Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of farming systems : A case in Chencha, South Ethiopia
Dersseh, Waga Mazengia - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Rogier Schulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436830 - 157
potatoes - solanum tuberosum - ethiopia - food security - farming systems - mixed farming - sustainability - optimization - efficiency - farm surveys - household surveys - socioeconomics - self sufficiency - profits - training - agronomic characteristics - productivity - soil fertility - rotation - animal feeding - improved varieties - inorganic fertilizers - aardappelen - ethiopië - voedselzekerheid - bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - optimalisatie - efficiëntie - bedrijfsonderzoeken - huishoudonderzoeken - sociale economie - zelfvoorziening - winsten - opleiding - agronomische kenmerken - productiviteit - bodemvruchtbaarheid - rotatie - diervoedering - veredelde rassen - anorganische meststoffen

Potato has multiple benefits and thus can play a vital role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, for diverse reasons, its productivity is low. The farming systems in Ethiopia in which potato is grown, are predominantly mixed farming systems.

Most of the research in Ethiopia is focused on crop-specific constraints and thus there is limited research in which the interrelations between crop and livestock management practices are investigated. There is also not enough research focused on combined analysis of soil nutrient and animal feed balances and agronomic and socioeconomic efficiencies at farm level.

This study assessed production constraints and agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of the farming systems in South Ethiopia and explored the possible synergetic options to alleviate major constraints. More specifically, the study intended to quantify the variation in input and output among farms, to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production, to evaluate the sustainability of the farming systems at farm level, to identify constraints of sustainable intensification, and to explore synergetic solutions for the major constraints. Different research approaches were used ranging from lab analysis, household surveys, group discussions, to farm surveys.

Results showed that constraints related to input and product use in potato production vary across households indicating a need for a pluriform advisory model recognizing (and building upon alleviation of) the diversity of constraints identified in this analysis. The sustainability of the farming system is constrained by low agricultural productivity, low soil fertility, poor labour efficiency and limited economic return associated with improper crop rotation, inappropriate soil fertility management practices, shortage of animal feed, labour- and economically inefficient farm practices and labour shortage. However, there is ample scope to overcome the major constraints and simultaneously to optimize farm management.

The core messages of the study can be summarized as follows:

1) the current potato production is characterized by low productivity and economic returns due to various socioeconomic, agronomic and biological factors;

2) the soil fertility is low and there is uneven distribution of nutrients over plots with relatively high fertility levels in the homestead areas;

3) the current labour shortage can be attributed to mainly inefficiency of agricultural management practices and labour migration to towns for economic reasons indicating that the farming system is not sustainable in terms of labour;

4) considering the direct return from animal production, most of the farms had very low gross margin with the current management system and this reduced the overall operating profit of farms. The low return from animal rearing was offset by the relatively high profit from crop production indicating the benefit of mixed farming system in sustaining agricultural production; and

5) each farm can have a wide range of optimized solutions mainly through introduction of improved technologies and subsequent redesigning of the farm managements.

In general, the findings of the current study indicate that it is worthwhile to assess the sustainability of agricultural production in different farming systems and agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. In addition, the combined effect of introducing improved agricultural technologies and subsequent reconfiguring the farm management is very crucial to increase and sustain agricultural production.

Leaf phenolics and seaweed tannins : analysis, enzymatic oxidation and non-covalent protein binding
Vissers, Anne M. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen; Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432023 - 154
phenols - leaves - seaweeds - tannins - beta vulgaris - laminaria - proteins - catechol oxidase - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - in vitro - mass spectrometry - browning - fermentation - animal feeding - fenolen - bladeren - zeewieren - tanninen - eiwitten - kernmagnetische resonantiespectroscopie - massaspectrometrie - bruinkleuring - fermentatie - diervoedering

Upon extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) and oarweed (Laminaria digitata) for animal food and feed purposes, endogenous phenolics and proteins can interact with each other, which might affect the protein’s applicability. Sugar beet leaf proteins might become covalently modified by phenolics through polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Oligomeric phenolics from seaweed (so-called phlorotannins (PhT)) might bind non-covalently to protein. The first aim of this thesis was to study factors involved in protein modification by phenolics. The second aim was to investigate the effect of PhT supplementation to feed on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

Besides PPO activity and the amount of low molecular weight phenolic substrates present, brown colour formation in sugar beet leaves was dependent on the amount of phenolics, which do not serve as a substrate of PPO. These non-substrate phenolics can engage in browning reactions by oxidative coupling and subsequent coupled oxidation of the products formed. Similar reactions might also be involved in covalent protein modification by phenolics, and therewith protein properties.
High molecular weight PhT from L. digitata could potentially modify protein properties by non‑covalent interactions. L. digitata contained PhT with subunits mainly connected via C‑O-C linkages, as determined using NMR spectroscopy. Further mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of a wide range of oligomers with degrees of polymerisation between 3 and 27. The interaction between PhT and proteins (b-casein and bovine serum albumin) was studied using model systems with different pH values, representing the various environments throughout the ruminants digestive tract. Phlorotannins bound to protein independent of pH, and broadened the pH range of protein precipitation from 0.5 to ~1.5 pH unit around the protein’s pI. At the pH of the abomasum of 2-3, the proteins re-solubilised again, presumably by increase in their net charge. Due to their ability to form water insoluble complexes, PhT could improve ruminal fermentation in vitro in a dose dependent manner, resulting in lower methane production and ammonia (NH3) concentration. The decreased NH3 concentration reflected decreased dietary protein breakdown in the rumen, which is considered a nutritional and environmental benefit.

KringloopToets: sluiten van de nutriëntenkringloop op het niveau van Noordwest-Europa : inhoudelijke en procesmatige rapportage
Leenstra, Ferry ; Vellinga, Theun ; Bremmer, Bart - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1019) - 47
nutriëntenstromen - voer - diervoedering - diervoeding - recycling - noordwest-europa - nutrient flows - feeds - animal feeding - animal nutrition - northwestern europe
The Nutrient Cycle Assessment aims at visualizing nutrient flows. In policy documents closing of nutrient cycles at the level of North Western Europe is often mentioned. Province North Brabant, farmers organisation ZLTO and NGO BMF examined together with Wageningen University & Research the effects of closing the borders of North West Europe (Benelux, France, Germany, UK) for feed ingredients and animal products. The results of this exercise were discussed in a separate session with representatives of the feed industry. This report describes the conclusions of the analysis and the lessons that can be learned from this exercise for future work with the Nutrient Cycle Assessment.
CVB Veevoedertabel 2016 : chemische samenstellingen en nutritionele waarden van voedermiddelen
Blok, M.C. ; Spek, J.W. - \ 2016
Netherlands : CVB - 629
voedertabellen - voer - chemische samenstelling - voedingswaarde - diervoedering - diervoeding - feed composition tables - feeds - chemical composition - nutritive value - animal feeding - animal nutrition
Coproducten verwaarden
Keijsers, Edwin ; Duinkerken, Gert van - \ 2016
coproduction - food industry - residual streams - waste utilization - animal feeding - feeds - biobased economy - byproducts
Stel, je bent producent in de levensmiddelenindustrie. Van bijvoorbeeld de aardappels die je gebruikt voor chipsproductie blijft een deel ‘onbruikbaar’ product over. Gooi je het weg? Zonde, deze stromen kunnen interessant zijn voor de diervoederindustrie. In de afgelopen jaren is het gebruik van zogenoemde coproducten licht gestegen.
Energie en eiwitwaardeschatting gras-klaverkuilen
Schooten, H.A. van; Spek, J.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 994) - 33
grasklaver - eiwitten - energie - voedingswaarde - biochemie - diervoedering - grass-clover swards - proteins - energy - nutritive value - biochemistry - animal feeding
Landkaart monitoring diervoeders NL
Jong, J. de; Roest, J.G. van der; Meurs, Ilona - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2016.004) - 67 p.
monitoring - diervoedering - hulpbronnen - voederveiligheid - animal feeding - resources - feed safety
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een inventarisatie van de monitoring die door de diervoedersector wordt uitgevoerd wat betreft de veiligheid van diervoedergrondstoffen en diervoeders. De inventarisatie betreft de aard en omvang van de monitoring en heeft zich gericht op ongewenste stoffen (Richtlijn 2002/32/EG), GGO’s (Verordening (EG) 1829/2003) en residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen (Verordening (EG) 396/2005). Het onderzoek is afgebakend tot grondstoffen behorend tot de hoofdgroepen maïs en maïsbijproducten, soja en sojabijproducten en oliën en vetten. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in twee fases. In fase 1 zijn interviews uitgevoerd bij de volgende bedrijven en organisaties in de diervoedersector: SecureFeed (tot 2015 TrustFeed), het Comité van Graanhandelaren, MVO en drie importeurs van diervoedergrondstoffen, waarvan één importeur ook crusher is van oliehoudende zaden. Hierbij is ook informatie verzameld over de representativiteit van de bemonstering en over de accreditatie- en validatie-status van het uitgevoerde laboratoriumonderzoek. Vervolgens zijn in fase 2 drie aanbevelingen uit fase 1 uitgewerkt, namelijk (i) terugtracering van een aantal partijen diervoedergrondstoffen om beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de frequentie en de aard van de uitgevoerde analyses in de keten van import of productie tot inmenging in mengvoeders, (ii) nagaan welke analyseresultaten aanwezig zijn in de databank van GMP+ International en of deze data beschikbaar gemaakt kunnen worden voor het doel van dit project en (iii) nagaan of de in België gehanteerde werkwijze waarbij het monitoringsplan van BEMEFA door de FAVV wordt gevalideerd voor de Nederlandse situatie bruikbaar is.
Micro-algen in veevoeders : perspectief voor de toekomst?
Dam, Lisanne van - \ 2016
animal nutrition - animal feeding - feeds - feed additives - algae - algae culture - economic viability
Purifying manure effluents with duckweed
Timmerman, M. ; Hoving, I.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 942) - 27 p.
animal manures - effluents - lemna - aquatic weeds - feeds - nutrients - ingredients - animal feeding - animal nutrition - waste water - biogas - biomass production - cultivation - biobased economy - dierlijke meststoffen - afvoerwater - schadelijke waterplanten - voer - voedingsstoffen - ingrediënten - diervoedering - diervoeding - afvalwater - biomassa productie - teelt
The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients
Het percentage regionaal eiwit in het Nederlands veevoerrantsoen : update voor 2014
Cormont, A. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2015
Milieudefensie - 14
voedergewassen - diervoedering - streekgebonden producten - europese unie - eiwitten - nederland - duurzame veehouderij - fodder crops - animal feeding - regional specialty products - european union - proteins - netherlands - sustainable animal husbandry
Milieudefensie heeft Alterra en Livestock Research, beide onderdeel van Wageningen University and Research centre, eerder gevraagd in meer detail het aandeel regionaal eiwit in het totale veevoergebruik in de Nederlandse veehouderij in beeld te brengen voor de jaren 2011 en 2013. Wij hebben destijds daarbij twee aspecten onderscheiden: het percentage regionaal geproduceerd eiwit in (1) het totale Nederlandse veevoer en (2) in het eiwitrijke veevoer met een ruw eiwitgehalte van meer dan 157 g/kg per grondstof. Voor 2014 hebben we het tweede aspect, het aandeel van regionaal geteeld eiwitrijk veevoer in het Nederlandse veevoerrantsoen, opnieuw onderzocht. Hierbij definiëren we ‘regionaal eiwit’ als die ingrediënten die het veevoerrantsoen van eiwit voorzien en die afkomstig zijn van gewassen die geteeld zijn in geografisch Europa.
Insecten als eiwitrijke diervoedergrondstof : Gezonde Veehouderij 2023
Veldkamp, Teun - \ 2015
animal feeding - insects - animal protein - feed safety - nutritional adequacy
Eat and be eaten: porpoise diet studies
Leopold, M.F. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Peter Reijnders. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575585 - 239
phocoenidae - phocoena - diervoedering - voedingsgedrag - predatoren - voedingsgewoonten - foerageren - zeehonden - noordzee - nederland - animal feeding - feeding behaviour - predators - feeding habits - foraging - seals - north sea - netherlands
Unlocking resources in savannas: how goats and other mixed feeders overcome the negative effects of tannins
Mkhize, N.R. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Ignas Heitkonig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574274 - 110
geiten - tanninen - diervoeding - diervoedering - savannen - afgrazen - graasduur - begrazing - dierfysiologie - plantensamenstelling - afrika - goats - tannins - animal nutrition - animal feeding - savannas - browsing - grazing time - grazing - animal physiology - plant composition - africa


This thesis contributes insights on how condensed tannins might mediate the interactions between woody plants and large herbivores in the African savannas. Current understanding in this regard is still based on data from short-term laboratory experiments, mostly with confined animals and a few correlative field studies that only explore relationships between tannin concentrations of plants with their intake. Although these experiments are a necessary first step in isolating and characterising the effects of condensed tannins, they oversimplify the complex interactions that occur between wild herbivores or livestock and plants. The challenge for research is to translate the roles of tannins in plant-herbivore interactions from controlled experiments to field conditions. The aims of this research were: to (1) investigate how condensed tannins influence foraging behaviour and growth performance of free-ranging ruminant herbivores, and (2) determine the effects of supplements on use of woody plants and intake rates of condensed tannins by free-ranging herbivores in a semi-arid savanna.

Field experiments were conducted and data collected on free-ranging goats as models for all mixed feeders that share similar characteristics with goats. Condensed tannin exposure levels to goats were experimentally increased in the field by orally dosing 15 goats with 20g condensed tannin powder extracted from a bark of tannin-rich species. To reduce tannin exposure, 15 goats were dosed with 20 g of PEG in an attempt to neutralize tannin effects, and another group of 15 goats was dosed only with water and served as a control group. Feeding behaviour of goats supplemented with a protein-rich source, an energy-rich source were compared with that of goats that were not supplemented.

The results indicated that mixed feeders exposed to high levels of condensed tannins spend more time grazing and less time browsing compared to animals with low tannin exposure. However, the findings did not support expectation for tannins to reduce overall foraging time. Therefore, it was concluded that condensed tannins do not necessarily suppress foraging, but only influence the amount of time animals spend foraging on either herbaceous or woody forage. These findings also supported hypothesis that herbivores forage in ways that minimize their intake rate of condensed tannins. Animals altered their foraging behaviour depending on the treatment groups they were allocated to, and compiled diets that indicated tannin minimization as a goal. Moreover, there was support for the notion that condensed tannins are digestibility reducers. It was clear that free-ranging animals are able to employ their behavioural adaptations to chemical defences in ways that mitigate the negative physiological effects on their presumed ultimate fitness. This thesis presents possible effects of nutrient-tannin/toxin interactions on herbivores in African savannas. In the supplementation experiment, proteins and energy equally increased browse consumption by herbivores, with a concomitant increase in tannin intake rates.

These results were explained in light of the ongoing bush encroachment in the African savannas. The expected increase in the availability of browse will probably impose a selection pressure for herbivores that can better utilise the encroaching woody plants known to be endowed with tannins and other carbon-based secondary metabolites. These results are used to generalise about the herbivore health, herbivore nutritional, and environmental benefits that are possible from managing our rangelands and herbivores in ways that increase utilization of chemically defended plants. For example, increased consumption of tannin-rich forage will not only improve nutrition, but it will also reduce internal parasite burden, and reduce bloating by ruminant herbivores while simultaneously reducing the methane emissions that lead to global warming.

Copper in diets for weaned pigs : influence of level and duration of copper supplementation
Bikker, P. ; Baal, J. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Troquet, L.M.P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 830) - 38
varkens - biggen - spenen - koper - diervoedering - minerale supplementen - groei - dunne darm - voedertoevoegingen - biggenvoeding - pigs - piglets - weaning - copper - animal feeding - mineral supplements - growth - small intestine - feed additives - piglet feeding
This study was conducted to determine the influence of level (15-160 mg/kg voer)and period (2-8 weeks) of supply of a Cu-supplement on growth performance and expression of Cu absorption-related genes in different segments of the small intestine of weaned pigs.
Methaanproductie bij witvleeskalveren
Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport 813) - 15
vleeskalveren - methaan - emissie - kunstmelk - diervoedering - nederland - veal calves - methane - emission - filled milk - animal feeding - netherlands
De methaanemissie uit (deels) met kunstmelk gevoerde Nederlandse witvleeskalveren is veel lager dan de door IPCC gehanteerde defaultwaarden aangeven. Aanbevolen wordt om de methaanconversiefactor, Ym (de fractie van de bruto energieopname met voer die emitteert als methaanenergie) meer dan te halveren. Tevens wordt aanbevolen om de jaarlijkse methaanemissie door witvleeskalveren vast te stellen met een aparte waarde van 0,003 voor de gevoerde kunstmelk en een waarde van 0,055 voor gevoerde ruw- en krachtvoeders, uitgaande van de jaarlijkse rantsoenberekeningen volgens gestandaardiseerde methode door het CBS.
Plan van aanpak voer- en managementmaatregelen en aanvullende technische maatregelen voor ammoniakreductie veehouderij in PASkader : stand van zaken september 2014
Ogink, N.W.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 821) - 45
maatregelen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - diervoedering - duurzame veehouderij - stikstof - huisvesting, dieren - veehouderij - landbouw en milieu - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - luchtkwaliteit - measures - ammonia emission - emission reduction - animal feeding - sustainable animal husbandry - nitrogen - animal housing - livestock farming - agriculture and environment - farm management - air quality
In this study a research programme is presented to develop and facilitate the introduction of feed and management measures to mitigate ammonia emission of livestock facilities near Natura-2000 areas.
Leeftijd van zelfstandig eten bij papegaaien : literatuur onderzoek = Weaning ages in parrot species
Koene, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 771) - 45
papegaaien - psittacidae - spenen - speenleeftijd - diervoedering - gezelschapsdieren - dierenwelzijn - parrots - weaning - age at weaning - animal feeding - pets - animal welfare
Young parrots can be separated safely from their parents when they are able to eat independently (weaned). Weaning ages of parrots differ between species. Based on written sources a list of weaning ages is made for all parrot species.
Vee in de kas : samenwerking tussen (melk)veehouderij en glastuinbouw
Galema, P. ; Vermeulen, P.C.M. ; Klop, A. ; Broeze, J. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 762)
vee - varkens - koeien - glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - diervoedering - livestock - pigs - cows - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - animal feeding
In opdracht van de Provincie Noord Holland is voor het Noordelijk deel van de Provincie een haalbaarheidsstudie gedaan naar de samenwerking tussen glastuinbouw en de (melk)veehouderij. Deze samenwerking richt zich op het hergebruik van reststromen. Uitgaande van 200 ha glastuinbouw is uitgerekend hoeveel varkens en koeien gevoerd kunnen worden van afgekeurde tomaten en paprika’s.
Algae cultivation profitable by 2025
Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2014
voer - diervoedering - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - maling - voedertoevoegingen - ingrediënten - markten - statistiek - veevoederindustrie - voedermiddelbewerking - feeds - animal feeding - animal nutrition - feed technology - milling - feed additives - ingredients - markets - statistics - feed industry - feed processing is tailored towards the information needs of the international feed business community and is complementary to our print publications Feed Tech and Feed Mix. The site offers the worldwide feed industry: news, industry opinions, a newsletter, article archives, market information, and statistics, and much more
Methaanemissie op het melkveebedrijf : impactanalyse voor reductiemaatregelen en doorrekening daarvan in de Kringloopwijzer
Šebek, L.B. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Bannink, A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 796) - 38
melkveebedrijven - methaanproductie - methaanremmers - broeikasgassen - koolstofcyclus - melkvee - mest - voer - diervoedering - melkveehouderij - emissiereductie - dairy farms - methane production - methane inhibitors - greenhouse gases - carbon cycle - dairy cattle - manures - feeds - animal feeding - dairy farming - emission reduction
Voor u ligt het rapport ‘Methaanemissie op het melkveebedrijf: Impactanalyse voor reductiemaatregelen en doorrekening daarvan in de KringloopWijzer’. Het rapport geeft antwoord op de vraag van het Nederlandse diervoederbedrijfsleven om inzicht te geven in de relevantie en mogelijkheden voor aanpassing van de rekenregels in de KringloopWijzer. Het betreft de rekenregels voor methaanemissie uit de veestapel met als doel het effect van sturen op voerfactoren volledig in te rekenen. Door volledig inrekenen van voerfactoren wordt, met betrekking tot de vermindering van de methaanemissie, het handelingsperspectief duidelijk van zowel diervoederbedrijfsleven als (melk)veehouder.
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