- G. Bosch (3)
- W.J.J. Gerrits (4)
- C. Graaf de (1)
- D. Haenen (2)
- H.M.J. Hees van (1)
- G.J.E.J. Hooiveld (2)
- B. Kemp (5)
- S.J. Koopmans (1)
- I.M. Meer van der (1)
- M.R. Müller (2)
- O. Pérez Gutiérrez (1)
- H. Smidt (1)
- C. Souza Da Silva (5)
- L.J.N. Stappers (1)
- J. Zhang (1)
Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Stappers, L.J.N. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1917 - 1927.
satiety-related hormones - adult female pigs - dietary fiber - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - energy-metabolism - physical-activity - appetite regulation - body-composition - potato starch
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs’ postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P
Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Haenen, D. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Kemp, B. ; Müller, M.R. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)09. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1402 - 1411.
chain fatty-acids - adult female pigs - nonstarch polysaccharides - appetite regulation - feeding motivation - serotonin content - dietary-fibers - food-intake - insulin - fermentation
Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P
A diet high in resistant starch modulates microbiota composition, SCFA concentrations, and gene expression in pig intestine
Haenen, D. ; Zhang, J. ; Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Arkel, J. van; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Pérez Gutiérrez, O. ; Smidt, H. ; Kemp, B. ; Müller, M.R. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. - \ 2013
The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)3. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 274 - 283.
chain fatty-acids - glucagon-like peptide-1 - phylogenetic microarray - gastrointestinal-tract - human gut - appetite regulation - metabolic syndrome - colonic function - us adults - body-fat
Resistant starch (RS) is highly fermentable by microbiota in the colon, resulting in the production of SCFAs. RS is thought to mediate a large proportion of its health benefits, including increased satiety, through the actions of SCFAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet high in RS on luminal microbiota composition, luminal SCFA concentrations, and the expression of host genes involved in SCFA uptake, SCFA signaling, and satiety regulation in mucosal tissue obtained from small intestine, cecum, and colon. Twenty adult female pigs were either assigned to a digestible starch (DS) diet or a diet high in RS (34%) for a period of 2 wk. After the intervention, luminal content and mucosal scrapings were obtained for detailed molecular analysis. RS was completely degraded in the cecum. In both the cecum and colon, differences in microbiota composition were observed between DS- and RS-fed pigs. In the colon these included the stimulation of the healthy gut-associated butyrate-producing Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whereas potentially pathogenic members of the Gammaproteobacteria, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp., were reduced in relative abundance. Cecal and colonic SCFA concentrations were significantly greater in RS-fed pigs, and cecal gene expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SLC16A1) and glucagon (GCG) was induced by RS. In conclusion, our data show that RS modulates microbiota composition, SCFA concentrations, and host gene expression in pig intestine. Combined, our data provide an enhanced understanding of the interaction between diet, microbiota, and host
Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den - \ 2013
Physiology and Behavior 110-111 (2013). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 148 - 157.
chain fatty-acids - glucagon-like peptide-1 - resistant starch - growing pigs - appetite regulation - guar gum - gastrointestinal peptides - nonstarch polysaccharides - hindgut fermentation - weight regulation
Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1 h, 3 h and 7 h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber, possibly due to its slow rate of fermentation and high production of butyrate
Effects of dietary fibers with different physiochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2012
Physiology and Behavior 107 (2012)2. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 218 - 230.
chain fatty-acids - resistant starch - physical-activity - gastrointestinal-tract - growing pigs - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - appetite regulation - energy-metabolism - animal-welfare
he satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1 h, 3 h, and 7 h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6 h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1 h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7 h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively.
Alpha-lactalbumin combined with a regular diet increases plasma Trp-LNAA ratio
Beulens, J.W.J. ; Bindels, J.G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2004
Physiology and Behavior 81 (2004)4. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 585 - 593.
brain-serotonin content - neutral amino-acids - food-intake - prolactin secretion - carbohydrate breakfasts - cognitive performance - appetite regulation - meal composition - infant formulas - obese humans
Brain serotonin influences food intake and mood. It is synthesised from tryptophan (Tip) of which uptake in the brain is dependent on plasma ratio of tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids (Trp-LNAA). A carbohydrate-rich diet increases this ratio, whereas a protein-rich diet decreases it. Yet, if the protein source is a-lactalbumin the ratio increases. It is, however, unknown whether this also happens in the context of a regular diet (15% protein). We studied the effect of an alpha-lactalbumin supplement combined with regular diet on plasma Trp-LNAA ratio, serum prolactin (marker of serotonin synthesis), food intake, appetite, macronutrient preference And mood. Eighteen healthy males participated in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour after breakfast they received a drink containing alpha-lactalbumin and carbohydrates (AS) or carbohydrates (PS) only. Plasma Trp-LNAA ratio, serum prolactin, food intake, appetite, macronutrient preference and mood were assessed before and 90 min after consumption of the supplement. Changes of plasma Trp-LNAA ratio differed (P