Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Telersvereniging Paletti Growers kijkt over eigenbelang heen: 'Redeneren vanuit het winkelschap, in plaats vanuit product'
Splinter, Gerben - \ 2015
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - ornamental crops - cut flowers - pot plants - bedding plants - logistics - farm management - associations - salesmanship - supermarkets - consumer satisfaction - entrepreneurship - marketing - germany - netherlands
Genetic and Non-Genetic Inheritance of Natural Antibodies Binding Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in a Purebred Layer Chicken Line
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Klein, S.A.S. van der; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
laying hens - immune-responses - parameters - iga - survival - isotypes - associations - sensitivity - disease - cells
Natural antibodies (NAb) are defined as antibodies present in individuals without known antigenic challenge. Levels of NAb binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in chickens were earlier shown to be heritable, and to be associated with survival. Selective breeding may thus provide a strategy to improve natural disease resistance. We phenotyped 3,689 white purebred laying chickens for KLH binding NAb of different isotypes around 16 weeks of age. Heritabilities of 0.12 for the titers of total antibodies (IgT), 0.14 for IgM, 0.10 for IgA, and 0.07 for IgG were estimated. We also estimated high, positive genetic, and moderate to high, positive phenotypic correlations of IgT, IgM, IgA, and IgG, suggesting that selective breeding for NAb can be done on all antibody isotypes simultaneously. In addition, a relatively substantial non-genetic maternal environmental effect of 0.06 was detected for IgM, which may reflect a transgenerational effect. This suggests that not only the genes of the mother, but also the maternal environment affects the immune system of the offspring. Breaking strength and early eggshell whiteness of the mother’s eggs were predictive for IgM levels in the offspring, and partly explained the observed maternal environmental effects. The present results confirm that NAb are heritable, however maternal effects should be taken into account.
The Development of a Diet Quality Score for Preschool Children and Its Validation and Determinants in the Generation R Study
Voortman, T. ; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C. ; Geelen, A. ; Villamor, G.B. ; Moll, H.A. ; Jongste, J.C. de; Raat, H. ; Hofman, A. ; Jaddoe, V.W.V. ; Franco, O.H. ; Hooven, E.H. van den - \ 2015
The Journal of Nutrition 145 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 306 - 314.
healthy eating index - multiple imputation - measurement error - pattern-analysis - food - adolescents - associations - childhood - nutrition - validity
Background: Although many studies have examined health effects of infant feeding, studies on diet quality shortly after the weaning and lactation period are scarce. Objectives: Our aims were to develop and evaluate a diet score that measures overall diet quality in preschool children and to examine the sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of this score. Methods: On the basis of national and international dietary guidelines for young children, we developed a diet score containing 10 components: intake of vegetables; fruit; bread and cereals; rice, pasta, potatoes, and legumes; dairy; meat and eggs; fish; oils and fats; candy and snacks; and sugar-sweetened beverages. The total score ranged from 0 to 10 on a continuous scale and was standardized to an energy intake of 1200 kcal/d with the residual method. The score was evaluated in 3629 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Food consumption was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at a median age of 13 mo. Results: The mean +/- SD diet score was 4.1 +/- 1.3. The food-based diet score was positively associated with intakes of many nutrients, including n-3 (omega-3)-31 fatty acids [FAs; 0.25 SD increase 195% CI: 0.22, 0.27) per 1 point increase in the diet score], dietary fiber [0.32 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.34)], and calcium [0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.16)], and was inversely associated with intakes of sugars [-0.28(95% CI: -0.31, -0.26)] and saturated fat [-0.03 (95% CI: -0.05, -0.01)]. A higher diet score was associated with several health-conscious behaviors, such as maternal folic acid supplement use during pregnancy, no smoking during pregnancy, and children watching less television. Conclusion: We developed a novel food-based diet score for preschool children that could be applied in future studies to compare diet quality in early childhood and to investigate associations between diet in early childhood and growth, health, and development.
Stability of fathers' representations of their infants during the transition to parenthood
Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M. ; Maas, A.J.B.M. ; Rijk, C.H.A.M. ; Braeken, J. ; Bakel, H.J.A. van - \ 2014
Attachment & Human Development 16 (2014)3. - ISSN 1461-6734 - p. 292 - 306.
mothers internal representations - maternal mental representations - postnatal depression scale - attachment classifications - developmental outcomes - prenatal attachment - child interview - clinical-sample - working model - associations
Studies investigating fathers' roles in child development have focused on a range of different aspects. However, few studies have focused on the early father-infant relationship, which already emerges before the child is born. The aim of this study is to examine the concordance of fathers' representations of their children during the transition to parenthood. The influences of demographic variables, psychological wellbeing, and personality on the stability of these representations are investigated. At 26 weeks gestational age and when infants were six months old, fathers (N=243) completed questionnaires and the Working Model of the Child Interview during a home visit. A strong association was found between fathers' prenatal and postnatal representations. First-time fathers more often had balanced representations than fathers who already had children. Furthermore, agreeable fathers were more likely to evolve from a non-balanced prenatal representation to a balanced postnatal representation.
Insect herbivores should follow plants escaping their relatives
Yguel, B. ; Bailey, R.I. ; Villemant, C. ; Brault, A. ; Jactel, H. ; Prinzing, A. - \ 2014
Oecologia 176 (2014)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 521 - 532.
phylogenetic conservatism - habitat fragmentation - niche conservatism - feeding insects - isolated trees - diversity - community - quercus - parasitoids - associations
Neighboring plants within a local community may be separated by many millions of years of evolutionary history, potentially reducing enemy pressure by insect herbivores. However, it is not known how the evolutionary isolation of a plant affects the fitness of an insect herbivore living on such a plant, especially the herbivore's enemy pressure. Here, we suggest that evolutionary isolation of host plants may operate similarly as spatial isolation and reduce the enemy pressure per insect herbivore. We investigated the effect of the phylogenetic isolation of host trees on the pressure exerted by specialist and generalist enemies (parasitoids and birds) on ectophagous Lepidoptera and galling Hymenoptera. We found that the phylogenetic isolation of host trees decreases pressure by specialist enemies on these insect herbivores. In Lepidoptera, decreasing enemy pressure resulted from the density dependence of enemy attack, a mechanism often observed in herbivores. In contrast, in galling Hymenoptera, enemy pressure declined with the phylogenetic isolation of host trees per se, as well as with the parallel decline in leaf damage by non-galling insects. Our results suggest that plants that leave their phylogenetic ancestral neighborhood can trigger, partly through simple density-dependency, an enemy release and fitness increase of the few insect herbivores that succeed in tracking these plants.
WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools
Wijnhoven, T.M.A. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van; Sjöberg, A. ; Eldin, N. ; Yngve, A. ; Kunesova, M. ; Stare, G. ; Rito, A.I. ; Duleva, V. ; Hassapidou, M. ; Martos, E. ; Pudule, I. ; Petrauskiene, A. ; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V. ; Hovengen, R. ; Breda, J. - \ 2014
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (2014)11. - ISSN 1660-4601 - p. 11261 - 11285.
food environment - secondary-schools - weight status - interventions - associations - children - policy - consumption - prevention - behaviors
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (=0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z-score was not observed. Conclusions: Some European countries have implemented more school policies that are supportive to a healthy nutrition environment than others. However, most countries with low school nutrition environment scores also host schools with supportive school environment policies, suggesting that a uniform school policy to tackle the “unhealthy” school nutrition environment has not been implemented at the same level throughout a country and may underline the need for harmonized school policies.
Characterization of colloidal Fe from soils using field-flow fractionation and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Regelink, I.C. ; Voegelin, A. ; Weng, L. ; Koopmans, G.F. ; Comans, R.N.J. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014)8. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4307 - 4316.
iron-oxide nanoparticles - natural organic-matter - acid forest soils - exafs spectroscopy - mineral nanoparticles - trace-metals - speciation - surface - ferrihydrite - associations
Colloids may facilitate the transport of trace elements and nutrients like phosphate in soil. In this study, we characterized soil colloids (
Validation of biomarkers for loin meat quality (m. longissimus) of pigs
Pierzchala, M. ; Hoekman, A.J.W. ; Urbanski, P. ; Kruijt, L. ; Kristensen, L. ; Young, L. ; Oksbjerg, N. ; Goluch, D. ; Pas, M.F.W. te - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 131 (2014)4. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 258 - 270.
skeletal-muscles - gene-expression - troponin-t - pork - associations - calmodulin - cytoscape - growth - young - rad
The aim of this study was to validate previously reported associations between microarray gene expression levels and pork quality traits using real-time PCR. Meat samples and meat quality data from 100 pigs were collected from a different pig breed to the one tested by microarray (Large White versus Pietrain) and a different country of origin (Denmark versus Germany). Ten genes (CARP, MB, CSRP3, TNNC1, VAPB, TNNI1, HSPB1, TNNT1, TIMP-1, RAD-like) were chosen from the original microarray study on the basis of the association between gene expression levels and the meat quality traits meat %, back fat, pH24, drip loss %, colour a*, colour b*, colour L*, WB-SF, SFA, MUFA, PUFA. Real-time PCR detection methods were developed for validation of all ten genes, confirming association with drip loss (two of two genes), ultimate pH (three of four genes), a* (redness) (two of six genes) and L*(lightness) (two of four genes). Furthermore, several new correlations for MUFA and PUFA were established due to additional meat quality trait information on fatty acid composition not available for the microarray study. Regression studies showed that the maximum explanation of the phenotypic variance of the meat quality traits was 50% for the ultimate pH trait using these ten genes only. Additional studies showed that the gene expression of several of the genes was correlated with each other. We conclude that the genes initially selected from the microarray study were robust, explaining variances of the genes for the meat quality traits.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal impacts on competitive interactions between Acacia etbaica and Boswellia papyrifera seedlings under drought stress
Birhane, E. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Bongers, F. ; Kuyper, T.W. - \ 2014
Journal of Plant Ecology 7 (2014)3. - ISSN 1752-9921 - p. 298 - 308.
interspecific competition - plant-growth - trade-offs - fungi - frankincense - infection - traits - associations - populations - coexistence
Aims Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can have a substantial effect on the water and nutrient uptake by plants and the competition between plants in harsh environments where resource availability comes in pulses. In this study we focus on interspecific competition between Acaia etbaica and Boswellia papyrifera that have distinctive resource acquisition strategies. We compared the extent of interspecific competition with that of intraspecific competition. Methods In a greenhouse study we examined the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) and pulsed water availability on competitive interactions between seedlings of the rapidly growing species A. etbaica and the slowly growing species B. papyrifera. A factorial experimental design was used. The factors were AM, two water levels and five species combinations Important Findings Seedlings of both species benefitted from AM when grown alone, and the positive growth response to pulsed water availability in B. papyrifera seedlings was in contrast with the negative growth response for A. etbaica seedlings. AM also affected the competitive performance of both species. B. papyrifera was not affected by intraspecific competition, whereas A. etbaica was negatively affected compared to the seedlings grown alone. This effect was stronger in the presence of AM. In interspecific competition, A. etbaica outcompeted B. papyrifera. Mycorrhiza and pulsed water availability did not affect the outcome of interspecific competition, and the aggressivity index of A. etbaica remained unchanged. The extent to which AM influences plant competition in a drought-stressed environment may depend on belowground functional traits of the species. AM and pulsed water availability could modify the balance between intraspecific and interspecific competition. By affecting the balance between intraspecific and interspecific competition, both factors could impact the establishment and survival of seedlings.
Exploring causal networks of bovine milk fatty acids in a multivariate mixed model context
Bouwman, A.C. ; Valente, B.D. ; Janss, L.L.G. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Rosa, G.J. - \ 2014
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 46 (2014). - ISSN 0999-193X
somatic-cell score - yield - traits - cattle - gene - associations - parameters - cows
BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding causal relationships among traits is important to understand complex biological systems. Structural equation models (SEM) can be used to quantify the causal relations between traits, which allow prediction of outcomes to interventions applied to such a network. Such models are fitted conditionally on a causal structure among traits, represented by a directed acyclic graph and an Inductive Causation (IC) algorithm can be used to search for causal structures. The aim of this study was to explore the space of causal structures involving bovine milk fatty acids and to select a network supported by data as the structure of a SEM. RESULTS: The IC algorithm adapted to mixed models settings was applied to study 14 correlated bovine milk fatty acids, resulting in an undirected network. The undirected pathway from C4:0 to C12:0 resembled the de novo synthesis pathway of short and medium chain saturated fatty acids. By using prior knowledge, directions were assigned to that part of the network and the resulting structure was used to fit a SEM that led to structural coefficients ranging from 0.85 to 1.05. The deviance information criterion indicated that the SEM was more plausible than the multi-trait model. CONCLUSIONS: The IC algorithm output pointed towards causal relations between the studied traits. This changed the focus from marginal associations between traits to direct relationships, thus towards relationships that may result in changes when external interventions are applied. The causal structure can give more insight into underlying mechanisms and the SEM can predict conditional changes due to such interventions.
Nederlandse aquacultuursector gaat internationaal samenwerken
Rothuis, A.J. - \ 2014
Aquacultuur 29 (2014)1. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 22 - 23.
aquacultuur - marktinformatie - marketing - deskundigen - associaties - clubs - aquaculture - market intelligence - experts - associations
In tal van agrarische sectoren, denk aan de tuinbouw en melkveehouderij, werken Nederlandse bedrijven en kennisinstellingen al samen om de internationale markt te bedienen. Tot voor kort was dat niet het geval in de aquacultuur. Maar daar gaat verandering in komen. Op 19 december 2013 hebben een aantal bedrijven en IMARES/Wageningen UR besloten om een nieuwe vereniging op te richten genaamd "Dutch Aquaculture Experts".
Verenigingen ontvangen op de boerderij. Een doelgroep met marktkansen voor plattelandstoerisme
Vijn, M.P. ; Jong, D. de; Schoutsen, M.A. - \ 2013
Lelystad : PPO AGV
multifunctionele landbouw - recreatie op het platteland - dagrecreatie - clubs - associaties - multifunctional agriculture - rural recreation - day visits - associations
Plattelandstoerisme is een sector in ontwikkeling. In de periode van 2007 – 2011 steeg het aantal landbouwbedrijven dat aan plattelandsrecreatie doet met 20 procent (ruim 2.800 bedrijven) en de omzet met 70 procent (naar € 156 miljoen).
Streetscape greenery and health: Stress, social cohesion and physical activity as mediators
Vries, S. de; Dillen, S.M.E. van; Groenewegen, P.P. ; Spreeuwenberg, P. - \ 2013
Social Science and Medicine 94 (2013). - ISSN 0277-9536 - p. 26 - 33.
mental-health - natural environments - possible mechanism - perceived stress - open space - walking - adults - associations - determinants - multilevel
Several studies have shown a positive relationship between local greenspace availability and residents' health, which may offer opportunities for health improvement. This study focuses on three mechanisms through which greenery might exert its positive effect on health: stress reduction, stimulating physical activity and facilitating social cohesion. Knowledge on mechanisms helps to identify which type of greenspace is most effective in generating health benefits. In eighty neighbourhoods in four Dutch cities data on quantity and quality of streetscape greenery were collected by observations. Data on self-reported health and proposed mediators were obtained for adults by mail questionnaires (N = 1641). Multilevel regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, revealed that both quantity and quality of streetscape greenery were related to perceived general health, acute health-related complaints, and mental health. Relationships were generally stronger for quality than for quantity. Stress and social cohesion were the strongest mediators. Total physical activity was not a mediator. Physical activity that could be undertaken in the public space (green activity) was, but less so than stress and social cohesion. With all three mediators included in the analysis, complete mediation could statistically be proven in five out of six cases. In these analyses the contribution of green activity was often not significant. The possibility that the effect of green activity is mediated by stress and social cohesion, rather than that it has a direct health effect, is discussed.
Multiple loci and genetic interactions involving flowering time genes regulate stem branching among natural variants of Arabidopsis
Huang, X. ; Ding, J. ; Effgen, S. ; Turck, F. ; Koornneef, M. - \ 2013
New Phytologist 199 (2013)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 843 - 857.
quantitative trait loci - axillary meristem formation - inbred line populations - allelic variation - inflorescence development - thaliana - shoot - associations - architecture - adaptation
Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant architecture. Genetic variants for reduced stem branching in the axils of cauline leaves of Arabidopsis were found in some natural accessions and also at low frequency in the progeny of multiparent crosses. Detailed genetic analysis using segregating populations derived from backcrosses with the parental lines and bulked segregant analysis was used to identify the allelic variation controlling reduced stem branching. Eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to natural variation for reduced stem branching were identified (REDUCED STEM BRANCHING 1-8 (RSB1-8)). Genetic analysis showed that RSB6 and RSB7, corresponding to flowering time genes FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and FRIGIDA (FRI), epistatically regulate stem branching. Furthermore, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which corresponds to RSB8 as demonstrated by fine-mapping, transgenic complementation and expression analysis, caused pleiotropic effects not only on flowering time, but, in the specific background of active FRI and FLC alleles, also on the RSB trait. The consequence of allelic variation only expressed in late-flowering genotypes revealed novel and thus far unsuspected roles of several genes well characterized for their roles in flowering time control
Improving bovine udder health: A national mastitis control program in the Netherlands
Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Borne, B.H.P. van den; Jansen, J. ; Huijps, K. ; Veersen, J.C.L. ; Schaick, G. van; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1301 - 1311.
management-practices - dairy herds - milk quality - attitudes - communication - performance - farmers - associations - knowledge - england
Because of increasing bulk milk somatic cell counts and continuous clinical mastitis problems in a substantial number of herds, a national mastitis control program was started in 2005 to improve udder health in the Netherlands. The program started with founding the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN), which had the task to coordinate the program. The program consisted of 2 parts: a research part and a knowledge-transfer part, which were integrated as much as possible. The knowledge-transfer part comprised 2 communication strategies: a central and a peripheral approach. The central approach was based on educating farmers using comprehensive science-based and rational argumentation about mastitis prevention and included on-farm study group meetings. Comprehensive education materials were developed for farmers that were internally motivated to improve udder health. In the peripheral approach it was tried to motivate farmers to implement certain management measures using nontechnical arguments. Mass media campaigns were used that focused on one single aspect of mastitis prevention. These communication strategies, as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines were used to reach as many farmers as possible. It should be noted that, because this intervention took place at a national level, no control group was available, as it would be impossible to isolate farmers from all forms of communication for 5 years. Based on several studies executed during and after the program, however, the results suggest that udder health seemed to have improved on a national level during the course of the program from 2005 to 2010. Within a cohort of dairy herds monitored during the program, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis did not change significantly (23.0 in 2004 vs. 22.2 in 2009). The incidence rate of clinical mastitis, however, decreased significantly, from 33.5 to 28.1 quarter cases per 100 cow years at risk. The most important elements of the farmers' mindset toward mastitis control also changed favorably. The simulated costs of mastitis per farm were reduced compared with a situation in which the mastitis would not have changed, with € 400 per year. When this amount is extrapolated to all Dutch farms, the sector as a whole reduced the total costs of mastitis by € 8 million per year. It is difficult to assign the improved udder health completely to the efforts of the program due to the lack of a control group. Nevertheless, investing € 8 million by the Dutch dairy industry in a 5-yr national mastitis control program likely improved udder health and seemed to pay for itself financially.
Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: A cohort study
Ritte, R. ; Lukanova, A. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Olsen, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Mesrine, S. ; Fagherazzi, G. ; Dossus, L. ; Teucher, B. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2013
International Journal of Cancer 132 (2013)11. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 2619 - 2629.
estrogen-receptor - body-size - leg length - childhood - growth - participants - associations - adolescence - population - exposures
Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00–1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (=13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: A population-based case-control study in China
Wu, M. ; Chang, S. ; Kampman, E. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2013
International Journal of Cancer 132 (2013)8. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 1868 - 1877.
squamous-cell carcinoma - alcohol-dehydrogenase - aldehyde dehydrogenases - risk-factors - metabolism - consumption - variants - drinking - japanese - associations
Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case–control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12–2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54–1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.
Dietary saturated fat and fibre and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among type 1 diabetic patients: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study
Schoenaker, D.A.J.M. ; Toeller, M. ; Chaturvedi, N. ; Fuller, J.H. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. - \ 2012
Diabetologia 55 (2012)8. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 2132 - 2141.
coronary-heart-disease - iddm complications - insulin-resistance - pooled analysis - cereal fiber - cholesterol - prevention - cohort - women - associations
Aims/hypothesis - Low adherence to recommendations for dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fibre intake in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may heighten their increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We examined the relationship of SFA and total, soluble and insoluble fibre with incident CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. Methods - A prospective cohort analysis was performed in 2,108 European type 1 diabetic patients aged 15–60 years who were free of CVD at baseline and enrolled in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (51% male). Diet was assessed from a standardised 3 day dietary record. HR were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results - During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 148 incident cases of fatal and non-fatal CVD and 46 all-cause deaths were documented. No statistically significant association was found between SFA and CVD and all-cause mortality. Total dietary fibre, per 5 g/day, was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.55, 0.95). This association was stronger for soluble fibre (per 5 g/day, HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.14, 0.80) compared with insoluble fibre (per 5 g/day; HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.45, 0.97). Similar results were found for the association with CVD. Conclusions/interpretation - This study suggests that reported dietary SFA is not significantly associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. On the contrary, higher dietary fibre consumption, especially soluble fibre, within the range commonly consumed by type 1 diabetic patients, may contribute to the prevention of CVD and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients.
Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer
Bruijnis, M.R.N. ; Beerda, B. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2012
Animal Welfare 21 (2012)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 33 - 40.
holstein cows - claw disorders - lameness control - milk-yield - prevalence - associations - mastitis - heifers - england - health
This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem with serious economic consequences. On average, foot disorders cost €53 per cow per year, of which indirect cost factors are the main cause. Subclinical foot disorders, which are the foot disorders not recognised by dairy farmers, account for 50% of the total welfare impact and 32% of the total costs. The consequences of foot disorders can be difficult to observe and more insight into these consequences is helpful in stimulating actions to improve dairy cow foot health. Digital dermatitis (DD), an infectious foot disorder, is the most serious foot disorder from both an economic and welfare perspective. The correlation between economics and animal welfare impact suggests that reducing the problem of foot disorders from an economic perspective will positively influence the welfare of dairy cows. Insight into economic and welfare consequences of the different foot disorders, including the association between them, can help make dairy farmers more aware and help with decision-making regarding measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Keywords: animal welfare, dairy cattle, economics, foot disorders, modelling, welfare impact
Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis
Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2012
International Journal of Epidemiology 41 (2012)5. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 1419 - 1433.
cause-specific mortality - coronary-heart-disease - childhood socioeconomic circumstances - body-mass index - cancer-risk - cardiovascular-disease - diabetes-mellitus - men - women - associations
Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5¿cm, using individual–participant data on 174¿374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1¿085¿949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1¿cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5¿cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5¿cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases
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