
History is alluring : Self-organisation and the significance of history in the search for a new local sense of collectivity
Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. - \ 2008
Alterra
vrijwilligerssector - collectieve overeenkomsten - water - alternatieve landbouw - bezit - eigendomsbescherming - voluntary sector - collective agreements - alternative farming - property - property protection
Thirteen neighbours in Zudert (near Giethoorn) are collectively organising the maintenance of the private property to restore and preserve the characteristic ‘water farming’ landscape. The historical connection appears merely to refer to their desire to collectively develop, use or maintain the landscape on a local scale. The initiatives are small-scale organisation with a lot of local commitment which are based on the mutual exchange of rights and responsibilities. The coordination of the activities is a mix of informal organisation aspects (Handshake mechanism) and formal aspects (Handbook mechanism). Self-organisation is a new phenomenon in the planning and management of the landscape
Strategische verkenning covergisting van mest
Meijer, G.A.L. ; Klein Teeselink, H. ; Stroomer, J.C.J. ; Ongenae, R.C.J. ; Kottner, M. - \ 2008
Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group - 27
bio-energie - biogasmest - alternatieve landbouw - politiek - risico - landbouwkundig onderzoek - dierlijke meststoffen - co-vergisting - biobased economy - bioenergy - biogas slurry - alternative farming - politics - risk - agricultural research - animal manures - co-fermentation
Doel van deze strategische "verkenning van de covergisting van mest" is om de mogelijkheden en wenselijkheden van een verdere ontwikkeling van covergisting van dierlijke mest te onderzoeken. Indien het ministerie van LNV in wil zetten op substantiële opschaling van mest- en covergisting in Nederland, zou zij een faciliterende rol kunnen kiezen voor het in dit rapport beschreven proces. Ten aanzien van toegang tot energienetten en ten aanzien van vergoedingen voor duurzame energie is afstemming nodig tussen de energiesector en de ondernemers en kan het ministerie van Economische Zaken de toegang en vergoedingen mogelijkerwijs reguleren.
Bedrijfseconomische analyse EcoLaNa
Dekking, Arjan - \ 2008
alternative farming - mixed farming - sustainability - farm management - farm structure - land - funds - finance - feasibility studies - sustainable agriculture
'Profit' in de varkenshouderij: spreiding inkomens groot
Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Wisman, J.H. ; Boone, J.A. - \ 2007
Agri-monitor 2007 (2007)juni. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
varkenshouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - alternatieve landbouw - productie - consumptie - internationale handel - inkomen - investering - innovaties - biologische productie - pig farming - sustainability - alternative farming - production - consumption - international trade - income - investment - innovations - biological production
Het onderwerp 'Profit' in de varkenshouderij omvat zaken als productie en consumptie, internationale handel, inkomen, investeringen en verbreding. Het gemiddelde inkomen is de laatste 3 jaren hoog geweest, terwijl de inkomens de drie jaar daarvoor juist heel laag waren. Ook de spreiding tussen de bedrijven is groot. De varkensbedrijven ondernemen relatief weinig verbredingsactiviteiten.
Netwerk: Energetische Landbouw : Een brug van energetische naar gangbare landbouw
Kieft, H. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2007
alternatieve landbouw - veehouders - samenwerking - communicatie - netwerken - elektromagnetisme - alternative farming - stockmen - cooperation - communication - networks - electromagnetism
De voortgang van het Netwerk Energetische Landbouw (NEL) wordt beschreven. NEL had het in 2006 niet makkelijk in de publiciteit; ‘Voor kabouters: bel Wageningen’. Er moet daarom gewerkt worden aan een goed en consistent verhaal over de werking van de energetische landbouw, om tevens ook de brug te kunnen slaan naar sceptici en/of de gangbare landbouw. Zie daar het doel voor 2007 van de betrokken veehouders, die vooral idealisten zijn, die wat willen vertellen aan de volgende generaties boeren
Kringloop als basis van bedrijfsvoering
Linde, A. van der - \ 2007
Boerderij/Veehouderij 92 (2007)15. - p. 16 - 17.
melkveehouderij - diergezondheid - alternatieve landbouw - kringlopen - probiotica - immuunsysteem - immuniteit - bedrijfssystemen - prebiotica - dairy farming - animal health - alternative farming - cycling - probiotics - immune system - immunity - farming systems - prebiotics
Gerard Keurentjes bekijkt zijn bedrijf als kringloop waarin grond en koeien de spil zijn. Het gebruik van microbiotica in plaats van antibiotica past daarin perfect. Een microbioticum bestaat uit een mengsel van acht kruiden opgelost in alcohol. Onderzoek toont aan dat het de productie van witte bloedcellen stimuleert en het immuunsysteem 6 keer beter gaat werken. De verhoogde weerstand van de koeien zijn een van de resultaten van het FIR-systeem dat de boer nu 5 jaar gebruikt
Agrobiodiversiteit en ziektewerendheid tegen bodempathogenen
Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. - \ 2007
Gewasbescherming 38 (2007)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 46 - 49.
gewasbescherming - pathogene organismen - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - alternatieve landbouw - grondanalyse - bodemeigenschappen - pesticiden - bodemtypen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - teeltsystemen - biodiversiteit - agrobiodiversiteit - functionele biodiversiteit - plant protection - pathotypes - plant pathogenic fungi - plant pathogenic bacteria - sustainability - alternative farming - soil analysis - soil properties - pesticides - soil types - farm management - cropping systems - biodiversity - agro-biodiversity - functional biodiversity
Bij transitie naar duurzame landbouw is verhoging van ziektewerende eigenschappen van de bodem noodzakelijk om tot een reductie van (chemische) bestrijdingsmiddelen te komen. Een belangrijke vraag is hoe de bodemlevensgemeenschappen veranderen als gevolg van teeltmaatregelen en wat de gevolgen hiervan zijn voor ziektewerendheid. Daarom wordt onderzoek verricht naar: (1) hier ziektewerend vermogen in verschillende bodemtypen, (2) de teeltfactoren die de ziektewerende eigenschappen van de bodem beïnvloeden, en (3) de microbiële groepen en/of functies die het meest talrijk of actief zijn in landbouwgronden met hoge ziektewering. Hiermee kunnen vervolgens praktisch toepasbare microbiologische indicatoren voor een gezonde bodem en duurzame bedrijfsvoering ontwikkeld worden. Dit onderzoek valt binnen het LNV programma Agrobiodiversiteit, dat als doel heeft het bevorderen en benutten van een duurzaam gebruik van agrobiodiversiteit als sleutelfactor voor duurzame landbouw
Leerervaringen van drie netwerken
Vrolijk, M. - \ 2007
Syscope Magazine (2007)13. - p. 28 - 35.
innovaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - managementvaardigheden - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - alternatieve landbouw - peer tutoring - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - kennisoverdracht - innovations - sustainability - management skills - farm management - alternative farming - integrated farming systems - knowledge transfer
Een gezamenlijk doel en een gedeelde wens om te leren. Zie daar één van de kenmerken van netwerken die binnen verschillende onderzoeksprogramma’s werken aan kennis-co-creatie. De ondernemers en onderzoekers zoeken stelsel matig naar nieuwe verbindingen voor het vergroten van de strategische ruimte en versterking van het leerproces. Dit artikel gaat in op de ervaringen van met name Netwerken in de Veehouderij aangevuld met die van SynErgie (p.33) en Waardewerken (p.34-35)
Innovatieplatforms sturen gericht op innovaties
Noorduyn, L. ; PPO Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, - \ 2007
Syscope Magazine (2007)13. - p. 24 - 27.
alternatieve landbouw - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenwerking - managementbenaderingen - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - werkgroepen - alternative farming - innovations - innovation adoption - sustainability - cooperation - management philosophies - integrated farming systems - working groups
Innovatieplatforms helpen grensverleggende innovaties van de grond te krijgen. SIGN doet dit voor de glastuinbouw, Courage voor de melkveehouderij en de akkerbouw is bezig met de oprichting van zo’n platform: Kiemkracht. In de varkenshouderij is dit nog niet gelukt. In dit artikel wordt nagegaan hoe deze innovatieplatforms werken en wat is hun mogelijkheden en valkuilen zijn
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