Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion
Dijcker, J.C. ; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A. ; Everts, H. ; Queau, Y. ; Biourge, V.C. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014)3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1029 - 1036.
glycolate excretion - dietary-protein - ascorbic-acid - calcium - cats - hydroxyproline - vitamin-b-6 - fructose - requirement - absorption
This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets (i.e., each diet was fed to a group of 6 to 8 cats), with known dietary oxalate concentrations, collected over a 6 yr period at a feline nutrition facility, were retrospectively analyzed. Data related to season, animal (i.e., age, gender, body weight, and breed), and diet (i.e., nutrient content) characteristics were subjected to stepwise multivariate regression analysis to identify factors significantly correlated to Uox excretion rate (µmol/(kg BW0.67·d)) and concentration (mmol/L) as well as urine volume (mL/(kg BW0.67·d)). Independent factors significantly (P <0.05) associated with lower Uox concentration (mmol/L) included greater ash, Ca, and Na intake and lower nitrogen-free extract, total dietary fiber, P, and oxalate intake, and a body weight
A higher proportion of Iron-Rich leafy vegatables in a typical burkinabe maize meal does not increase the amount of iron absorbed in young women
Cercamondi, C.I. ; Icard-Verniere, C. ; Egli, I. ; Vernay, M. ; Hama, F. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1394 - 1400.
phenolic-compounds - stable-isotope - pearl-millet - fortification iron - ascorbic-acid - phytic acid - in-field - absorption - foods - sorghum
Food-to-food fortification can be a promising approach to improve the low dietary iron intake and bioavailability from monotonous diets based on a small number of staple plant foods. In Burkina Faso, the common diet consists of a thick, cereal-based paste consumed with sauces composed of mainly green leaves, such as amaranth and jute leaves. Increasing the quantity of leaves in the sauces substantially increases their iron concentration. To evaluate whether increasing the quantity of leaves in sauces would provide additional bioavailable iron, an iron absorption study in 18 young women was conducted in Zurich, Switzerland. Burkinabe composite test meals consisting of the maize paste tô accompanied by an iron-improved amaranth sauce, an iron-improved jute sauce, or a traditional amaranth sauce were provided as multiple meals twice a day for 2 consecutive days. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Mean fractional iron absorption from maize paste consumed with an iron-improved amaranth sauce (4.9%) did not differ from the same meal consumed with an iron-improved jute sauce (4.9%; P = 0.9), resulting in a similar quantity of total iron absorbed (679 vs. 578 µg; P = 0.3). Mean fractional iron absorption from maize paste accompanied by a traditional amaranth sauce (7.4%) was significantly higher than that from the other 2 meal types (P <0.05), but the quantity of total iron absorbed was similar (591 µg; P = 0.4 and 0.7, respectively). A food-to-food fortification approach based on an increase in leafy vegetables does not provide additional bioavailable iron, presumably due to the high phenolic compound concentration of the leaves tested. Alternative measures, such as adding iron absorption enhancers to the sauces, need to be investigated to improve iron nutrition from Burkinabe maize meals.
School feeding contributes to micronutrients adequacy of Ghanaian schoolchildren
Abizari, A.R. ; Buxton, C. ; Kwara, L. ; Mensah-Homaih, J. ; Armar-Klemesu, M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2014
British Journal of Nutrition 112 (2014)6. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1019 - 1033.
improve dietary quality - iron-absorption - child undernutrition - nutrient adequacy - ascorbic-acid - food variety - rural kenya - programs - mali - diversity
Without gains in nutritional outcomes, it is unlikely that school feeding programmes (SFP) could improve cognition and academic performance of schoolchildren despite the improvements in school enrolment. We compared the nutrient intake adequacy and Fe and nutritional status of SFP and non-SFP participants in a cross-sectional survey involving 383 schoolchildren (aged 5–13 years). Quantitative 24 h recalls and weighed food records, repeated in 20 % subsample, were used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes adjusted for day-to-day variations. The probability of adequacy (PA) was calculated for selected micronutrients and the mean of all PA (MPA) was calculated. The concentrations of Hb, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and anthropometric measurements were used to determine Fe and nutritional status. Energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies were significantly higher among SFP participants (P<0·001). The MPA of micronutrients was significantly higher among SFP participants (0·61 v. 0·18; P<0·001), and the multiple-micronutrient-fortified corn soya blend was a key contributor to micronutrient adequacy. In SFP participants, 6 g/l higher Hb concentrations (P<0·001) and about 10 % points lower anaemia prevalence (P= 0·06) were observed. The concentration of sTfR was significantly lower among SFP participants (11·2 v. 124 mg/l; P= 0·04); however, there was no difference in the prevalence of Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia between SFP and non-SFP participants. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of thinness, underweight and stunting. In conclusion, the present results indicate that school feeding is associated with higher intakes and adequacies of energy and nutrients, but not with the prevalence of Fe and nutritional status indicators. The results also indicate an important role for micronutrient-dense foods in the achievement of micronutrient adequacy within SFP.
A review of the proximate composition and nutritional value of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra)
Hiwilepo-Van Hal, P. ; Bille, P.G. ; Verkerk, R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Dekker, M. - \ 2014
Phytochemistry Reviews 13 (2014)4. - ISSN 1568-7767 - p. 881 - 892.
tropical fruits - food-products - ascorbic-acid - niger - juice
This review critically evaluated literature on proximate composition and nutritional value of Marula in comparison with other tropical and indigenous fruits in order to identify areas for future research. It was found that nutrients content and processing methods of Marula fruit varied greatly from study to study and according to place of origin, soil, climate, handling, analytical methods used and time that lapsed after harvesting before analysis took place. Marula fruit pulp is reported to have vitamin C content higher than that of most fruits, ranging from 62 mg/100 g to over 400 mg/100 g. Additionally, Marula fruit is reported to have an antioxidant capacity of between 8 and 25 mM, (ascorbic acid equivalents) and a total phenolic content ranging from 7.5 to 24 mg/g dry weight gallic acid equivalent. Marula kernels are also a good source of protein, oil, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium and their oil is used in food preparations. Marula fruits could play a vital role in terms of nutrition to rural community who rely on the usage of the fruits, as they do not have easy access to other sources of nutrients. Recommendation given for future research includes improving Marula fruits juice extraction and yields, investigating the effect of processing and storage on the retention of nutrients such as vitamin C and its antioxidant capacity in processed and unprocessed Marula products and further identifying Marula fruits flavor compounds and their effect on processing and storage.
Stimulation of colonic motility by oral PEG electrolyte bowel preparation assessed by MRI: comparison of split vs single dose
Marciani, L. ; Garsed, K.C. ; Hoad, C.L. ; Fields, A. ; Fordham, I. ; Pritchard, S.E. ; Placidi, E. ; Murray, K. ; Chaddock, G. ; Costigan, C. ; Lam, C. ; Jalanka-Tuovinen, J. ; Vos, W.M. de; Gowland, P.A. ; Spiller, R.C. - \ 2014
Neurogastroenterology & Motility 26 (2014)10. - ISSN 1365-2982 - p. 1426 - 1436.
randomized controlled-trial - whole-gut transit - water-content - polyethylene-glycol - gastric-motility - healthy-subjects - ascorbic-acid - colonoscopy - time - constipation
Background Most methods of assessing colonic motility are poorly acceptable to patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can monitor gastrointestinal motility and fluid distributions. We predicted that a dose of oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) and electrolyte solution would increase ileo-colonic inflow and stimulate colonic motility. We aimed to investigate the colonic response to distension by oral PEG electrolyte in healthy volunteers (HVs) and to evaluate the effect of single 2 L vs split (2 × 1 L) dosing. Methods Twelve HVs received a split dose (1 L the evening before and 1 L on the study day) and another 12 HVs a single dose (2 L on the main study day) of PEG electrolyte. They underwent MRI scans, completed symptom questionnaires, and provided stool samples. Outcomes included small bowel water content, ascending colon motility index, and regional colonic volumes. Key Results Small bowel water content increased fourfold from baseline after ingesting both split (p = 0.0010) and single dose (p = 0.0005). The total colonic volume increase from baseline was smaller for the split dose at 35 ± 8% than for the single dose at 102 ± 27%, p = 0.0332. The ascending colon motility index after treatment was twofold higher for the single dose group (p = 0.0103). Conclusions & Inferences Ingestion of 1 and 2 L PEG electrolyte solution caused a rapid increase in the small bowel and colonic volumes and a robust rise in colonic motility. The increase in both volumes and motility was dose dependent. Such a challenge, being well-tolerated, could be a useful way of assessing colonic motility in future studies.
Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition
Renaud, E.N.C. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Myers, J.R. ; Caldas Paulo, M.J. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Zhu, N. ; Juvik, J.A. - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16
glucosinolate-myrosinase system - lung-cancer risk - brassica-oleracea - cruciferous vegetables - beta-carotene - ascorbic-acid - vitamin-c - fertilization conditions - selenium fertilization - agricultural practices - organic farming - broccoli - cultivars - phytochemicals - plant breeding - organic foods - biologische landbouw - fytochemicaliën - plantenveredeling - biologische voedingsmiddelen
Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (d-, ¿-, a-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For d- and ¿- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.
Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Jin, X. ; Oliviero, T. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2014
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 59 (2014)1. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 189 - 195.
ascorbic-acid - antioxidant capacity - cooking methods - tomato halves - red cabbage - vitamin-c - temperature - vegetables - myrosinase - retention
This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find the optimized temperature trajectories that minimize degradation and inactivation. Simulation and experimental results for optimized temperature trajectories are compared to constant inlet air temperature drying at 40 and 50 C. The results show that with the optimized temperature trajectories the retention of GR, MYR and Vc improved significantly. Moreover, the experiments show that degradation and inactivation during drying is slower than expected from kinetic studies. The deviation is explained from the difference in the physical state of the samples used in the drying experiments, i.e. original plant tissue versus the grounded state of the plant tissue used in the experiments for the kinetic studies. The results indicate that besides temperature and moisture content the physical state is also an important aspect in the degradation of nutritional compounds and enzymes.
Nutritional characteristics of mung bean foods
Dahiya, P.K. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Khetarpaul, N. ; Grewal, R.B. ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2014
British Food Journal 116 (2014)6. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1031 - 1046.
protein digestibility - ascorbic-acid - nutrient composition - iron-absorption - phytic acid - bioavailability - phytate - antinutrients - germination - zinc
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address malnourishment in developing countries by a food-based approach in which locally produced and consumed foods are improved by applying food processing techniques that benefit the amount and availability of desirable nutrients. Design/methodology/approach – To facilitate this approach, this paper reports on the composition and in vitro micronutrient accessibility of 14 traditional mung bean foods from India in relation to their preparation methods. Findings – Proximate composition, in vitro mineral accessibility, phytic acid and polyphenol contents varied among the range of products. Products requiring either fermentation or germination, had higher in vitro iron, zinc and calcium accessibility. Average in vitro iron, zinc and calcium accessibility of the mung bean products were 16, 9 and 418¿mg¿kg-1 dry weight. Phytic acid and polyphenols averaged 2.1 and 1.8¿g¿kg-1 dry weight, respectively, and were negatively correlated with in vitro mineral accessibility. Practical implications – Different mung bean products (100¿g) cover 12.0-59.5, 5.2-45.6, 4.2-28.6 and 1.1-7.1 per cent of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, iron, zinc and calcium, respectively, for seven- to nine-year-old Indian children. Originality/value – This study demonstrated the wide range of traditional mung bean foods in India and presents options to tackle malnourishment by a food-based approach.
Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice
Hounhouigan, M.H. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Soumanou, M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
Food Reviews International 30 (2014)2. - ISSN 8755-9129 - p. 112 - 133.
orange juice - fruit juices - ascorbic-acid - ananas-comosus - food-industry - amino-acids - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - phytochemical properties - neosartorya-fischeri - thermal-degradation
Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing, microorganisms are destroyed and chemical changes occur. To optimize processing conditions, knowledge of the kinetics of these reactions is needed, but as of yet, data on the degradation of the amino acids and vitamin C and the change in sugar contents during pineapple juice pasteurization are scanty. Furthermore, the kinetics of hydroxymethylfurfural production should be investigated by a precise technique such as high-performance liquid chromatography.
Energy efficient drying strategies to retain nutritional components in broccoli broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Jin, X. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Straten, G. van; Boom, R.M. ; Boxtel, A.J.B. van - \ 2014
Journal of Food Engineering 123 (2014). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 172 - 178.
ascorbic-acid - tomato halves - vitamin-c - optimization - heat - temperature - consumption - degradation - health - trends
This work concerns the combined optimization of the retention of bioactive components and energy efficiency during drying of broccoli. Kinetics for the degradation of glucosinolates, vitamin C and drying of broccoli are used to calculate optimal drying trajectories for the control variables air flow rate and temperature. It is shown from plots of the optimal drying trajectories in moisture–temperature state diagrams with degradation and drying rates, that areas with high degradation rates are circumvented. The optimized drying strategies result in significant improvement of energy efficiency (65%) and vitamin C retention of 55%.
Secondary Metabolites of Capsicum Species and Their Importance in the Human Diet
Wahyuni, Y. ; Ballester, A.R. ; Sudarmonowati, E. ; Bino, R.J. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2013
Journal of Natural Products 76 (2013)4. - ISSN 0163-3864 - p. 783 - 793.
chlorophyll catabolism pathway - capsaicinoid-like substances - tandem mass-spectrometry - red-pepper paprika - mature fruit color - annuum-l cultivars - cv ch-19 sweet - antioxidant activity - candidate gene - ascorbic-acid
The genus Capsicum (pepper) comprises a large number of wild and cultivated species. The plants are grown all over the world, primarily in tropical and subtropical countries. The fruits are an excellent source of health-related compounds, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids (provitamin A), to copherols (vitamin E), flavonoids, and capsaicinoids. Pepper fruits have been used for fresh and cooked consumption, as well as for medicinal purposes, such as treatment of asthma, coughs, sore throats, and toothache. Depending on its uses, there are several main characters important for product quality; pungency, bright attractive colors, highly concentrated extracts, and a small number of seeds are the main characters on which quality is based and priced. Herein, a general overview of biochemical composition, medical properties of these compounds, and characteristics of quality attributes of pepper fruits is presented.
Loading density and welfare of goat kids during long distance road transport
Hindle, V.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Lambooij, E. - \ 2013
Animal Welfare 22 (2013)3. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 345 - 356.
hot-dry season - physiological-responses - body-temperature - ascorbic-acid - stress - sheep - behavior - animals - herd - organization
Many goat kids (Capra aegagrus hircus) are transported live from The Netherlands for slaughter in France or Spain. Current standards indicate that goats (<35 kg) should have sufficient space at 0.2–0.30 m2 per animal (approximately 5 goats per m2). Research was devised to assess behaviour and physiological responses of goat kids transported at different space allowances. After weaning, goat kids were fed milk for six weeks using a lambar-type feeder and then transported to Spain circa 1,400 km). These kids (8–10 kg, maximum eight weeks old) were transported at space allowances of 0.2, 0.13 and 0.1 m2 per animal (ie loading densities 5, 7.5 or 10 animals per m2, respectively) in three journeys. Before loading and upon arrival, six goats per compartment were weighed, blood sampled and had rectal temperature measured. Three goats per compartment were equipped with ECG loggers. On average, kids lost approximately 4% in bodyweight and rectal temperature fell 0.2°C during 20 h transport. Heart rate ranged between 100–190 bpm irrespective of loading density during actual transport. All animals stood at the beginning but were never all recumbent independent of loading density. Kids tended to huddle together at lower loading densities. High loading density restricted movement. Blood concentrations of haemoglobin and haematocrit increased, as did osmolality indicating dehydration. It is recommended that water be supplied using a drinking system to which animals are accustomed. Since movement was restricted it is recommended that kids be transported at nine animals per m2 (maximum).
Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction
Troise, A.D. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2013
Trends in Food Science and Technology 33 (2013). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 63 - 74.
model dough systems - in-water emulsions - n-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - ascorbic-acid - acrylamide formation - lipid oxidation - high-pressure - amino-acid - microencapsulated ingredients
In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already applied in food industry for different purposes, can be used as a strategy to get the controlled release of some compounds promoting the Maillard Reaction development in order to mitigate the formation of some undesired compounds. In this review the underneath reaction mechanism, the activity of various reactants, the encapsulation strategies and some possible applications in food processing were discussed highlighting the potentialities of encapsulated ingredients in the modulation of Maillard Reaction.
Kinetics of thermal degradation of Vitamin C in Marula Fruit (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) as compared to other selected tropical fruits
Hiwilepo-van Hal, P. ; Bosschaart, C. ; Twisk, C. van; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. - \ 2012
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 49 (2012)2. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 188 - 191.
The kinetics of the thermaldegradation of vitaminC of marula, mango and guava pulp at different heat treatments at temperature ranging from 80 to 150 °C were investigated. For temperatures lower than 125 °C, the ascorbic acid in marula pulp was about 15 fold more stable to heat than the ascorbic acid in mango and guava pulp. The results showed that a simple first order degradation model could not describe the vitaminCdegradation as biphasic behaviour was observed. Therefore the model was transformed in a two-fraction model in which the vitaminC content is divided in relatively stable and instable fractions. Marula had a low kd1,100°C of 7.2 × 10-3 min-1compared to kd1,100°C of 1.2 × 10-1 min-1 for guava and 1.3 × 10-1 min-1 for mango. Guava had the highest activation energy, Ea of 58 kJ/mol, followed by mango with 39 kJ/mol and then marula with 29 kJ/mol.
Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Chlorogenic Acid by Sulfur-Containing Compounds
Kuijpers, T.F.M. ; Narvaez Cuenca, C.E. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Verloop, J.W. ; Berkel, W.J.H. van; Gruppen, H. - \ 2012
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (2012)13. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 3507 - 3514.
performance liquid-chromatography - polyphenol oxidase - ascorbic-acid - mass-spectrometry - addition-products - apple juice - lc-msn - tyrosinase - oxidation - cysteine
The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectral analysis), oxygen consumption, and reaction product formation (RP-UHPLC–PDA–MS) were monitored in time. It was found that the compounds showing antibrowning activity either prevented browning by forming colorless addition products with o-quinones of 5-CQA (NaHSO3, cysteine, and glutathione) or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (NaHSO3 and dithiothreitol). NaHSO3 was different from the other sulfur-containing compounds investigated, because it showed a dual inhibitory effect on browning. Initial browning was prevented by trapping the o-quinones formed in colorless addition products (sulfochlorogenic acid), while at the same time, tyrosinase activity was inhibited in a time-dependent way, as shown by pre-incubation experiments of tyrosinase with NaHSO3. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that sulfochlorogenic and cysteinylchlorogenic acids were not inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.
Identification and quantification of (dihydro) hydroxycinnamic acids and their conjugates in potato by UHPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn
Narvaez Cuenca, C.E. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2012
Food Chemistry 130 (2012)3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 730 - 738.
phenolic-compounds - hplc-dad - lc-msn - liquid-chromatography - chlorogenic acids - mass-spectrometry - brassica-rapa - ascorbic-acid - l. - glycoalkaloids
Hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (HCAcs) and dihydrohydroxycinamic acid conjugates (DHCAcs) were identified and quantified in potato tuber extracts by UHPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn. The HCAcs and DHCAcs identification took place by screening for product ions and neutral losses in combination with UV spectra. Thirty-nine HCAcs/DHCAcs were detected, including 17 previously reported in potato. HCAs were found unconjugated, linked to hydroxyl-containing compounds including hexose, quinic acid and malic acid, to amino-containing compounds, such as putrescine and octopamine, and to unknown compounds. DHCAs were present linked to spermine, spermidine and to still unidentified compounds. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant compound (25.43 ± 0.49 mg/g DW) followed by cryptochlorogenic acid (7.31 ± 0.38 mg/g DW), a non-hydrolyzable sinapic acid conjugate (2.80 ± 0.06 mg/g DW) and neochlorogenic acid (2.41 ± 0.10 mg/g DW), in total accounting for 83% (w/w) of the total concentration of HCAs/DHCAs-containing compounds. Quantifications of HCAs released after alkaline hydrolysis matched well with the quantification of the unhydrolyzed molecules. The UHPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn method showed a larger diversity of HCAcs and DHCAcs in potato than described before.
Antioxidant micronutrients improve intrinsic and UV-induced apoptosis of human lymphocytes particularly in elderly people
Ma, A.G. ; Ge, S. ; Zhang, M. ; Shi, X.X. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Kok, F.J. ; Sun, Y.Y. ; Han, X.X. - \ 2011
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 15 (2011)10. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 912 - 917.
peripheral-blood lymphocytes - oxidative stress - cell-death - flow-cytometry - ascorbic-acid - vitamin-c - in-vitro - age - selenium - supplementation
Objective: Aging and oxidative stress may lead to enhanced cellular damage and programmed cell death. to study the association of intrinsic apoptosis with age and the effect of antioxidant supplementation on intrinsic and UV-induced apoptosis in children, young and elderly people. Methods: The study was a 2 months, double-blind, randomized trial. Three age groups were studied: children, young adults and elderly people. A total of 274 healthy subjects were allocated to a group supplemented with moderate amounts of retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and selenium or placebo. Plasma oxidative stress parameters were detected and apoptosis of lymphocytes was evaluated with TUNEL staining. Results: At baseline, percentages of intrinsic apoptosis were 13.8% and 11.1% in elderly and young people, respectively, both significantly higher than children (6.3%). A decrease of 1.7% and 2.3% in intrinsic apoptosis of lymphocytes was found in the supplemented groups of young and elderly people compared with their control groups (all p values
Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice: Part II: Impact on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters
Vervoort, L. ; Plancken, I. van der; Grauwet, T. ; Timmermans, R.A.H. ; Mastwijk, H.C. ; Matser, A.M. ; Hendrickx, M.E. ; Loey, A. van - \ 2011
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 12 (2011)4. - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 466 - 477.
pectin methyl esterase - provitamin-a carotenoids - refrigerated storage - vitamin-c - citrus juices - shelf-life - ascorbic-acid - antioxidant activity - heat pasteurization - grapefruit juice
The impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurization of orange juice was compared on a fair basis, using processing conditions leading to an equivalent degree of microbial inactivation. Examining the effect on specific chemical and biochemical quality parameters directly after treatment and during storage at 4 °C revealed only significant differences in residual enzyme activities. For pectin methylesterase inactivation, none of the treatments was able to cause a complete inactivation, although heat and HP pasteurization were the most effective in limiting the residual activity. Peroxidase was completely inactivated by heat pasteurization and was much less susceptible to HP and PEF. All other quality parameters investigated, including the sugar profile, the organic acid profile, bitter compounds, vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), the carotenoid profile, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, experienced no significantly different impact from the three pasteurization techniques.
Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding
Wahyuni, Y. ; Ballester, A.R. ; Sudarmonowati, E. ; Bino, R.J. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2011
Phytochemistry 72 (2011)11-12. - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 1358 - 1370.
capsanthin-capsorubin synthase - annuum-l - ascorbic-acid - liquid-chromatography - capsaicinoid analogs - antioxidant activity - carotenoid-pigments - mass-spectrometry - candidate gene - ch-19 sweet
A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological characters such as fruit color, pungency and origin. Major metabolites in fruits of pepper, carotenoids, capsaicinoids (pungency), flavonoid glycosides, and vitamins C and E were analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that composition and level of metabolites in fruits varied greatly between accessions and was independent of species and geographical location. Fruit color was determined by the accumulation of specific carotenoids leading to salmon, yellow, orange, red and brown colored fruits. Levels of both O- and C-glycosides of quercetin, luteolin and apigenin varied strongly between accessions. All non-pungent accessions were devoid of capsaicins, whereas capsaicinoid levels ranged from 0.07 up to 80 mg/100 g fr. wt. in fruit pericarp. In general, pungent accessions accumulated the highest capsaicinoid levels in placenta plus seed tissue compared to pericarp. The non-pungent capsaicinoid analogs, capsiates, could be detected at low levels in some pungent accessions. All accessions accumulated high levels of vitamin C, up to 200 mg/100 g fr. wt. The highest vitamin E concentration found was 16 mg/100 g fr. wt. Based on these metabolic data, five accessions were selected for further metabolic and molecular analysis, in order to isolate key genes involved in the production of these compounds and to assist future breeding programs aimed at optimizing the levels of health-related compounds in pepper fruit.
New Insights into an Ancient Antibrowning Agent: Formation of Sulfophenolics in Sodium Hydrogen Sulfite-Treated Potato Extracts
Narvaez Cuenca, C.E. ; Kuijpers, T.F.M. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Waard, P. de; Gruppen, H. - \ 2011
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (2011)18. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 10247 - 10255.
tandem mass-spectrometry - chlorogenic acid - polyphenol oxidase - ascorbic-acid - quercetin - identification - inhibition - phenolics - oxidation - cysteine
The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid. With S, their 2'-sulfo-adducts were found instead, the structures of which were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Also, for minor caffeoyl derivatives and quercetin glycosides, the corresponding sulfo-adducts were observed. Feruloyl and sinapoyl derivatives were not chemically affected by the presence of S. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was thought to be responsible for the formation of the sulfo-adducts. This was confirmed by preparing 2'-sulfo-5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in a model system using 5-CQA, sodium hydrogen sulfite, and PPO. This sulfo-adduct exhibited a small bathochromic shift (¿max 329 nm) as compared to 5-CQA (¿max 325 nm) and a strong hypochromic shift with an extinction coefficient of 9357 ± 395 M–1 cm–1 as compared to 18494 ± 196 M–1 cm–1, respectively. The results suggest that whenever S is used as an antibrowning agent, the O-quinone formed with PPO reacts with S to produce sulfo-O-diphenol, which does not participate in browning reactions.
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