Comparing population recovery after insecticide exposure for four aquatic invertebrate species using models of different complexity
Baveco, H. ; Norman, S. ; Roessink, I. ; Galic, N.G. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2014
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33 (2014)7. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1517 - 1528.
ecological risk-assessment - competition delays recovery - individual-based model - potential application - pesticides - dynamics - chemicals - chlorpyrifos - ecosystems - arthropod
Population models, in particular individual-based models (IBMs), are becoming increasingly important in chemical risk assessment. They can be used to assess recovery of spatially structured populations after chemical exposure that varies in time and space. The authors used an IBM coupled to a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model, the threshold damage model (TDM), to assess recovery times for 4 aquatic organisms, after insecticide application, in a nonseasonal environment and in 3 spatial settings (pond, stream, and ditch). The species had different life histories (e.g., voltinism, reproductive capacity, mobility). Exposure was derived from a pesticide fate model, following standard European Union scenarios. The results of the IBM-TDM were compared with results from simpler models: one in which exposure was linked to effects by means of concentration-effect relationships (IBM-CE) and one in which the IBM was replaced by a nonspatial, logistic growth model (logistic). For the first, exposure was based on peak concentrations only; for the second, exposure was spatially averaged as well. By using comparisons between models of different complexity and species with different life histories, the authors obtained an understanding of the role spatial processes play in recovery and the conditions under which the full time-varying exposure needs to be considered. The logistic model, which is amenable to an analytic approach, provided additional insights into the sensitivity of recovery times to density dependence and spatial dimensions.
Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities
Marko, V. ; Bogya, S. ; Kondorosy, E. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2010
International Journal of Pest Management 56 (2010)3. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 189 - 199.
pest-management systems - arthropod - aphid - coccinellidae - insecticide - assemblages - populations - pesticides - coleoptera - hungary
The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abundance and species richness of the communities and also altered their composition and diversity. The treatments disrupted many non-target groups notably mycophagous, predacious and tourist beetles, zoophagous bugs and spiders. Among spiders, wanderer spiders (Thomisidae, Philodromidae) were most affected, whereas web building spiders (Dictynidae) were least affected. After ceasing the applications in July, the between-treatment differences in composition of all communities and diversity of heteropterans and spiders diminished while the differences in abundance and species richness remained for a long time, until the end of September. Many predator species with good colonisation ability recovered slowly after the treatments, mainly due to the scarcity of prey.
Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid
Markó, V. ; Blommers, L.H.M. ; Bogya, S. ; Helsen, H.H.M. - \ 2008
Journal of Applied Entomology 132 (2008)1. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 26 - 35.
dysaphis-plantaginea - autumn kaolin - management - orchards - arthropod - homoptera - behavior - insecticides - lepidoptera - tortricidae
Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) colonies. The kaolin treatments reduced the apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) fruit infestation on cultivar J. Grieve, and the fruit damage caused by oyster scale (Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis), mussel scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi), early caterpillars, leaf rolling moths (Tortricidae), fruitlet-mining tortrix moth (Pammene rhediella) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella). There was no effect on the number of colonies of rosy leaf curling aphid (Dysaphis devecta), nor on the fruit damage caused by common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and apple sawfly on cv. G. Delicious. The level of infestation of rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea), leaf miner moths (Phyllonorycter blancardella, Lyonetia clerkella), and agromyzid flies (Phytomyza heringiana) increased in the kaolin-treated plots. Kaolin treatments promoted woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) infestation, which became severe, while it reduced the abundance of polyphagous predators like F. auricularia, predaceous Heteroptera and Coleoptera, the red velvet mite (Allothrombium fuliginosum), spiders (Araneae) and the abundance of common black ant (Lasius niger). The treatments also reduced parasitism of the apple sawfly by the ichneumonid Lathrolestes ensator. Many weeks after ending the kaolin treatments, the number of predaceous Coleoptera and especially the number of spiders remained low in the kaolin-treated plots.