Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Exploring opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina
Chavez Clemente, M.D. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Paul Berentsen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734204 - 161
tabak - gespecialiseerde landbouw - gewasproductie - landbouwbedrijven - diversificatie - specialisatie - inkomen - risico - bodemdegradatie - argentinië - tobacco - specialized farming - crop production - farms - diversification - specialization - income - risk - soil degradation - argentina
In the Northwest of Argentina tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is economically and socially important. Tobacco mono-cropping, excessive tillage and inadequate irrigation management cause soil degradation. This and also tobacco production dependence on government subsidies and concern about health damage from tobacco consumption calls for research on diversification. The aim of this thesis was to explore opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina.
Fresh fruit and vegetables: a world of multiple interactions : the case of the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Market (BACWM)
Viteri, M.L. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858140
sociologie - etnografie - markten - groothandelmarketing - sociale interactie - verse producten - groenten - fruit - argentinië - steden - sociology - ethnography - markets - wholesale marketing - social interaction - fresh products - vegetables - argentina - towns
This research explores ethnographically the everyday social interactions between the ‘users’ of a particular marketplace, the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Market (BACWM). The ‘users’ of this marketplace are the social actors who work there everyday, and who bring and buy fresh produce. These ´users´ are the ´makers´ of the BACWM since, through their everyday practices, interactions and interpretations and knowledge, they socially construct this hub of distribution.
Topper in eipoeder
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2010
De Pluimveehouderij 40 (2010)4. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 31 - 31.
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - eipoeder - eieren - argentinië - poultry farming - poultry - dried egg - eggs - argentina
Argentinië was in 2008 de belangrijkste exporteur van eipoeder naar de EU. Dat maakt nieuwsgierig naar de leghennenhouderij in dat land.
The poultry and pig sector in Argentina : husbandry practice and animal welfare
Horne, P.L.M. van; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Winter, M.A. de; Hoste, R. ; Senesi, S.I. ; Barilatti, M.M. ; Daziano, M. ; Martino, L.D.C. ; Becerra, M.M.T. - \ 2010
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area Agriculture & entrepreneurship ) - ISBN 9789086154098 - 79
pluimveehouderij - pluimveebedrijf - varkenshouderij - dierenwelzijn - argentinië - dierhouderij - poultry farming - poultry industry - pig farming - animal welfare - argentina - animal husbandry
This report gives an overview of the current husbandry and management practices in the poultry and pig sector in Argentina related to animal welfare. The research centered on a description of the broiler, layer and pig sector in Argentina, the regulatory framework in force in Argentina with respect to animal welfare and a survey on husbandry practice in the poultry and pig sector.
Sustainable conventional and organic vegetable flow to Europe: supply chain optimization
Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Westra, E.H. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1104) - ISBN 9789085855668 - 24
groenten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - import - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - argentinië - vegetables - organic foods - imports - sustainability - argentina
The goal of this project is to further develop successful supply chain concepts for sustainable export of qualitative high-grade export flow of, especially organic, vegetables from Argentina to Europe during the European winter season
The social life of regions : salmon farming and the regionalization of development in Chilean Patagonia
Blanco Wells, G.E. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854319 - 319
regionale ontwikkeling - regionalisme - ontwikkeling - regio's - territorialiteit - sociologie - visteelt - sociaal milieu - sociale verandering - zalmteelt - argentinië - sociale situatie - sociale groepen - regional development - regionalization - development - regions - territoriality - sociology - fish culture - social environment - social change - salmon culture - argentina - social situation - social groups
This thesis explores a sociological approach towards understanding the contemporary process by which certain territorial relations are grouped under the notion of region. The research adopts an ethnographic perspective to reconstruct the social life of regions by focusing not only on the processes and activities that have transformed territorial units into objects of intervention, but also on the practices and sites that have turned regions into meaningful fields of action through which people carry out their life projects. This argument is sustained through research findings that recorded the spread of salmon farming in the Patagonian Region of Aysén in southern Chile.
Salmon farming expanded rapidly due to the increasing importance of trade networks that profited from the global demand of food commodities and the centrality given to regions as units of coordination between State agencies, trade networks, national or foreign capital and local livelihoods. The thesis shows how the practices and sites related to the expansion of salmon farming challenge the social organization and territorial functions attributed to the contemporary Region of Aysén. It argues that the regionalization of certain development processes have facilitated the emergence of new activities producing globally demanded commodities. The thesis critically examines the wide scope of social practices that over time have contributed to create regional entities and transform them into techno-political objects of intervention. This process went together with academic and managerial trends in which the main object of development shifted to regional modes of economic functionality and territorial coordination of actors. Since the 1980s, this trend that I have called the regionalization of development has become more relevant by the rising flows of global commodities, the new geographies of food production and consumption and new governmental patterns of territorial allocation of resources. The politics of regional development proposes a path to globalization based on the spatial organization of activities and the selective support of actors geared towards the production of successful exportable commodities.
Despite the popularity of regional development among experts, this thesis argues that the direction and hegemony of territorial approaches are increasingly modulated through the multiplicity of social groups and organizations that are contesting, subverting or adapting some of its effects until they are transformed in meaningful parts of people’s life-worlds. In this sense, the thesis shows that the form and the extent to which salmon farming relates to a politics of regional development is, indeed, controversial. In a techno-political approach to regional development actors do not struggle over one specific resource, but over a set of territorially based interventions, objects and projects that reflect differences in values, meanings and life-worlds. To understand this process differently, this thesis introduces the concept of a regional field of action in order to show a more complex and diverse landscape of activities, projects and livelihoods that are also contributing to make a region the home of settlers and workers. This living region unfolds daily within, around and outside the salmon farming industry but cannot be reduced to it. Salmon farming is already a part of the activities and strategies of local people but, contrary to the self-sufficiency of hegemonic projects, they manifest the right of seeing and imagining things differently and, accordingly, of granting or refusing the right to others to intervene in certain domains of their everyday life.
This book concludes that the existence of export-based activities and trade networks in Chile is partly made possible by the creation of a regional field of action that facilitates the re-allocation of resources and the mobilization of people, capital and materials. The concept of regional field of action allows us to unite, from a practice-oriented perspective, all the outcomes that region-making processes generate independently if they are created by rulers, entrepreneurs, workers or local people. Regional fields of action become an approach to study processes of development in a sociological sense by focusing on the effects that the formation of regions has for people’s organization of everyday life and the constitution of meaningful life projects.
In sum, this thesis explores how different social groups create, dwell in, and transform a region. The narrative does not reduce the experience of constructing a region to vertical and hierarchical techno-political perspectives. It shows a multiplicity of sites that express local forms of regaining, contesting or adapting those regional fields and transforming them into places and relations that are meaningful for people’s life-worlds. I believe this book broadens the perspective of regional development towards locally constructed forms of change that can contribute to make visible and build up new livelihood opportunities and to re-think a more inclusive perspective that values the experience of regional dwellers.

GM-related sustainability: agro-ecological impacts, risk and opportunities of soy production in Argentina and Brazil
Bindraban, P.S. ; Franke, A.C. ; Ferraro, D.O. ; Ghersa, C.M. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Nepomuceno, A. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2009
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 259) - 50
glycine (fabaceae) - gewasproductie - genetische modificatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - teeltsystemen - argentinië - brazilië - agro-ecologie - crop production - genetic engineering - sustainability - cropping systems - argentina - brazil - agroecology
Multiple territories in dispute : water policies, participation and Mapuce indigenous rights in Patagonia, Argentina
Moreyra, A. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent; N.E. Long. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789085853862 - 218
waterbeleid - participatie - participatief management - sociale participatie - argentinië - bewonersparticipatie - inheemse volkeren - water policy - participation - participative management - social participation - argentina - community participation - indigenous people
This thesis is about the multiple territories which dispute the shape and control of
the development of the Trahunco-Quitrahue watershed, at Cerro Chapelko,
Neuquén province in Argentinean Patagonian. Built into these disputes are the
struggles of Mapuce peoples -indigenous peoples of the region- for the
recognition in practice of their indigenous rights and the implications these have
for natural resources management policies and actions, as well as for participation
in decision-making processes.
This study began focusing on a proposal of local and provincial water agencies to
resolve local water demands by creating a water users association proposed for a
small watershed49, the Trahunco stream in San Martín de los Andes (SMA),
Patagonia. This territory was claimed by Mapuce communities and hosted several
tourism enterprises. As fieldwork developed, the unravelling of the multiple
realities involved in the water policy process, whether through the WUA or
outside of it, made me broaden the scope of the research.
The interethnic character of the site is reflected in its multiple actors, which
include among others, tourism investors and allied businessmen, employees and
administrators of an International Ski resort, different state agencies relating to
the use and control of water resources and the impact of development projects -
and two Mapuce indigenous communities, one of them very active in a Mapuce
political organisation. All have different views, interests, possibilities and rights in
respect to how development is to be defined.
Therefore, once into the writing of this text, I decided that the notion of territory
was the most appropriate for bringing together into the analysis the multiple
dimensions intertwined at this local water policy implementation process.
Territory is a concept that allows articulating the processes of social interactions
and relationships, disputes for resource uses and control and, identity formation.
The main questions of the research are:
-What are the social interfaces of the WUA in San Martín de los Andes and how
and why are the different meanings, projects and representations negotiated?
-What are the processes involved in creating alternative policy spaces as Mapuce
countertendencies for furthering their indigenous rights and their notions of
territory?
For answering these and other nested questions, I followed an actor-oriented
perspective which engages with ethnographic research and participant observation as one of my main research strategies. This implied social interaction
with the groups researched within their daily activities, gathering information in
a systematic, non intrusive way, in order to get a view from ‘within’ the location
selected for study. It required entering the fieldwork without a “formal
hypothesis” but only with a preliminary comprehension of the problem to be
studied. These notions guided the first steps of fieldwork, allowing for an
accommodation to the circumstances found and the identification of what the
actors consider as the problem around the topic of my interest as a researcher. My
primary interest was to do research on the processes of genesis and
implementation of a Water Users Association. While doing participant
observation I combined a number of research techniques such as informal and
formal discussions, individual interviews and meetings with focus groups.
Attendance at local meetings, works and other events such as street protests,
celebrations, markets, also drew attention to some aspects of the research and led
me to new, unexpected insights and questions.
For carrying out the fieldwork of this research, several periods of time were spent
at San Martín de los Andes: seven months during 2001, three months in 2004 and
shorter (one or two weeks) visits in 2003, 2006 and 2007. During the year between
September 2006 and August 2007, I was working as a consultant within the
Directorate of Indigenous Peoples and Natural Resources, at the National
Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. In this opportunity I
worked closely to the Director, who is also one of the main Mapuce
representatives of the political organisation whose actions this study focuses on.
In this period, I met and shared discussions with many indigenous people's
representatives and other Mapuce actors.
This study analyses Mapuce peoples struggles for carving alternative policy
spaces for enforcing indigenous rights and establish a ‘new relationship with the
state’. For doing so, I firstly focused on a participatory water intervention in
which a variety of actors were involved. Acknowledging the politics of
participation in policy processes aiming to regulate the management of such vital
resource led me to other arenas of action where actors excluded from the formal
intervention, were actually generating new spaces of negotiation, not without
conflicts.
The social fields of interaction and dispute related to territory and sovereignty in
Cerro Chapelko, at San Martín de los Andes, in the province of Neuquén are
contextualized in the historically constructed cultural repertoires which influence
today’s relationships between the hegemonic elites in power, other members of
society and the Mapuce indigenous peoples of the region.
Despite the formal recognition of indigenous rights in the national Constitution
and the state’s agreements to International Conventions, the indigenous peoples
of Argentina do not have access to their enforcement. Contemporary debates
about the pre-existence of indigenous peoples in the region still influence the
practical recognition of their rights. This is not a minor issue due to the relevance
it has for exercising the autonomy in their territories.
This permeates into the workings of state institutions involved in water, natural
resources and environment management and control. At local level, the study
focuses in the particular workings of such institutions in the process of
implementation of a participatory water policy that brings together the multiple
users at the watershed level, leading to the creation of a Water Users Association.
The dynamics of this process reveal the processes of inclusion and exclusion that
emerge out of these interfaces, so much related to the denial or ignorance of
indigenous rights. The study shows how contemporary local state agencies
manage to reproduce the state’s historical notion of territory as a homogenizing
process of control and the denial of the rights of indigenous peoples.
The exclusion of Mapuce political organisation from the scheme to develop a
Water Users Association was not a cul-de-sac for them to pursue their political
project. The strategies and tactics that the Mapuce deployed to create alternative
policy spaces for their exercise of territoriality, which is a main element of their
struggle for the recognition of indigenous rights, resulted a much more effective
way for their participation in decision making. The construction of these
countertendencies, that Mapuce call in general ‘the new relationship with the
state’, emerge as alternative modernities which by incorporating difference into
policy agendas and institutions, start to put in practice a recognition that in
general is still only on paper.
Therefore, the watershed is a site where multiple notions of territory are being
disputed through different means and for different interests. Tourism
developments advance their economic territorial projects supported by the
sector’s businesses at local and regional level, The state, which influences the
control through interventions as tools, shapes the territory sometimes favouring
such projects. Mapuce people’s community members and political organisation,
and their allies from different civil society sectors, claim their rights to participate
in such definitions and propose new forms of participation.
The meanings of ‘participation’ therefore, become a central issue of debate among
these different actors struggling to get their notions on the political agenda. A
main issue for getting indigenous rights right therefore, is the notion of
differential modes of citizenship rooted in the concept of autonomy expressed
within a pluri-national state, whose institutions and parliament should include
Mapuce -and other peoples, as such. This is the issue from which all other aspects
of indigenous rights unfold, therefore, constituting the motor of Mapuce peoples
political movement.
However, state institutions approach participation as an invitation to stakeholders
to be informed on policy programmes and actions. Participation is reduced to a
method or technique even in the best of the cases. From the discourses of state
functionaries and legal advisors, in this study it becomes clear that the issue of
differentiated citizenship is not incorporated into how institutions work.
The coexistence of multiple territories without conflict requires that the state and
wider society acknowledge in practice these rights the Mapuce are defending.
Otherwise, the meanings of participation that are embedded in institutional
practices that in fact over-rule or ignore these rights, most probably will continue
to generate conflicts and disputes.
Research Agenda Setting for the Argentinean Chaco
Nijhof, B.S.J. ; Prieto, D. ; Bindraban, P.S. ; Mansfeld, M.J.M. van; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Querner, E.P. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 1617) - 125
landgebruik - glycine max - sojabonen - biobrandstoffen - landbouwontwikkeling - argentinië - land use - soyabeans - biofuels - agricultural development - argentina
Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands : Case studies on water management issues in Argentina
Querner, E.P. ; Morabito, J.A. ; Rebori, G. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra - 8
waterbeheer - samenwerking - hydrologie - besluitvorming - nederland - argentinië - integraal waterbeheer - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - modelleren - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - water management - cooperation - hydrology - decision making - netherlands - argentina - integrated water management - development cooperation - modeling - decision support systems
In Argentina parts of the country have problems encountered from too much water or suffer serious water shortages. The Humid Pampas encounter an increased rainfall since the 1970’s. In Mendoza Province water resources are limited and all the water from the rivers is used for agriculture, drinking water and industries. For the management of such systems an integrated approach is needed, where hydrological modelling tools can be used to support decision making.
Export from Argentina to Europe: getting across : start up of a sustainable vegetable and fruit trade flow from Argentina to Europe
Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Westra, E.H. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group nr. 891) - ISBN 9789085851707 - 69
verse producten - groenten - fruit - export - import - internationale handel - internationaal transport - zeetransport - argentinië - europa - logistiek - fresh products - vegetables - exports - imports - international trade - international transport - sea transport - argentina - europe - logistics
In Europa is er een (potentiële) markt aanwezig voor producten vanuit Argentinië. De voornaamste reden hiervoor is dat Argentinië producten kan leveren in het zogenaamde ‘tegenseizoen’. Einde van de winter / begin van de lente is het in Europa relatief lastig om ‘eigen’ producten te verkrijgen. Echter, de afstand van de productie locaties in Argentinië naar de Europese markt is erg lang. Hoewel transport door middel van het vliegtuig gangbaar is, is het steeds lastiger om tegen acceptabele kosten te transporteren. Daarnaast geldt dat er steeds meer druk vanuit de samenleving en importeurs/retailers komt te liggen op milieuaspecten. Het enige redelijke alternatief is het vervoer van de producten per refridgerated container of ‘reefer’ middels zeetransport. Vandaar dit bilaterale onderzoeksproject dat als doel heeft 'het ontwikkelen van een zogenaamd ‘framework’ om te kunnen komen tot de start van het opzetten van een duurzame goederenstroom van Argentinië naar Europa'
Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina
Cittadini, E.D. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herman van Keulen, co-promotor(en): Nico de Ridder; P.L. Peri. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047261 - 134
kersen - prunus avium - fruitteelt - boomvruchten - bedrijfssystemen - beschadigingen door vorst - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - argentinië - cherries - fruit growing - tree fruits - farming systems - frost injury - farm management - argentina
In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though sweet cherry seems currently the most profitable crop in the region, other crops may be interesting to increase the use efficiency of the resources, to complement income and to spread risk. The general objective of this thesis was to assess constraints and opportunities for fruit production systems in Chubut and Santa Cruz Provinces, with emphasis on sweet cherry. In the context of cherry production for export, it is important to define fruit quality and how this can be affected. Although quality has different meanings for different stakeholders, consumer acceptance seems to be the most important factor to be considered, but independent of consumer liking, firmness is a key aspect for marketing cherries overseas. To estimate the optimal combination of yield and fruit quality, a “target-tree” approach to maximize gross value of product (GVP) at farm gate was developed and applied to cherry orchards, integrating eco-physiological information, model estimates and expert knowledge. Minimum fruit quality thresholds define the suitable market for the fruit, with their associated price ranges. In addition, on both domestic and export markets, price depends mainly on fruit size. The fruit number to leaf area ratio determines fruit quality (and indirectly fruit price), but in combination with mean fruit weight and leaf area index, also yield. GVP is calculated as the product of yield and fruit price. Quantification of frost damage risk is important in planning the development of new orchards and to decide on design and installation of frost control systems. Therefore, a comprehensive method to quantify frost damage risk was developed and the potential impact of frost control systems on risk reduction was estimated. Frost damage for any specific day of the season was assumed to occur when the minimum temperature on that day was below the specific lethal temperature for the phenological stage predicted at that moment. Frost damage probability was estimated for each production location of the region as the frequency of years in which at least one damaging frost occurs, at any time during the growing season until harvest. Frost damage risk was compared among cultivars and locations, and also the effect of active frost control methods on frost damage risk reduction was analyzed. Due to the long lifespan of orchard systems, an explorative modelling study was performed. OPTIFROP is a dynamic farm model, developed as an Interactive Multiple Goal Linear Program, capable of allocating, throughout the time horizon of the run, production activities to different land units, while optimizing different (conflicting) objectives, subject to several constraints. For deriving land use options and quantifying the TCs, a software called FRUPAT was developed. This allows combining crop-tree species, edaphic environment, training, irrigation and frost control system, and moment of installation of the frost control system. Feasible land use options were completely characterised by their inputs and outputs at each orchard age until their maximum lifespan. The aim of OPTIFROP was to support strategic decision-making, such as ‘when to plant’, ‘what to plant’, ‘with which technology’, and ‘how much area of each activity’. Thus, the model allowed identification of the options for development plans for Patagonian farms (‘window of opportunities’). The model allowed quantifying the trade-off between conflicting objectives. The different methods developed in this thesis contribute significantly to the fruit industry in South Patagonia by supporting growers, extensionists and researchers in developing structured thinking for analyzing and processing available (fragmented) information.
Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands
Querner, E.P. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra - 20
waterbeheer - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - ontwikkelingsprojecten - nederland - argentinië - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - water management - development programmes - development projects - netherlands - argentina - development cooperation
Within the framework of Bilateral Cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries of the Netherlands, a project will be carried out to find solutions for the water management problems in Argentina. The Pampas suffers from too much water and agriculture is hampered; the Province of Mendoza has a semi-arid climate and has too little water.
Soja handel- en ketenrelaties. Sojaketens in Brazilië, Argentinië en Nederland
Berkum, S. van; Roza, P. ; Pronk, A. - \ 2006
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9086150993 - 77
agrarische economie - kettingen - handel - internationale handel - sojabonen - nederland - argentinië - brazilië - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - chains - trade - international trade - soyabeans - netherlands - argentina - brazil - supply chain management
Dit rapport beschrijft en analyseert de sojaketen in en handelsrelaties tussen Brazilië, Argentinië en Nederland. Naast de ontwikkelingen in de sojateelt sinds 1990 wordt ingegaan op de belangrijkste structuurkenmerken van de sojaketen in beide Latijns- Amerikaanse landen. Speciale aandacht wordt gegeven aan de relatie van de teelt met ontbossing, de rol van genetische modificatie en de economische perspectieven van de teelt in de komende jaren. De handelrelaties met Nederland worden uitgelicht en de relaties en belangrijke spelers in de sojaketen in Nederland in kaart gebracht. Hierdoor ontstaat een samenhangend beeld van de sojateelt en -handel, en de rol van Nederland daarbij.
Modernization and the evolution of irrigation practices in the Rio Dulce Irrigation Project, Santiago del Estero, Argentina : una tarea de todos
Prieto, D. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085045452 - 290
irrigatiesystemen - oefening - modernisering - evolutie - argentinië - irrigation systems - practice - modernization - evolution - argentina
Interrelated modeling of land use and habitat for the design of an ecological corridor : a case study in the Yungas, Argentina
Somma, D. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.N. van Lier, co-promotor(en): Rob Jongman; Ron van Lammeren. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085045347 - 179
landgebruik - habitats - ruimtelijke ordening - natuurbescherming - argentinië - ecologische hoofdstructuur - habitatfragmentatie - land use - physical planning - nature conservation - argentina - ecological network - habitat fragmentation
This thesis aims at developing tools to mitigate the process of natural habitat fragmentation related to deforestation, which is becoming a crucial conservation issue in the Yungas, a mountain subtropical forest in the northwest of Argentina. The conservation of forest connections among protected areas is one of the principal targets of nature conservation action in the region, and therefore a major objective of our development. A multi-temporal approach to analyze the evolution of the land use and cover change (LUCC) is proposed. A spatially explicit quantitative analysis of the historical sequence of deforestation for the period 1973 - 2000 is presented. In this period, 80,000 ha have been deforested. This gives an actual indication of the intensity of the conversion of native forest into farmland (farmland area increased from 5 % to 11 % of the total region). A conceptual model depicting the main driving forces interacting from global to local level is formulated. A logistic regression analysis allowed the identification of the spatial determinants (as local proximate variables) for the location of possible future changes in land use. These variables (soil classes, accessibility, slope) were integrated using a GIS procedure that produced a LUCC probability spatial model. This has the principal purpose of predicting the location of future clearings.
Anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in subtropical regions
Seghezzo, L. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gatze Lettinga, co-promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; C.M. Cuevas. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085040299 - 172
aërobe behandeling - afvalwaterbehandeling - rioolslib - argentinië - aerobic treatment - waste water treatment - sewage sludge - argentina
Argentinië: wateroverlast en -tekort; landbouw lijdt onder slecht waterbeheer
Querner, E.P. - \ 2002
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 35 (2002)1. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 42 - 43.
overstromingen - landbouwregio's - droogte - irrigatie - waterbeheer - argentinië - hydrologie - landbouw - Zuid-Amerika - floods - agricultural regions - drought - irrigation - water management - argentina
Impressie van de waterhuishoudkundige situatie in Argentinië. In de Pampa's neemt de wateroverlast toe door toegenomen neerslag en in de provincie Mendoza wordt de vraag naar schoon water steeds groter
Future Policies for National Parks: The case of Argentina; a vision
Lier, H.N. van - \ 2000
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre (Report Chairgroup Land Use Planning 81)
nationale parken - natuurreservaten - milieubeleid - natuurtoerisme - ruimtelijke ordening - argentinië - national parks - nature reserves - environmental policy - nature tourism - physical planning - argentina
Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina
Caldiz, D.O. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; A.J. Haverkort. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082480 - 197
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - opbrengsten - gewasproductie - plantenecologie - landgebruik - groeiregulatoren - plantengroeiregulatoren - maximum opbrengst - oogstfactoren - oogstverliezen - plantenfysiologie - fysiologische leeftijd - pootaardappelen - zaadkwaliteit - zaadproductie - systeemanalyse - simulatiemodellen - oogsttoename - verbetering - optimalisatie - argentinië - potatoes - yields - crop production - plant ecology - land use - growth regulators - plant growth regulators - maximum yield - yield factors - yield losses - plant physiology - physiological age - seed potatoes - seed quality - seed production - systems analysis - simulation models - yield increases - improvement - optimization - argentina
<p>The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.</p><p>This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato production systems in Argentina carried out during 1994/95 and updated in 1999. Argentina currently produces well over 2 million tonnes of potatoes per annum on just over 100,000 ha. The survey also describes the acreage and production in different areas, agro-ecological conditions in each of these areas, yield constraints and perspectives for yield improvement. It also presents data on area, production and yield for each growing season and characterizes the seed and ware production systems in these areas in terms of weather based on long-term meteorological data and soils based on digitized soil maps for the whole country. In each of these areas yield determining, yield limiting and yield reducing factors are identified. High temperatures during planting and harvest time are the main yield determining factors as they affect crop growth and/or seed and ware quality. Also high temperatures during storage may be detrimental to the quality of stored seed or ware. Water and nutrient supply and physiological age of the seed are the main yield limiting factors in different seed and ware potato areas. Virus diseases, early ( <em>Alternaria solani</em> ) and late ( <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> ) blight are the main yield reducing factors in some areas. Strategies to solve problems of improper physiological age and virus infection are analyzed later in this thesis in order to obtain further improvements in yield and quality.</p><p>A simulation study at national and regional levels (1) characterizes agro-ecological zones for potato production; (2) establishes potential growing seasons; (3) estimates the potential yields of the crop in these zones and seasons, and, at a regional level, also for different planting dates; and (4) discusses how these results match with reality and how they can be used for the benefit of the potato industry.</p><p>Two models are used in these studies; the SUBSTOR-POTATO model for yield prediction and the LINTUL-POTATO model for a yield gap analysis.</p><p>The SUBSTOR-POTATO model is calibrated and validated using Argentinian data sets from experimental results from different sites and years. Cultivar-specific coefficients are obtained during calibration and validation is based on several independent sets of field data, including cvs Huinkul, Kennebec, Mailén and Spunta. The observed and simulated values show good agreement within normal ranges of tuber yields. The particular behaviour of the input parameter maturity date is also considered, in order to properly assess tuber yield. A genetic coefficient for the duration of tuber bulking needs to be included in the model in order to obtain proper yield values under Argentinian conditions.</p><p>A yield gap analysis is carried out with data from five different agro-ecological potato growing zones by comparing potential yield data obtained with the LINTUL-POTATO simulation model with the actual and attainable yields. This analysis is used to identify the possible factors determining, limiting or reducing yield in each of the areas considered and to analyse options for further yield improvement. Special emphasis is put on the yield limiting effect of the physiological age of seed tubers, water and nutrient management, and the quality and yield reducing effects of virus diseases. Results show, for the regions studied, that the actual yield is still far below the attainable and potential yields, due to suboptimal light interception by the foliage, poor seed quality, and lack of early ( <em>Alternaria solani</em> ) and late blight ( <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> ) control.</p><p>Based on these results a physiological age index (PAI) that combines both the effect of chronological and physiological age of seed tubers is developed. PAI calculation is based on different key-dates of the life cycle of a seed tuber, which are easy to assess, i.e. the haulm killing date of the seed crop (T <sub>0</sub> ) and the end of the incubation period of seed tubers, measured under standard conditons. The PAI is: T <sub>1</sub> /T <sub>2</sub> , where T <sub>1</sub> is the time from haulm killing date (T <sub>0</sub> ) to possible planting date and T <sub>2</sub> the time from T <sub>0</sub> to the end of the incubation period. The PAI expresses physiological ageing of seed potato tubers within a range from 0 for physiologically young to 1 for old tubers. To test the PAI, existing data are re-evaluated and re-elaborated and specific experiments on the effects of seed origin and storage conditions for different cultivars have been performed during 1994/99. The effects of seed origin, seed supply and seed flow are also analyzed in terms of the effects of the physiological age of seed tubers on subsequent crop performance and yield. A survey on seed supply and seed flow evaluates the effects of different origins and storage systems upon crop growth and yield under practical conditions. The effects of physiological age on yield can be mainly attributed to improved light interception. PAI correlates well with the proportion of potential yield attained in different planting seasons.</p><p>Different strategies may help to overcome the effect of yield limiting and quality and yield reducing factors, such as the physiological age of seed tubers and virus diseases. Application of plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid and benzyl aminopurine modifies the effect of the physiological age of seed tubers on the progeny crops. Especially benzyl aminopurine is promising in overcoming the negative effect of old seed tubers on crop growth and yield. The development of a seed production system on the isolated island of Tierra del Fuego in the southern part of the country proves to be a sound strategy to multiply basic seed or to carry out initial multiplications in breeding programmes. Presence of nematodes, aphids and virus proves to be very low and growing and storage conditions allow the production of young seed. Seed yields and physiological quality are acceptable, and the seed is very healthy, with virtually no viral, fungal or bacterial infections.</p><p>The study shows how a highly complex potato production system, like the Argentinian one, can be surveyed and analyzed. The survey work is complemented with the use of a Geographic Information System and simulation model approaches which improve our understanding of the possibilities for increasing future crop production by expanding the area cropped with potatoes and/or yield. The use of a yield gap analysis is also a useful and comprehensive tool to identify and rank yield defining, yield limiting and yield reducing factors for those agro-ecological zones where the potato is currently grown. With these procedures, the physiological age of seed tubers and virus diseases are identified as the most relevant factors limiting and reducing yield. Specific strategies are developed to counteract their limiting and reducing effects upon seed quality and tuber yield.</p><p>The approach of this thesis does not only applied for the specific situation of the potato crop in Argentina, but this framework could be successfully applied to other crops or production systems elsewhere.</p>
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