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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

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Slimmer omgaan met poep
Zeeman, Grietje - \ 2016
new sanitation - water treatment - waste water - urine - recovery - anaerobic treatment - separation
Bio-filtration of helminth eggs and coliforms from municipal sewage for agricultural reuse in Peru
Yaya Beas, R.E. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Jules van Lier; Katarzyna Kujawa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461734945 - 187 p.
waste water treatment - waste water treatment plants - anaerobic treatment - helminth ova - anaerobic conditions - filtration - public health - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - anaërobe behandeling - wormeneitjes - anaërobe omstandigheden - filtratie - volksgezondheid

Where fresh water resources are scarce, treated wastewater becomes an attractive alternative for agricultural irrigation. However, the presence of large amounts of pathogens, even in treated wastewater, constraints its productive use, which is aggravated when sanitation and public health are poor. Among pathogenic indicators, helminth eggs are one of the most persistent microorganisms in treated effluents that may survive for several months in the irrigated fields. Application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors could contribute to decrease the pathogenic content in wastewater due to physical and biological interactions with the anaerobic sludge bed, such as filtration and entrapment. In this thesis, the potential of the anaerobic sludge bed to particularly remove helminth eggs, was investigated in four phases. In the first phase, a temperature of 4° C was fixed in the UASB reactors in order to reduce the biological activity of the sludge. Hence, the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity at different upflow velocities was studied. This phase of the research was performed in two experiments. The first one using latex beads, simulating helminth eggs, and the second one using real helminth eggs, predominating in Peruvian wastewater. First experimental results show that increasing the upflow velocity led to a decrease in the removal efficiency of latex beads. At the lowest upflow velocity of 0.3 m·h−1, 100% removal of latex beads was reached. At an upflow velocity higher than 1 m·h−1, the removal efficiency dropped under 90 %. The degree of stabilisation of the sludge nor the sludge bed volume did not have a significant effect. Second experiment's results show that with upflow velocities below 1.5 m·h−1 real helminth eggs removal is greater than 70 %. Simultaneously tested, total and faecal coliforms removal was less than 83 %. The most common helminth eggs species found in the studied wastewater were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides spp. The second phase was performed using two lab-scale UASB reactors at average ambient temperatures between 16.7 °C and 28.5 °C in the city of Lima (Peru). Ascaris suum eggs originating from infected pigs were selected as model organisms, considering their similarity, in terms of size and morphology, with Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. The sludge filtration capacity was determined, applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h−1. Average helminth eggs removals varied between 26 and 93 %, depending on upflow velocity and sludge bed height. 93 % removal was achieved when applying an upflow velocity of 0.09 m·h−1 and a sludge bed height reaching 19-25 % of the total reactor height. The third phase was conducted to test the effect of lower operational temperatures in the UASB reactor on the pathogen removal from domestic wastewater. Thus, a lab scale UASB reactor in the city of Puno (Peru), treating wastewater with temperatures varying between 11.3 and 14.3 °C for a period of 22 weeks after the start-up of the reactor, was used. Upflow velocities varied between 0.12 and 0.41 m·h−1. Results confirmed outcomes of the first phase of this research concerning helminth eggs removal, and consequently show that the sludge bed filtration capacity varied between 89 and 95 %. Faecal coliform removal varied between 0.9 and 2.1 log10 and E. coli removal between 0.8 and 1.6 log10. In general, removal efficiencies regarding helminth eggs and faecal coliforms, are not sufficient to comply with reuse standards. Finally, the capacity of Down Flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors for removing faecal coliforms from domestic UASB reactor effluent for agricultural reuse in developing countries was investigated. Applied reactors were the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation, the cube type DHS (G1) with recirculation and the curtain type DHS (G2). Results reveal an average faecal coliform removal of 4.74, 3.42 and 1.25 log10 respectively. These results comply with categories A, B and C of WHO (1989) standards, correspondingly. Therefore, treatment trains consisting of UASB-DHS reactors can possibly be applied when agricultural reuse is contemplated.

Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system
Butkovskyi, A. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water Research 85 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 384 - 392.
Anaerobic degradation - Black water - Grey water - Micropollutant removal - Pharmaceuticals - UASB reactor

Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification in a rotating biological contactor and struvite precipitation. Grey water is treated in an aerobic activated sludge process. Concentration of 10 pharmaceuticals and 2 transformation products in black water ranged between low μg/l to low mg/l. Additionally, 5 pharmaceuticals were also present in grey water in low μg/l range. Pharmaceutical influent loads were distributed over two streams, i.e. diclofenac was present for 70% in grey water, while the other compounds were predominantly associated to black water. Removal in the UASB reactor fed with black water exceeded 70% for 9 pharmaceuticals out of the 12 detected, with only two pharmaceuticals removed by sorption to sludge. Ibuprofen and the transformation product of naproxen, desmethylnaproxen, were removed in the rotating biological contactor. In contrast, only paracetamol removal exceeded 90% in the grey water treatment system while removal of other 7 pharmaceuticals was below 40% or even negative. The efficiency of pharmaceutical removal in the source separated sanitation system was compared with removal in the conventional sewage treatment plants. Furthermore, effluent concentrations of black water and grey water treatment systems were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations to assess toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of diclofenac, ibuprofen and oxazepam in both effluents were higher than predicted no-effect concentrations, indicating the necessity of post-treatment. Ciprofloxacin, metoprolol and propranolol were found in UASB sludge in μg/g range, while pharmaceutical concentrations in struvite did not exceed the detection limits.

A Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactor for faecal coliform removal from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) effluent
Yaya Beas, R.E. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Lier, J.B. van; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water Science and Technology 72 (2015)11. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2034 - 2044.
faecal coliforms - biochemical oxygen demand - chemical oxygen demand - waste water - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - waste water treatment plants - fecale coliformen - biochemisch zuurstofverbruik - chemisch zuurstofverbruik - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties
This research was conducted to study the faecal coliforms removal capacity of Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors as a post-treatment for an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Three long-term continuous lab-scale DHS reactors i.e. a reactor with cube type sponges without recirculation, a similar one with recirculation and a reactor with curtain type sponges. The porosities of the applied medium were 91%, 87% and 47% respectively. The organic loading rates were 0.86 kgCOD m-3 d-1, 0.53 kgCOD m-3 d-1 and 0.24 kgCOD m-3 d-1 correspondingly at hydraulic loading rates of 1.92 m3 m-2 d-1, 2.97 m3 m-2 d-1 and 1.32 m3 m-2 d-1, respectively. The corresponding averages for faecal coliform removal were 99.997%, 99.919% and 92.121% respectively. The WHO (1989) standards, in terms of faecal coliform content for unrestricted irrigation (Category A), was achieved with the effluent of the cube type DHS (G1) without recirculation. Restricted irrigation, category B and C is assigned to the effluent of the cube type with recirculation and the curtain type, respectively. Particularly for organic compounds, the effluent of evaluated DHS reactors complies with USEPA standards for irrigation of so called non-food crops like pasture for milking animals, fodder, fibre, and seed crops.
Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters
Cabrol, L. ; Urra, J. ; Rosenkranz, F. ; Kroff, P.A. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Lesty, Y. ; Chamy, R. - \ 2015
Water Science and Technology 71 (2015)12. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1790 - 1799.
rioolslib - anaërobe behandeling - anaërobe afbraak - sewage sludge - anaerobic treatment - anaerobic digestion - waste-water treatment - olive mill wastewaters - volatile fatty-acids - 16s ribosomal-rna - biogas production - degradation efficiency - microbial-populations - aromatic-compounds - phenolic-compounds - inhibition
The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale municipal WWTP in Santiago de Chile, and fed with either primary or mixed sewage sludge. AD performance was evaluated by volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production monitoring. Archaeal community structure was characterized by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing. In the primary sludge digester, a single PAA pulse at 200 mg L(-1) was sufficient to affect AD performance and archaeal community structure, resulting in long-term VFA accumulation, reduced biogas production and community shift from dominant acetoclastic (Methanosaeta concilii) to hydrogenotrophic (Methanospirillum hungatei) methanogens. By contrast, AD performance and archaeal community structure in the mixed sludge digester were stable and resistant to repeated PAA pulses at 200 and 600 mg L(-1). This work demonstrated that the effect of PAA pulses on methanogenic activity and archaeal community structure differed according to AD substrate, and suggests that better insights of the correlations between archaeal population dynamics and functional performance could help to better face toxic shocks in AD
Bodem Resetten: stap naar praktijktoepassing nieuwe methode van anaerobe grondontsmetting
Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Visser, J.H.M. ; Regeer, H. ; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (Rapport / PPO-AGV 648) - 45
akkerbouw - nematoda - meloidogyne chitwoodi - ditylenchus dipsaci - globodera pallida - waardplanten - gewasbescherming - bodeminvertebraten - nederland - inventarisaties - anaërobe behandeling - biologische grondontsmetting - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - onkruiden - nutrientenbeheer - arable farming - host plants - plant protection - soil invertebrates - netherlands - inventories - anaerobic treatment - biological soil sterilization - sustainability - weeds - nutrient management
Door de toenemende problemen met schadelijke aaltjes in diverse teelten wordt naarstig gezocht naar alternatieve mogelijkheden om de grond te ontsmetten. Uitgangspunt van Wageningen UR en Agrifirm Plant is daarvoor een “groene” manier van grondbehandeling, die past in het algemene beleid van een duurzame gewasbescherming. Bodem Resetten is een nieuwe en unieke manier van anaerobe grondontsmetting en kan mogelijk een milieuvriendelijk en voor omwonenden veilig alternatief bieden. Er zijn voor het Bodem Resetten (BR) twee producten getest op effectiviteit: vaste Herbie® 72 en vloeibare Herbie® 87. Tevens is op zeer kleine schaal ook een plantaardige coating, als alternatief voor folie, onderzocht op gasdichtheid.
Anaerobic degradation of anionic surfactants by denitrifying bacteria
Paulo, A. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams, co-promotor(en): P.A. García-Encina; Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571242 - 166
oppervlaktespanningsverlagende stoffen - degradatie - anaërobe microbiologie - anaërobe behandeling - denitrificerende bacteriën - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolwaterzuivering - pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi - surfactants - degradation - anaerobic microbiology - anaerobic treatment - denitrifying bacteria - waste water treatment - sewage treatment
De verwijdering van organische stof alsook van stikstof en fosfor wordt in RWZI vaak bewerkstelligd middels een anaëroob-anoxisch-aëroob (A2/O) proces. Met behulp van het A2/O proces kunnen oppervlakte-actieve stoffen al in het anaërobe dan wel anoxische compartiment afgebroken worden. In dit proefschrift wordt de isolatie van Pseudomonas stutzeri stam SN1 en Pseudomonas nitroreducens stam SN2 uit actief slib van een RWZI met een A2/O proces beschreven.
Phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from black water
Tervahauta, T.H. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): L. Hernandez Leal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570931 - 156
afvalwater - fosfaten - afvalwaterbehandeling - organische meststoffen - terugwinning - anaërobe behandeling - zware metalen - hergebruik van water - waste water - phosphates - waste water treatment - organic fertilizers - recovery - anaerobic treatment - heavy metals - water reuse
In this thesis the integration of treatment systems for black and grey water was investigated to improve resource recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Special focus was set on phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from vacuum collected black water. Currently, the soil application of black water sludge is prohibited in the Netherlands due to elevated heavy metal concentrations.
Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria from municipal wastewater sludge in a membrane bioreactor at 20 °C
Kampman, C. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Journal of Hazardous Materials 274 (2014). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 428 - 435.
anaerobic treatment - sewage-treatment - methane
Simultaneous nitrogen and methane removal by the slow growing denitrifying methanotrophic bacterium ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera’ offers opportunities for a new approach to wastewater treatment. However, volumetric nitrite consumption rates should be increased by an order of magnitude before application in wastewater treatment becomes possible. A maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rate of 36 mg NO2--N/L d was achieved in a membrane bioreactor inoculated with wastewater sludge and operated at 20 °C. This rate is similar to maximum rates reported in literature, though it was thought that by strict biomass retention using membranes, higher rates would be achieved. In experiments lasting several years, growth was not stable: every experiment showed a decrease in activity after 1–2 years. The cause remains unknown. Rates increased after addition of copper and operating a membrane bioreactor at shorter hydraulic retention times. Further research should focus on long-term effects of copper addition and operation at hydraulic retention times in the order of hours using membrane bioreactors
Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor
Tuantet, K. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Janssen, M.G.J. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Water Research 55 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 162 - 174.
waterzuivering - bioreactoren - fosfaten - stikstof - terugwinning - nieuwe sanitatie - biomassa productie - urine - algenteelt - biobased economy - water treatment - bioreactors - phosphates - nitrogen - recovery - new sanitation - biomass production - algae culture - chlorella-sorokiniana - spirulina-platensis - anaerobic treatment - black water - phosphorus - management - efficiency - vulgaris - biofuels
Due to the high nitrogen and phosphorus content, source-separated urine can serve as a major nutrient source for microalgae production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient removal rate and the biomass production rate of Chlorella sorokiniana being grown continuously in urine employing a short light-path photobioreactor. The results demonstrated, for the first time, the possibility of continuous microalgae cultivation in human urine. The lowest dilution factor successfully employed was a factor of 2 (50% v/v urine). Microalgae dominated a smaller bacterial population and were responsible for more than 90% of total nitrogen and phosphorus removal.
Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery
Tervahauta, T.H. ; Weijden, R.D. van der; Flemming, R.L. ; Hernández, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
Water Research 48 (2014)1. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 632 - 642.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalhergebruik - slibzuivering - calciumfosfaten - fosfor - terugwinning - spectroscopie - infraroodspectroscopie - anaërobe behandeling - biobased economy - waste water treatment - waste utilization - sludge treatment - calcium phosphates - phosphorus - recovery - spectroscopy - infrared spectroscopy - anaerobic treatment - waste-water - precipitation - hydroxyapatite - struvite
Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor at lab- and demonstration-scale were analyzed for chemical composition and mineralogy by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Electron microprobe (EMP), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The granules had a diameter of 1–2 mm, organic content of 33 wt%, and phosphorus content of 11–13 wt%. Three calcium phosphate phases were identified in the granules: hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate hydrate and carbonated hydroxyapatite. Without any addition of chemicals, 7 gP/person/year can be recovered with the calcium phosphate granules, representing 2% of the incoming phosphorus in the UASB reactor. As the heavy metal content was lower compared to other phosphorus recovery products, phosphate rock and phosphorus fertilizer, the calcium phosphate granules could be considered as a new phosphorus product.
Anaerobic wastewater treatment of high salinity wastewaters: impact on bioactivity and biomass retention
Ismail, S. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Jules van Lier, co-promotor(en): Hardy Temmink; Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738189 - 144
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - afvalwater - anaërobe behandeling - zoutgehalte - biomassa - waste water treatment - water treatment - waste water - anaerobic treatment - salinity - biomass

Anaerobic sludge bed reactor systems like the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expended granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors are currently the mostly applied high-rate reactor systems for anaerobic wastewater treatment. The success of both systems has changed the world conception of wastewater treatment with energy recovery being an intrinsic part of the treatment process, avoidance of excess sludge problems and extremely low space requirement. Nevertheless, while broadening the UASB reactor application to a diverse type of wastewaters, high salinity wastewaters were found to give an adverse effect to the granulation processes. Accumulation of Na+at high concentrations produced weaker and fluffy granules endangering the applicability of the mentioned sludge bed systems. In this thesis, research was conducted to investigate the mechanisms of destabilization of the granules at high Na+concentrations, while trying to improve the granules’ properties. Chapter 1gives an overview of high salinity wastewaters, the application and the bottlenecks of anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) technology under extreme conditions. Focus is given to the granulation process as a key factor in the operation of high rate anaerobic reactors. Indeed, it is a complex process that involves physicochemical as well as biological mechanisms. A short overview of the previous research on anaerobic wastewater treatment processes for high salinity wastewaters is discussed, followed by granulation theories and processes. Referring to the imbalance in the monovalent to divalent cation ratio, the Ca2+augmentation approach is discussed in this chapter as a tool to establish a favourable ratio for the required granulation process. The chapter also discusses the need for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production, depending on the types of substrates, as a major factor for a successful granulation process. Specifically for high Na+concentrations, also the importance of K+and more specifically the K+/Na+ratio is discussed as a control regulator to alleviate the negative effects of Na+. Finally, the review discusses microbiological aspects related to the anaerobic treatment of high salinity wastewaters such as the adaptation of sludge to high Na+concentrations and the presence of halophilic/halotolerent microorganisms and their application in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

In Chapter 2, the effects of high Na+concentrations on methanogenic sludge bed reactor systems were investigated. In three different UASB reactors a rapid acclimation to 5 or 15 g Na+/L was observed, showing satisfactory results for a period of 100 days, when the reactors were fed with a mixture of acetate, gelatine and ethanol. Loading rates up to at least 18 kg COD/m3.d gave a good COD removal performance and the cultivated sludge showed high specific methanogenic activities (SMA) on acetate, propionate, butyrate and H2compared to the inoculated granules. Remarkably, only the reactor which was operated at a lower COD (5 instead of 50 g/L) exhibited severe washout, probably due to the much shorter HRT that was applied, i.e. 12 hours compared to 120 hours. Interestingly, the SMA of the biomass that washed out from this reactor showed considerably higher SMAs than the washed-out biomass from the other reactors. The performance of the granular sludge systems in this study shows the appropriateness of anaerobic inocula, pre-grown under saline conditions for the anaerobic treatment of high salinity wastewater.

In Chapter 3the production of EPS in UASB reactor systems that were operated under high salinity conditions was investigated. Four different UASB reactors were operated at loading rates up to 22 kg COD/m3.d with different acetate:gelatine:starch ratios as the substrate. Reactors were fed with partially acidified and fully acidified substrates, i.e. PAS and FAS respectively, and Na+concentrations of either 10 or 20 g Na+/L. One of the reactors additionally received 1 g of Ca2+/L. All four reactors showed a good performance with COD removal efficiencies exceeding 90 %. Proteins were the dominant EPS and the PAS-fed granules gave much higher EPS concentrations than FAS-fed granules. However, the proteins concentration was found not dependent on the Na+ concentration in the feed. Interestingly, the granules from the reactors which were operated at a Na+/Ca2+ratio of 770 contained more polysaccharides than granules from reactors operated at a high Na+/Ca2+ratio of 1540. SEM images showed that that PAS-fed granule had a smoother granule surfaces than FAS-fed granule. PAS-fed granules also were considerably larger than FAS-fed granules. When the influent contained additional Ca2+, clear cracks or fissures could be observed on the surface of the granules. Na+ concentrations of 10 g/L seemed to increase the granule size, which may have been caused by swelling of the EPS matrix. Shear tests indicated that PAS-fed granules were stronger than the FAS fed granules and that Ca2+ addition had a positive effect on granule strength. The calcium content of these granules also was higher with 150 mg/g TSS compared to 60 mg/g TSS in the other reactors. Batch tests at high Na+concentrations confirmed calcium leaching from the granules. When granular sludge was exposed to 20 g Na+/L in batches, leaching of Ca2+from granules took place with a maximum obtained after 10 days. The calcium content of the granules decreased from approximately 85 to 52 mg/g TSS. Therefore, the highest Na+concentrations resulted in the weakest granules.

Chapter 4describes the results of batch incubation studies in which anaerobic granular sludge was augmented with 0.3 g Ca2+/L at Na+concentrations of 20 g/L. Experiments followed the previously described results of Chapter 3 showing that high Na+concentrations caused Ca2+leaching from anaerobic granules. Extensive SEM-EDX and SEM-BSE measurements confirm leaching of calcium from the granules when these are exposed to higher Na+ concentrations. Moreover Ca2+additions seemed to indeed maintain the Ca2+content of granular sludge.

Initial attachment of microorganism is very important for the development of granules and biofilms. Therefore, biofilm studies were conducted and explained in Chapter 5. Four different biofilm reactors with a non-woven carrier material were exposed to different Na+ concentrations (10 or 20 g/L) and inoculated with crushed granules. Acetate was used as the substrate. One of the reactors received 0.3 g Ca2+/L and another one 0.7 g K+/L. The reactors were operated as sequencing batches. The reactor fed with K+ gave the best performance. Lower salinity (10 compared to 20 g Na+/L) improved the performance and the reactor which received calcium gave the worst results. This finding contradicts with previous experiments in Chapter 3. However, the situation in the biofilm reactors is completely different because the biofilms had to form from scratch. FISH-CLSM images revealed no significant visible differences in microbial coverage (i.e. bacteria and archea) of the non-woven fabric, except for the calcium enriched reactor. After 40 days of operation, it was clearly observed that 20 g Na+/L does not prevent the initial microbial attachment under anaerobic conditions. From 16 sRNA DGGE measurements it was shown that the biofilms had a similar population and that this population did not change very much in time. The Archea were related to Methanosaeta harundinacae (acetoclastic), Methanolinea tarda and Methanobacterium subteraaneum (both hydrogenotrophic). Apparently these species can easily adapt to high salinity. However, the biofilms in the reactors did not show any of the known acetate-oxidizing bacteria that are expectedly needed for the production of H2from acetate as source for the growth of the found hydrogenotrophic Archea. Therefore, it is assumed that H2leakage by acetoclastic methanogen explain their presence in the reactor.

Four identical UASB reactors treating concentrated wastewaters (10 – 30 g COD/L) were operated at 20 g Na+/L and in detail described in Chapter 6. PAS and FAS substrates were fed to different reactors to compare the effect of different organic substrates on granule activity, stability and growth. The effect of calcium augmentation on anaerobic granules’ properties was studied by feeding two of the reactors with additional calcium at a concentration of 0.3 g Ca2+/L. A beneficial effect of potassium was demonstrated in Chapter 5 and it therefore was added to all the reactors, at a concentration of 0.7 g K+/L. The treatment performance of the reactors was compared during a period of 120 days at increasing volumetric organic loading rates (OLRs). Physicochemical and microbiological properties of the anaerobic granules were determined and discussed. The results showed that high COD removal efficiencies are possible at 20 g Na+/L, up to an organic loading rate of at least 14 g COD/L.d. At a loading rate of 25 g COD/L.d the performance and stability of all reactors deteriorated. There were indications that calcium augmentation had a positive effect on biomass retention, but this could not be further quantified. The microbial assays gave similar results as in Chapter 5. Compared to the inoculum, bacterial diversity in FAS-fed granules did not change significantly but was changed considerably in PAS-fed granules. Complex organic PAS feed resulted in more complex bacterial populations that were not related to archea. The bacterial presence of a dominant phylotype, belonging to the family of Marinilabiliaceaeand specifically Alkaliflexus imshenetskiiwas evidenced. Members of Marinilabiliaceae are capable of degrading polymeric substances such as starch and gelatine. The dominant archeal species in the reactors was related to Methanosaeta harundinacea. Methanosaetahave been found to play a major role in granulation

In Chapter 7the results of this research are discussed in a general context. Directions for further research are presented focussing on the increase in biomass activity and biomass retention in high salinity wastewaters by improving the adaptability of microbes and the anaerobic sludge granulation process.

New sanitation : bridging cities and agriculture
Zeeman, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461733252 - 23
nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - afval - kringlopen - volksgezondheid - anaërobe behandeling - terugwinning - new sanitation - waste water - waste water treatment - wastes - cycling - public health - anaerobic treatment - recovery
This inaugural lecture revolves around recovering raw materials such as phosphate, nitrogen, organic substances, energy and water from domestic waste and wastewater. If separated at source using less water, these materials can be recovered more efficiently and used as fertilisers in agriculture, for example. This is an important move at a time when raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce.
The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester treating domestic sewage at 15 °C
Zhang, L. ; Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Kampman, C. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Weiguang Li, ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Water Science and Technology 66 (2012)12. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2597 - 2603.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - rioolwater - huishoudens - anaërobe behandeling - anaërobe verteerders - slibvergisting - recirculatiesystemen - temperatuur - zuurstofbehoefte - biogas - concentratie - efficiëntie - waste water treatment - waste water - sewage - households - anaerobic treatment - anaerobic digesters - sludge digestion - recirculating systems - temperature - oxygen requirement - concentration - efficiency - waste-water treatment - anaerobic-digestion - low-temperature
The anaerobic treatment of low strength domestic sewage at low temperature is an attractive and important topic at present. The upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-digester system is one of the anaerobic systems to challenge low temperature and concentrations. The effect of sludge recirculation rate on a UASB-digester system treating domestic sewage at 15 °C was studied in this research. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9, 2.6 and 12.5% of the influent flow rate was investigated. The results showed that the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency rose with increasing sludge recirculation rate. A sludge recirculation rate of 0.9% of the influent flow rate led to organic solids accumulation in the UASB reactor. After the sludge recirculation rate increased from 0.9 to 2.6%, the stability of the UASB sludge was substantially improved from 0.37 to 0.15 g CH4-COD/g COD, and the bio­gas production in the digester went up from 2.9 to 7.4 L/d. The stability of the UASB sludge and bio­gas production in the digester were not significantly further improved by increasing sludge recirculation rate to 12.5% of the influent flow rate, but the biogas production in the UASB increased from 0.37 to 1.2 L/d. It is recommended to apply a maximum sludge recirculation rate of 2–2.5% of the influent flow rate in a UASB-digester system, as this still allows energy self-sufficiency of the system.
Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Wang, Y. ; Kampman, C. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2012
Water Research 46 (2012)7. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2187 - 2193.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - stikstof - verwijdering - denitrificatie - temperatuur - anaërobe behandeling - ammonium - oxidatie - energiebesparing - stedelijk afvalwater - waste water treatment - waste water treatment plants - nitrogen - removal - denitrification - temperature - anaerobic treatment - oxidation - energy saving - municipal wastewater - anaerobic ammonium oxidation - treat sewage - reactor - system
Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now, anammox has mainly been used for treating warm (>30 °C) and concentrated (>500 mg N/L) waste streams. Application in the water line of municipal waste water treatment poses the challenges of a lower nitrogen concentration (
Role of syntrophic microbial communities in high-rate methanogenic bioreactors
Stams, A.J.M. ; Sousa, D.Z. ; Kleerebezem, R. ; Plugge, C.M. - \ 2012
Water Science and Technology 66 (2012)2. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 352 - 362.
chain fatty-acids - propionate-oxidizing bacterium - in-situ hybridization - interspecies electron-transfer - spore-forming bacterium - wolfei subsp saponavida - municipal solid-waste - sp-nov. - gen. nov. - anaerobic treatment
Anaerobic purification is a cost-effective way to treat high strength industrial wastewater. Through anaerobic treatment of wastewaters energy is conserved as methane, and less sludge is produced. For high-rate methanogenesis compact syntrophic communities of fatty acid-degrading bacteria and methanogenic archaea are essential. Here, we describe the microbiology of syntrophic communities in methanogenic reactor sludges and provide information on which microbiological factors are essential to obtain high volumetric methane production rates. Fatty-acid degrading bacteria have been isolated from bioreactor sludges, but also from other sources such as freshwater sediments. Despite the important role that fatty acid-degrading bacteria play in high-rate methanogenic bioreactors, their relative numbers are generally low. This finding indicates that the microbial community composition can be further optimized to achieve even higher rates
The effect of operational conditions on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the sludge bed in UASB reactors
Leitao, R.C. ; Santaellla, S.T. ; Haandel, A.C. van; Zeeman, G. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2011
Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1935 - 1941.
afvalwaterbehandeling - geactiveerd slib - anaërobe behandeling - slibzuivering - hydrodynamische dispersie - zuiveringsinstallaties - expansie - retentie - volume - waste water treatment - activated sludge - anaerobic treatment - sludge treatment - hydrodynamic dispersion - purification plants - expansion - retention - settling characteristics - expansion characteristics - granular sludge - volume index - velocity - sewage - settleability - design
This work aims to evaluate the hydrodynamic properties of the sludge bed of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors based on its settleability and expansion characteristics. The methodologies used for the evaluation of the settleability of aerobic activated sludge, and for the expansibility of a sludge bed of Expanded Granular Sludge Bed reactors and Fluidised Bed Reactors were adapted and applied to the particular characteristics of the sludge of UASB reactors. An easy-to-build experimental set-up was developed to assess the parameters necessary for the equations of settleability and of expansibility. The results obtained from the sludges of seven differently operated reactors show that, for the treatment of low strength wastewater, settleability increased and expansibility decreased at decreased hydraulic retention time, from 6 to 1 h, and/or increased influent concentrations, from 136 to approximately 800 mg chemical oxygen demand/L. The results also show that it is useless to design an UASB reactor with a longer hydraulic retention time to cope with hydraulic shock loads, as a more expansible sludge will develop at such condition.
Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge
Luesken, F. ; Alen, T. van; Biezen, J. van der; Frijters, C. ; Toonen, G. ; Kampman, C. ; Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Strous, M. ; Camp, H.J.M. op den; Jetten, M.S.M. - \ 2011
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2011). - ISSN 0175-7598
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - anaërobe behandeling - methaan - oxidatie - bacteriën - nieuwe stam - denitrificerende micro-organismen - waste water treatment - water treatment - anaerobic treatment - methane - oxidation - bacteria - new phylum - denitrifying microorganisms - activated-sludge - microorganisms - populations - technology - reactor
Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO2- per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature
Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system
Lindeboom, R.E.F. ; Fermoso, F.G. ; Weijma, J. ; Zagt, K. ; Lier, J.B. van - \ 2011
Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)3. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 647 - 653.
biogas - gasproductie - biochemische omzettingen - methaan - anaërobe afbraak - drukbehandeling - kooldioxide - oplosbaarheid - anaërobe behandeling - afvalwaterbehandeling - biobased economy - gas production - biochemical pathways - methane - anaerobic digestion - pressure treatment - carbon dioxide - solubility - anaerobic treatment - waste water treatment
Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds with add-on technologies, applicable only for biogas flows >100 m3/h. In the concept of autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD), methanogenic biomass builds up pressure inside the reactor. Since CO2 has a higher solubility than CH4, it will proportion more to the liquid phase at higher pressures. Therefore, AHPD biogas is characterised by a high CH4 content, reaching equilibrium values between 90 and 95% at a pressure of 3–90 bar. In addition, also H2S and NH3 are theoretically more soluble in the bulk liquid than CO2. Moreover, the water content of the already compressed biogas is calculated to have a dew point
Towards eco-agro industrial clusters in aquatic production: the case of shrimp processing industry in Vietnam
Pham Thi Ahn, ; Tran Thi My Dieu, ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Kroeze, C. ; Bush, S.R. - \ 2011
Journal of Cleaner Production 19 (2011)17-18. - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 2107 - 2118.
waste-water treatment - anaerobic treatment - cleaner production - flows - reuse - plant
The concept of industrial ecology has been applied in this research to study possibilities to develop an eco-industrial cluster model for fishery production industry in Vietnam. By learning from experiments of other developed countries, we apply the principles of Industrial Ecology and of Ecological Modernization in the context of Vietnam. We design a physical-technological conceptual model for minimizing waste in agro-industries, with a case study of frozen shrimp production. The results indicate that it is possible and feasible to develop an eco-industrial cluster including aquaculture, fishery processing companies, by-product plants, and wastewater treatment units. By doing so, aquaculture and industry can cooperate for environmentally sound development. Actors and institutions that may govern the proposed eco-industrial cluster of shrimp processing industry are also analysed in this paper. The economic feasibility of the designed eco-agro industrial cluster for fish production in Vietnam depends on the energy savings and effective revenues gained from selling the produced valuable materials, such as Chitosan and animal feed.
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