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Yield gap analysis and resource footprints of Irish potato production systems in Zimbabwe
Svubure, O. ; Struik, P.C. ; Haverkort, A.J. ; Steyn, J.M. - \ 2015
Field Crops Research 178 (2015). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 77 - 90.
agriculture - intensification - argentina - ecology - climate - africa - growth - land
Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's food security challenges. The magnitude of food production increase on already existing croplands depends on the difference between the current actual yields and the potential yield of the crop in the given agro-ecological environment, also called the yield gap. We used three already well-understood types of yield gap: (1) the gap between actual farmer yields, Ya, and the maximum (potential) yield, Yp, achieved when a crop is grown under conditions of non-limiting water and nutrient supply with biotic stress effectively controlled; (2) the gap between Ya and the water-limited yield, Yw, which is the maximum yield attainable under rainfed systems; and (3) the gap between Ya, and the highest yield, Yh, achieved by the best farmers in an agro-ecological area. A grower survey was conducted on the different potato production systems in the country in order to establish the actual yields and input application rates used in potato production. The actual potato yields were used to calculate efficiencies of natural and synthetic resources use. Potential and water-limited yields, and planting times of potato were established for the different agro-ecological regions using the LINTUL-POTATO model, a model based on interception and utilisation of incoming solar radiation. The mean actual yield observed ranged from 8 to 35% of the potential yield, translating to a yield gap of 65 to 92%, hence there is a huge potential to increase production. Simulated potential water use efficiency based on evapotranspiration range was 19–27 g potato/l against the actual water use efficiency of 2–6 g potato/l based on irrigation and rainfall. The current high fertiliser application rates and low actual yields we report, suggest inefficient fertiliser use in potato production in Zimbabwe. The average actual fungicide and insecticide use efficiencies were 0.7 and 13 kg potato/g active ingredient, respectively, across all production systems. All sampled growers lacked knowledge on integrated pest management, a concept which could possibly improve the biocide use efficiency through lowering biocide application rates while maintaining or even improving yields. Our analysis suggests that there is opportunity to improve water, nutrients and biocides resource use efficiencies and increase potato actual yields in Zimbabwe.
Editorial : Seeds and places: The geographies of transgenic crops in the global south
Dowd-Uribe, B. ; Glover, D. ; Schnurr, M.A. - \ 2014
Geoforum 53 (2014). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 145 - 148.
genetically-modified crops - food security - bio-hegemony - bt cotton - biotechnology - science - poor - argentina - dynamics - impacts
Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America
Carriquiriborde, P. ; Mirabella, P. ; Waichman, A. ; Solomon, K. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Maund, S.J. - \ 2014
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 10 (2014)4. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 539 - 542.
surface waters - south-america - amazon state - brazil - ecosystems - cypermethrin - herbicide - argentina - impact
Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organised a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America, but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the paper. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasised that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats. Education, training, and communication efforts are needed to achieve this.
Determining the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species of a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Lopez, L. ; Villalba, R. ; Peña-Claros, M. - \ 2012
Forest Systems 21 (2012)3. - ISSN 2171-5068 - p. 508 - 514.
management - argentina
To determine the annual periodicity of growth rings in seven tree species from a tropical moist forest in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, a fire scar was used as a marker point to verify the annual nature of tree rings. The number of tree rings formed between the 1995 fire scar and the collection of the cross sections in 2002 was visually identified. The seven species showed annual growth rings. In most cases, boundaries between rings were marked by the presence of marginal parenchyma and wall-thicked fibers formed at the end of the growing season. Growth lenses and false rings were recorded in some species. Tree rings can be carefully used in Santa Cruz forests to determine rates of growth. This information is crucial for defining forest management practices in tropical regions.
Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000
Frankema, E.H.P. - \ 2012
Studies in Comparative International Development 47 (2012)1. - ISSN 0039-3606 - p. 47 - 74.
income-distribution - technological-change - labor - argentina - education - brazil - trade - world - productivity - democracy
Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively modest during the first half of the twentieth century, but rising much faster during the post-war era than in other industrial countries. In-depth analyses of wage inequality trends in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile confirm this pattern, but also reveal notable country peculiarities. In Argentina and Chile, trend breaks coincided with large political–institutional shocks while in Brazil, wage inequality increased unabated under the wage regulation policies of successive post-war administrations. We argue that without taking national policies with respect to education and the labor market into account, economic theory cannot explain “Latin American” patterns of wage inequality.
Exploring opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina
Chavez Clemente, M.D. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Paul Berentsen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734204 - 161
tabak - gespecialiseerde landbouw - gewasproductie - landbouwbedrijven - diversificatie - specialisatie - inkomen - risico - bodemdegradatie - argentinië - tobacco - specialized farming - crop production - farms - diversification - specialization - income - risk - soil degradation - argentina
In the Northwest of Argentina tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is economically and socially important. Tobacco mono-cropping, excessive tillage and inadequate irrigation management cause soil degradation. This and also tobacco production dependence on government subsidies and concern about health damage from tobacco consumption calls for research on diversification. The aim of this thesis was to explore opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina.
Estuarine mesozooplankton dynamics on a short-term time scale: role of semidiurnal tidal cycle
Menendez, M.C. ; Piccolo, M.C. ; Hoffmeyer, M.S. ; Sassi, M.G. - \ 2011
Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 59 (2011)3. - ISSN 1679-8759 - p. 281 - 286.
copepod eurytemora-affinis - bahia-blanca estuary - zooplankton - argentina - retention
Fresh fruit and vegetables: a world of multiple interactions : the case of the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Market (BACWM)
Viteri, M.L. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858140
sociologie - etnografie - markten - groothandelmarketing - sociale interactie - verse producten - groenten - fruit - argentinië - steden - sociology - ethnography - markets - wholesale marketing - social interaction - fresh products - vegetables - argentina - towns
This research explores ethnographically the everyday social interactions between the ‘users’ of a particular marketplace, the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Market (BACWM). The ‘users’ of this marketplace are the social actors who work there everyday, and who bring and buy fresh produce. These ´users´ are the ´makers´ of the BACWM since, through their everyday practices, interactions and interpretations and knowledge, they socially construct this hub of distribution.
Topper in eipoeder
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2010
De Pluimveehouderij 40 (2010)4. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 31 - 31.
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - eipoeder - eieren - argentinië - poultry farming - poultry - dried egg - eggs - argentina
Argentinië was in 2008 de belangrijkste exporteur van eipoeder naar de EU. Dat maakt nieuwsgierig naar de leghennenhouderij in dat land.
The poultry and pig sector in Argentina : husbandry practice and animal welfare
Horne, P.L.M. van; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Winter, M.A. de; Hoste, R. ; Senesi, S.I. ; Barilatti, M.M. ; Daziano, M. ; Martino, L.D.C. ; Becerra, M.M.T. - \ 2010
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area Agriculture & entrepreneurship ) - ISBN 9789086154098 - 79
pluimveehouderij - pluimveebedrijf - varkenshouderij - dierenwelzijn - argentinië - dierhouderij - poultry farming - poultry industry - pig farming - animal welfare - argentina - animal husbandry
This report gives an overview of the current husbandry and management practices in the poultry and pig sector in Argentina related to animal welfare. The research centered on a description of the broiler, layer and pig sector in Argentina, the regulatory framework in force in Argentina with respect to animal welfare and a survey on husbandry practice in the poultry and pig sector.
Sustainable conventional and organic vegetable flow to Europe: supply chain optimization
Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Westra, E.H. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1104) - ISBN 9789085855668 - 24
groenten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - import - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - argentinië - vegetables - organic foods - imports - sustainability - argentina
The goal of this project is to further develop successful supply chain concepts for sustainable export of qualitative high-grade export flow of, especially organic, vegetables from Argentina to Europe during the European winter season
Preliminary studies of pest constraints to cotton seedlings in a direct seeding mulch-based system in Cameroon
Brevault, T. ; Guibert, H. ; Naudin, K. - \ 2009
Experimental Agriculture 45 (2009). - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 25 - 33.
cover crops - tillage systems - soil macrofauna - management - agroecosystem - arthropods - predators - argentina - community - residues
The present study evaluated the pest constraints of an innovative crop management system in Cameroon involving conservation tillage and direct seeding mulch-based strategies. We hypothesized that the presence of mulch (i) would support a higher density of phytophagous arthropods particularly millipedes as well as pathogenic fungi that cause severe damage to cotton seedlings and (ii) would reduce early aphid infestations. The impact of two cover-crop mulches Calopogonium mucunoides and Brachiaria ruziziensis on the vigour of seedling cotton stands and arthropod damage was assessed in two independent field experiments conducted in 2001 and 2002 respectively. In both experiments the presence of mulch negatively affected cotton seedling stand by 13–14% compared to non-mulched plots and the proportion of damaged seedlings was higher in mulched than in non-mulched plots supporting the hypothesis that mulch favoured soil pest damage. In both experiments insecticidal seed dressing increased the seedling stand and the number of dead millipedes collected and fungicide had little or no effect on seedling stand and vigour. It was however observed in 2002 that the fungicide seed dressing had a positive effect on seedling stand in non-mulched plots but not in mulched plots suggesting that fungi may have been naturally inhibited by B. ruziziensis mulch. The dynamics of aphid colonization was not influenced by the presence of mulch. In 2001 taller seedlings were found in mulched than non-mulched plots probably due to greater water and nutrient availability in C. mucunoides-mulched plots than in non-mulched plots
The social life of regions : salmon farming and the regionalization of development in Chilean Patagonia
Blanco Wells, G.E. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854319 - 319
regionale ontwikkeling - regionalisme - ontwikkeling - regio's - territorialiteit - sociologie - visteelt - sociaal milieu - sociale verandering - zalmteelt - argentinië - sociale situatie - sociale groepen - regional development - regionalization - development - regions - territoriality - sociology - fish culture - social environment - social change - salmon culture - argentina - social situation - social groups
This thesis explores a sociological approach towards understanding the contemporary process by which certain territorial relations are grouped under the notion of region. The research adopts an ethnographic perspective to reconstruct the social life of regions by focusing not only on the processes and activities that have transformed territorial units into objects of intervention, but also on the practices and sites that have turned regions into meaningful fields of action through which people carry out their life projects. This argument is sustained through research findings that recorded the spread of salmon farming in the Patagonian Region of Aysén in southern Chile.
Salmon farming expanded rapidly due to the increasing importance of trade networks that profited from the global demand of food commodities and the centrality given to regions as units of coordination between State agencies, trade networks, national or foreign capital and local livelihoods. The thesis shows how the practices and sites related to the expansion of salmon farming challenge the social organization and territorial functions attributed to the contemporary Region of Aysén. It argues that the regionalization of certain development processes have facilitated the emergence of new activities producing globally demanded commodities. The thesis critically examines the wide scope of social practices that over time have contributed to create regional entities and transform them into techno-political objects of intervention. This process went together with academic and managerial trends in which the main object of development shifted to regional modes of economic functionality and territorial coordination of actors. Since the 1980s, this trend that I have called the regionalization of development has become more relevant by the rising flows of global commodities, the new geographies of food production and consumption and new governmental patterns of territorial allocation of resources. The politics of regional development proposes a path to globalization based on the spatial organization of activities and the selective support of actors geared towards the production of successful exportable commodities.
Despite the popularity of regional development among experts, this thesis argues that the direction and hegemony of territorial approaches are increasingly modulated through the multiplicity of social groups and organizations that are contesting, subverting or adapting some of its effects until they are transformed in meaningful parts of people’s life-worlds. In this sense, the thesis shows that the form and the extent to which salmon farming relates to a politics of regional development is, indeed, controversial. In a techno-political approach to regional development actors do not struggle over one specific resource, but over a set of territorially based interventions, objects and projects that reflect differences in values, meanings and life-worlds. To understand this process differently, this thesis introduces the concept of a regional field of action in order to show a more complex and diverse landscape of activities, projects and livelihoods that are also contributing to make a region the home of settlers and workers. This living region unfolds daily within, around and outside the salmon farming industry but cannot be reduced to it. Salmon farming is already a part of the activities and strategies of local people but, contrary to the self-sufficiency of hegemonic projects, they manifest the right of seeing and imagining things differently and, accordingly, of granting or refusing the right to others to intervene in certain domains of their everyday life.
This book concludes that the existence of export-based activities and trade networks in Chile is partly made possible by the creation of a regional field of action that facilitates the re-allocation of resources and the mobilization of people, capital and materials. The concept of regional field of action allows us to unite, from a practice-oriented perspective, all the outcomes that region-making processes generate independently if they are created by rulers, entrepreneurs, workers or local people. Regional fields of action become an approach to study processes of development in a sociological sense by focusing on the effects that the formation of regions has for people’s organization of everyday life and the constitution of meaningful life projects.
In sum, this thesis explores how different social groups create, dwell in, and transform a region. The narrative does not reduce the experience of constructing a region to vertical and hierarchical techno-political perspectives. It shows a multiplicity of sites that express local forms of regaining, contesting or adapting those regional fields and transforming them into places and relations that are meaningful for people’s life-worlds. I believe this book broadens the perspective of regional development towards locally constructed forms of change that can contribute to make visible and build up new livelihood opportunities and to re-think a more inclusive perspective that values the experience of regional dwellers.
Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi
Crous, P.W. ; Braun, U. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Shin, H.D. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Cumagun, C.J.R. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2009
Persoonia 22 (2009). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 139 - 161.
anamorphic fungi - ribosomal dna - allied genera - leaf-spot - mycosphaerella - dictyosporium - china - combinations - hyphomycete - argentina
The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which a new classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of hyphomycetes were collected. These fungi were subsequently established in culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis of the ITS and LSU nrRNA genes to resolve species and generic questions related to these obscure genera. Brycekendrickomyces (Herpotrichiellaceae) is introduced as a new genus similar to, but distinct from Haplographium and Lauriomyces. Chalastospora is shown to be a genus in the Pleosporales, with two new species, C. ellipsoidea and C. obclavata, to which Alternaria malorum is added as an additional taxon under its oldest epithet, C. gossypii. Cyphellophora eugeniae is newly described in Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), and distinguished from other taxa in the genus. Dictyosporium is placed in the Pleosporales, with one new species, D. streliziae. The genus Edenia, which was recently introduced for a sterile endophytic fungus isolated in Mexico, is shown to be a hyphomycete (Pleosporales) forming a pyronellea-like synanamorph in culture. Thedgonia is shown not to represent an anamorph of Mycosphaerella, but to belong to the Helotiales. Trochophora, however, clustered basal to the Pseudocercospora complex in the Mycosphaerellaceae, as did Verrucisporota. Vonarxia, a rather forgotten genus of hyphomycetes, is shown to belong to the Herpotrichiellaceae and Xenostigmina is confirmed as synanamorph of Mycopappus, and is shown to be allied to Seifertia in the Pleosporales. Dichotomous keys are provided for species in the various genera treated. Furthermore, several families are shown to be polyphyletic within some orders, especially in the Capnodiales, Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales.
GM-related sustainability: agro-ecological impacts, risk and opportunities of soy production in Argentina and Brazil
Bindraban, P.S. ; Franke, A.C. ; Ferraro, D.O. ; Ghersa, C.M. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Nepomuceno, A. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 259) - 50
glycine (fabaceae) - gewasproductie - genetische modificatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - teeltsystemen - argentinië - brazilië - agro-ecologie - crop production - genetic engineering - sustainability - cropping systems - argentina - brazil - agroecology
Multiple territories in dispute : water policies, participation and Mapuce indigenous rights in Patagonia, Argentina
Moreyra, A. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; N.E. Long. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085853862 - 218
waterbeleid - participatie - participatief management - sociale participatie - argentinië - bewonersparticipatie - inheemse volkeren - water policy - participation - participative management - social participation - argentina - community participation - indigenous people
This thesis is about the multiple territories which dispute the shape and control of
the development of the Trahunco-Quitrahue watershed, at Cerro Chapelko,
Neuquén province in Argentinean Patagonian. Built into these disputes are the
struggles of Mapuce peoples -indigenous peoples of the region- for the
recognition in practice of their indigenous rights and the implications these have
for natural resources management policies and actions, as well as for participation
in decision-making processes.
This study began focusing on a proposal of local and provincial water agencies to
resolve local water demands by creating a water users association proposed for a
small watershed49, the Trahunco stream in San Martín de los Andes (SMA),
Patagonia. This territory was claimed by Mapuce communities and hosted several
tourism enterprises. As fieldwork developed, the unravelling of the multiple
realities involved in the water policy process, whether through the WUA or
outside of it, made me broaden the scope of the research.
The interethnic character of the site is reflected in its multiple actors, which
include among others, tourism investors and allied businessmen, employees and
administrators of an International Ski resort, different state agencies relating to
the use and control of water resources and the impact of development projects -
and two Mapuce indigenous communities, one of them very active in a Mapuce
political organisation. All have different views, interests, possibilities and rights in
respect to how development is to be defined.
Therefore, once into the writing of this text, I decided that the notion of territory
was the most appropriate for bringing together into the analysis the multiple
dimensions intertwined at this local water policy implementation process.
Territory is a concept that allows articulating the processes of social interactions
and relationships, disputes for resource uses and control and, identity formation.
The main questions of the research are:
-What are the social interfaces of the WUA in San Martín de los Andes and how
and why are the different meanings, projects and representations negotiated?
-What are the processes involved in creating alternative policy spaces as Mapuce
countertendencies for furthering their indigenous rights and their notions of
For answering these and other nested questions, I followed an actor-oriented
perspective which engages with ethnographic research and participant observation as one of my main research strategies. This implied social interaction
with the groups researched within their daily activities, gathering information in
a systematic, non intrusive way, in order to get a view from ‘within’ the location
selected for study. It required entering the fieldwork without a “formal
hypothesis” but only with a preliminary comprehension of the problem to be
studied. These notions guided the first steps of fieldwork, allowing for an
accommodation to the circumstances found and the identification of what the
actors consider as the problem around the topic of my interest as a researcher. My
primary interest was to do research on the processes of genesis and
implementation of a Water Users Association. While doing participant
observation I combined a number of research techniques such as informal and
formal discussions, individual interviews and meetings with focus groups.
Attendance at local meetings, works and other events such as street protests,
celebrations, markets, also drew attention to some aspects of the research and led
me to new, unexpected insights and questions.
For carrying out the fieldwork of this research, several periods of time were spent
at San Martín de los Andes: seven months during 2001, three months in 2004 and
shorter (one or two weeks) visits in 2003, 2006 and 2007. During the year between
September 2006 and August 2007, I was working as a consultant within the
Directorate of Indigenous Peoples and Natural Resources, at the National
Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. In this opportunity I
worked closely to the Director, who is also one of the main Mapuce
representatives of the political organisation whose actions this study focuses on.
In this period, I met and shared discussions with many indigenous people's
representatives and other Mapuce actors.
This study analyses Mapuce peoples struggles for carving alternative policy
spaces for enforcing indigenous rights and establish a ‘new relationship with the
state’. For doing so, I firstly focused on a participatory water intervention in
which a variety of actors were involved. Acknowledging the politics of
participation in policy processes aiming to regulate the management of such vital
resource led me to other arenas of action where actors excluded from the formal
intervention, were actually generating new spaces of negotiation, not without
The social fields of interaction and dispute related to territory and sovereignty in
Cerro Chapelko, at San Martín de los Andes, in the province of Neuquén are
contextualized in the historically constructed cultural repertoires which influence
today’s relationships between the hegemonic elites in power, other members of
society and the Mapuce indigenous peoples of the region.
Despite the formal recognition of indigenous rights in the national Constitution
and the state’s agreements to International Conventions, the indigenous peoples
of Argentina do not have access to their enforcement. Contemporary debates
about the pre-existence of indigenous peoples in the region still influence the
practical recognition of their rights. This is not a minor issue due to the relevance
it has for exercising the autonomy in their territories.
This permeates into the workings of state institutions involved in water, natural
resources and environment management and control. At local level, the study
focuses in the particular workings of such institutions in the process of
implementation of a participatory water policy that brings together the multiple
users at the watershed level, leading to the creation of a Water Users Association.
The dynamics of this process reveal the processes of inclusion and exclusion that
emerge out of these interfaces, so much related to the denial or ignorance of
indigenous rights. The study shows how contemporary local state agencies
manage to reproduce the state’s historical notion of territory as a homogenizing
process of control and the denial of the rights of indigenous peoples.
The exclusion of Mapuce political organisation from the scheme to develop a
Water Users Association was not a cul-de-sac for them to pursue their political
project. The strategies and tactics that the Mapuce deployed to create alternative
policy spaces for their exercise of territoriality, which is a main element of their
struggle for the recognition of indigenous rights, resulted a much more effective
way for their participation in decision making. The construction of these
countertendencies, that Mapuce call in general ‘the new relationship with the
state’, emerge as alternative modernities which by incorporating difference into
policy agendas and institutions, start to put in practice a recognition that in
general is still only on paper.
Therefore, the watershed is a site where multiple notions of territory are being
disputed through different means and for different interests. Tourism
developments advance their economic territorial projects supported by the
sector’s businesses at local and regional level, The state, which influences the
control through interventions as tools, shapes the territory sometimes favouring
such projects. Mapuce people’s community members and political organisation,
and their allies from different civil society sectors, claim their rights to participate
in such definitions and propose new forms of participation.
The meanings of ‘participation’ therefore, become a central issue of debate among
these different actors struggling to get their notions on the political agenda. A
main issue for getting indigenous rights right therefore, is the notion of
differential modes of citizenship rooted in the concept of autonomy expressed
within a pluri-national state, whose institutions and parliament should include
Mapuce -and other peoples, as such. This is the issue from which all other aspects
of indigenous rights unfold, therefore, constituting the motor of Mapuce peoples
However, state institutions approach participation as an invitation to stakeholders
to be informed on policy programmes and actions. Participation is reduced to a
method or technique even in the best of the cases. From the discourses of state
functionaries and legal advisors, in this study it becomes clear that the issue of
differentiated citizenship is not incorporated into how institutions work.
The coexistence of multiple territories without conflict requires that the state and
wider society acknowledge in practice these rights the Mapuce are defending.
Otherwise, the meanings of participation that are embedded in institutional
practices that in fact over-rule or ignore these rights, most probably will continue
to generate conflicts and disputes.
Research Agenda Setting for the Argentinean Chaco
Nijhof, B.S.J. ; Prieto, D. ; Bindraban, P.S. ; Mansfeld, M.J.M. van; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Querner, E.P. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 1617) - 125
landgebruik - glycine max - sojabonen - biobrandstoffen - landbouwontwikkeling - argentinië - land use - soyabeans - biofuels - agricultural development - argentina
Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands : Case studies on water management issues in Argentina
Querner, E.P. ; Morabito, J.A. ; Rebori, G. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra - 8
waterbeheer - samenwerking - hydrologie - besluitvorming - nederland - argentinië - integraal waterbeheer - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - modelleren - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - water management - cooperation - hydrology - decision making - netherlands - argentina - integrated water management - development cooperation - modeling - decision support systems
In Argentina parts of the country have problems encountered from too much water or suffer serious water shortages. The Humid Pampas encounter an increased rainfall since the 1970’s. In Mendoza Province water resources are limited and all the water from the rivers is used for agriculture, drinking water and industries. For the management of such systems an integrated approach is needed, where hydrological modelling tools can be used to support decision making.
Vegetable flow from Argentina to Europe
Snels, Joost - \ 2007
vegetables - imports - international trade - argentina
Export from Argentina to Europe: getting across : start up of a sustainable vegetable and fruit trade flow from Argentina to Europe
Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Westra, E.H. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group nr. 891) - ISBN 9789085851707 - 69
verse producten - groenten - fruit - export - import - internationale handel - internationaal transport - zeetransport - argentinië - europa - logistiek - fresh products - vegetables - exports - imports - international trade - international transport - sea transport - argentina - europe - logistics
In Europa is er een (potentiële) markt aanwezig voor producten vanuit Argentinië. De voornaamste reden hiervoor is dat Argentinië producten kan leveren in het zogenaamde ‘tegenseizoen’. Einde van de winter / begin van de lente is het in Europa relatief lastig om ‘eigen’ producten te verkrijgen. Echter, de afstand van de productie locaties in Argentinië naar de Europese markt is erg lang. Hoewel transport door middel van het vliegtuig gangbaar is, is het steeds lastiger om tegen acceptabele kosten te transporteren. Daarnaast geldt dat er steeds meer druk vanuit de samenleving en importeurs/retailers komt te liggen op milieuaspecten. Het enige redelijke alternatief is het vervoer van de producten per refridgerated container of ‘reefer’ middels zeetransport. Vandaar dit bilaterale onderzoeksproject dat als doel heeft 'het ontwikkelen van een zogenaamd ‘framework’ om te kunnen komen tot de start van het opzetten van een duurzame goederenstroom van Argentinië naar Europa'