- W.S. Andriuzzi (1)
- L. Chapuis-Lardy (1)
- C.L. Chitescu (1)
- H.J. Fels-Klerx van der (1)
- R.G.M. Goede de (1)
Production of rabbit dung triple-labelled with C, N and S stable isotopes
Andriuzzi, W.S. ; Schmidt, O. - \ 2014
Pedobiologia 57 (2014)3. - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 155 - 160.
natural-abundance - microbial biomass - triticum-aestivum - animal manure - cattle dung - soil - n-15 - nitrogen - carbon - c-13
Animal dung is an important resource in natural, pastoral and agro-ecosystems. Labelling dung with stable isotopes offers a powerful technique to trace faeces-derived carbon and nutrients in soils and organisms, but the production of isotopically labelled animal excrements needs to be practicable and cost-effective. Here we present a simple method for producing solid rabbit faeces triple-labelled with C-13, N-15 and S-34 stable isotopes. The steps involved are: (1) fertilising cereal seedlings with isotopically enriched fertilizers (C-13-N-15 urea and S-34 sodium sulphate); (2) feeding these seedlings daily to a rabbit as supplementary forage for 6 days; and (3) collecting the accruing faeces and measuring the isotopic enrichment in bulk dung and the undigested fraction. The rabbit dung was clearly enriched in C-13, N-15 and S-34 compared to unlabelled start dung. The enrichments increased linearly with time and peaked on the last day of the labelling diet, but most were still detectable two days later, especially N-15. The undigested fraction (Neutral Detergent Fibre) had lower enrichments than the bulk material; this was especially marked for S-34. Data from a follow-up experiment, in which soil microcosms were fertilised with the dung, illustrated that the N-15 enrichments were sufficient to track N incorporation into grass. Our method is simple, rapid and suitable to the small-scale production of labelled faeces. We present tracer recovery estimates for the sequence total tracer used wheat biomass animal dung and discuss ways of increasing the proportions recovered and of obtaining higher enrichments if required. (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Quantitative modelling to estimate the transfer of pharmaceuticals through the food production system
Chitescu, C.L. ; Nicolau, A.I. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides Food Contaminants, and agricultural wastes 49 (2014)7. - ISSN 0360-1234 - p. 457 - 467.
tandem mass-spectrometry - veterinary antibiotics - terrestrial environment - tetracycline residues - liquid-chromatography - organic contaminants - degradation kinetics - exposure assessment - poultry litter - animal manure
Use of pharmaceuticals in animal production may cause an indirect route of contamination of food products of animal origin. This study aimed to assess, through mathematical modelling, the transfer of pharmaceuticals from contaminated soil, through plant uptake, into the dairy food production chain. The scenarios, model parameters, and values refer to contaminants in emission slurry production, storage time, immission into soil, plant uptake, bioaccumulation in the animal's body, and transfer to meat and milk. Modelling results confirm the possibility of contamination of dairy cow's meat and milk due the ingestion of contaminated feed by the cattle. The estimated concentration of pharmaceutical residues obtained for meat ranged from 0 to 6 ng kg-1 for oxytetracycline, from 0.011 to 0.181 µg kg-1 for sulfamethoxazole, and from 4.70 to 11.86 µg kg-1 for ketoconazole. The estimated concentrations for milk were: zero for oxytetracycline, lower than 40 ng L-1 for sulfamethoxazole, and from 0.98 to 2.48 µg L-1 for ketoconazole. Results obtained for the three selected pharmaceuticals indicate a minor risk for human health. This study showed that supply chain modelling could be an effective tool in assessing the indirect contamination of feedstuff and animal products by residues of pharmaceuticals. The model can easily be adjusted to other contaminants and supply chain and, in this way, present a valuable tool to underpin decision making.
Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus
Chapuis-Lardy, L. ; Temminghoff, E.J.M. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2003
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 51 (2003)1-2. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 91 - 102.
rundveemest - rundveedrijfmest - behandeling - fosfor - toevoegingen - oplosbaarheid - chemische eigenschappen - waterverontreiniging - mestverwerking - cattle manure - cattle slurry - treatment - phosphorus - chemical properties - additives - solubility - water pollution - manure treatment - runoff phosphorus - animal manure - nitrogen - soil - netherlands - strategies - management - excretion - recovery - losses
Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective indicator of environmental P loss. We evaluated the water-extractable P (WEP) and readily soluble P (RSP; i.e., P extractable in a single water extract) contents in slurry manure from nine farms. On some farms, the additive Euromestmix® (MX) is used to complex N-compounds in the slurry manure, but the effect of MX on P in the slurry manure is not known. We also focused on methodological factors affecting the measurement of P in slurry manure. Drying the slurry manure before analysis decreased WEP and RSP contents. Dilution of slurry manure by varying the dry matter-to-distilled water ratio increased the water-extractable fractions. Analysis of calcium and magnesium contents in water showed that these minerals are involved in the release of P in water. Total RSP content of slurry manures from the nine farms ranged from 1.83 to 4.06 mg P per g dry matter. A substantial portion of total P in the slurry manure occurred in the water-extractable (46–71%) and the readily soluble P fractions (24–51%). The addition of MX tended to decrease the readily soluble inorganic P content of slurry manures.