Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Consumer Preference and Sensory Properties of the Pacific Cupped Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the European Flat Oyster (Ostrea edulis)
Houcke, Jasper van; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis ; Stieger, Markus ; Linssen, Jozef ; Luten, Joop - \ 2016
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology (2016). - ISSN 1049-8850 - 7 p.
attributes - consumer study - Crassostrea gigas - Ostrea edulis - preference - sensory properties

Experts in the oyster supply chain (farmers, retailers, and gourmet chefs) in The Netherlands have suggested that the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) has superior sensory qualities compared to the Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas). However, scientific evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumer preferences for these two oyster species and to determine the sensory properties of both species by consumers. Two-alternative forced choice tests were performed with the oysters involving a panel of 74 naïve consumers. No significant differences in preferences between the oyster species were observed by the consumers. Nine sensory attributes of both oyster species were evaluated. Consumers did not observe significant differences between species in the sensory attributes: overall odor intensity, sea odor, mud odor, sweetness, pungency, and firmness. The Pacific cupped oyster was perceived as significantly saltier and more intense in greenness than the European flat oyster. We concluded that only a few sensory properties of the European flat oyster and the Pacific cupped oyster are perceived as being different by untrained consumers.

Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation
Bongoni, R. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. - \ 2015
British Food Journal 117 (2015)1. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 7 - 21.
brassica vegetables - handling behaviors - cooking methods - health - questionnaire - reliability - attributes - products
Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The collection of such information requires a reliable, valid and practical research method. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Direct in-home observations, observations in a model-kitchen using cameras, and a self-reporting questionnaire were evaluated for reliability and validity, to study domestic food preparation practices by consumers. Broccoli preparation practices by Dutch consumers were checked by these three methods in this research paper. Findings – All three research methods were found to be test-retest, inter-observer, parallel-form reliable; and face, content and concurrent valid. However, the self-reporting questionnaire is the most practical research method that can be administered on a large number of respondents in a short time to capture the wide variations in preparation practices. Originality/value – Consumers can be assisted on domestic food preparation practices that reach their sensory preferences (e.g. texture, colour) as well as have health benefits on consumption. Keywords Reliability, Validity, Consistency in behaviour, Food preparation, Observation (through cameras), Self-reporting questionnaire Paper type Research paper
Consumer liking, purchase intent, and willingness to pay for Lupinus mutabilis Sweet in relation to debittering treatments
Carvajal-Larenas, F.E. ; Koziol, M. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 40 (2015)part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 221 - 229.
quinolizidine alkaloids - satisfaction - quality - seed - perceptions - attributes - extraction - customers - equity
Interrelationships between food processing conditions, consumer liking, purchase intent and willingness to pay can be studied and modeled as exemplified by this paper on lupin (Lupinus mutabilis). Lupin was debittered by 12 different aqueous treatments and evaluated by 99 consumers. First they scored the products on the basis of liking. Next, they were informed about the price of the products and asked to rank their purchase intent in relation to their liking scores and product price. Treatments with more processing (i.e. longer agitation times and/or more frequent changes of water) increased the product price but diminished liking. Consumers did not choose between liking and price; the purchase intent was the combined effect of both variables. Willingness to pay was inferred from the purchase intent plot. For example, at a purchase intent of 2, consumers would accept an increase in price of 0.3 $/kg if liking increased from ‘‘like slightly’’ to ‘‘like moderately’’. In the studied range, the effect of processing on liking and expected price, as well as their effect on purchase intent, could be described by first order regression equations.
Consumer behaviour towards vegetables: a study on domestic processing of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households
Bongoni, R. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. - \ 2015
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 28 (2015)3. - ISSN 0952-3871 - p. 219 - 225.
different cooking methods - food quality - health - fruit - consumption - interventions - determinants - attributes - choice - impact
Background: Preferences for sensory properties (e.g. taste and texture) are assumed to control cooking behaviour with respect to vegetables. Conditions such as the cooking method, amount of water used and the time-temperature profile determine the nutritional quality (e.g. vitamins and phytochemicals) of cooked vegetables. Information on domestic processing and any underlying motives can be used to inform consumers about cooking vegetables that are equally liked and are nutrient-rich. Methods: Two online self-reporting questionnaires were used to identify domestic processing conditions of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households. Questions on various aspects of domestic processing and consumer motives were included. Descriptive data analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed for both vegetables, separately, to group consumers with similar motives and behaviour towards vegetables. Results: Approximately 70% of consumers boiled vegetables, 8–9% steamed vegetables, 10–15% stir fried raw vegetables and 8–10% stir fried boiled vegetables. Mainly texture was used as a way to decide the ‘doneness’ of the vegetables. For both vegetables, three clusters of consumers were identified: texture-orientated, health-orientated, or taste-orientated. The texture-orientated consumers are identified as the most prevalent (56–59%) group in the present study. Statistically significant associations are found between domestic processing conditions and clusters, whereas no such association are found between demographic details and clusters. Conclusions: A wide variation in domestic processing of broccoli and carrots is found in the present study. Mainly sensory properties (i.e. texture and taste) determined the domestic processing conditions. The findings of the present study can be used to optimise cooking to yield vegetables that meet consumer’s specific sensory preference and are higher in nutrients, and as well as to communicate with target consumer groups.
Contrasting the roles of section length and instream and instream habitat Supply Chain through Contract Farming
Cembalo, L. ; Pascucci, S. ; Tagliafierro, C. ; Caracciolo, F. - \ 2014
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 17 (2014)3. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 33 - 52.
preferences - attributes - design - market
This paper discusses how to develop and manage integration, coordination and cooperation in bio-energy supply chains. Farmers decisions on whether or not to participate in a contract farming scheme have been investigated, particularly assessing the trade-offs between the contract attributes and their impact on the likelihood to participate. A stated preference model was implemented where respondents were asked to choose between alternative contracts with varying attribute levels to start biomass cultivation. Results show that participation is mainly influenced by minimum price guaranteed, contract length, and re-negotiation before the end of a contract.
The impact of the means of context evocation on consumers' emotion associations towards eating occasions
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 37 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 61 - 70.
evoked consumption contexts - imagery - appropriateness - responses - questionnaires - satisfaction - attributes - experience - validity - ratings
The joint investigation of the product, the consumer, and the consumption context is necessary for furthering the understanding of eating occasions (snacks and main meals), including their construction and enjoyment. The study of people’s experience of eating occasions is less advanced than the understanding of acceptability, preference, and choice of individual food/beverage items and/or their combination in meals. The current research contributes to narrowing this gap by focusing on emotions as a dimension of eating experiences and enjoyment. Under evoked consumption contexts (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner), the emotion associations for several products (potato crisps, chocolate brownie, and kiwifruit) were obtained from consumers (n = 399) using a questionnaire method. Emotion associations were explored in relation to: (1) the way in which the food stimulus was evaluated by participants (tasting food vs. seeing a food image); (2) the serving presentation of the food stimulus (image of food shown in isolation vs. image of food served on a plate with cutlery); and (3) the means in which the consumption context was evoked (written vs. written and pictorial). Consumers’ product emotion associations when tasting a food stimulus vs. seeing an image of the same food were highly similar. There was some evidence that more specific means of presenting the food stimuli (with tableware vs. without tableware) and consumption contexts (written and pictorially vs. written only) influenced perceived appropriateness of the product in the focal consumption context. This resulted, for example, in a higher frequency of use of negative emotion terms in the less appropriate consumption contexts. Overall, through the use of evoked consumption contexts this research has contributed new understanding of product-specific emotional associations during eating occasions from a methodological approach. In addition to the aforementioned results a more general finding was the apparent reliance by participants on past product experiences when completing the emotion questionnaire.
Growth dynamics of tree nursery seedlings: The case of oil palm
Akpo, E. ; Stomph, T.J. ; Kossou, D. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2014
Scientia Horticulturae 175 (2014). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 251 - 257.
plant-growth - field performance - feeding damage - pot size - leaf - fertilization - plantations - populations - attributes - management
Tree seedling survival in the field partly depends on management during seedling production. Insight into how nursery practices affect seedling growth dynamics would generate understanding in how to optimise tree seedling production. The objective of this study was to analyse the growth dynamics of oil palm seedlings to evaluate the effects of bag size, substrate type, and fertiliser supply, and their interactions. An experiment was run in 2011 (March to November 2011) and repeated in 2012 (April to October 2012) using three bag sizes, four substrates, and three levels of fertiliser supply (3 × 4 × 3 factorial design). Seedling height, collar diameter and number of leaves were measured over time. Seedling growth was analysed by comparing treatment effects at monthly intervals. Data were also fitted to growth curves to analyse treatment effects on absolute and relative rates of increase in seedling height, collar diameter and number of leaves. While substrate and fertiliser supply effects were fairly constant over time, bag size effects increased with larger variance explained over time. We observed that bag size effects overtook substrate, fertiliser and interaction effects from about two months onwards. Seedling height and collar diameter followed an exponential growth while number of leaves increased linearly over time. Analysis of generated data with the different growth models indicated that seedling growth rates were mainly under the influence of bag size, followed by substrate. Interactions between nursery practices, although significant sometimes, did not account for a large part of experimental error. Implications for tree seedling management are further discussed.
Using combined eye tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Velasco, C. ; Salgado, A. ; Spence, C. - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)1. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 328 - 338.
front-of-pack - conjoint-analysis - print advertisements - consumer research - visual-attention - time pressure - attributes - movements - information - design
The present study utilized the techniques of eye tracking and word association in order to collect attentional information and freely-elicited associations from consumers in response to changing specific attributes of the product packaging (jam jars). We assessed the relationship between the data obtained from these two measures in a non goal-directed (or choice-based) task. Additionally, we addressed the question of which packaging attributes affected the consumers’ self-reported willingness to try the product. To relate how each element variation contributed to the focusing of participants’ attention on each area of interest to the immediate message that they conveyed and to the participants’ willingness to try, the rich mixed data obtained were analysed by means of conjoint analysis and multiple factor analysis. The results demonstrated that certain elements of the product packaging can be used to drive visual attention to one element or another; for instance, the ridged surface of certain jars contributed to spread the gaze; however, an important part of the associations that these formats elicited were related to the ridges or to unusualness of the packaging, suggesting that these “secondary” stimuli also captured attention. Though this case study does not provide direct guidelines for packaging design, it does shed light on the importance of knowing how to combine the appropriate design elements to predetermine consumers’ gaze patterns in order to convey the desired messaging on product packaging. Highlights ¿ Eye tracking and word association were used in a study about packaging. ¿ Conjoint analysis and MFA were used to interpret and relate attentional and textual data. ¿ The areas that captured more attention were the flavour label, photograph and the logo. ¿ These elements elicited the higher number of sensory and positive hedonic associations. ¿ A squared format and a ridged texture spread the attention from the centre of the packaging image. Keywords Eye tracking; Consumer attention; Packaging design; Word association; Conjoint analysis; Multiple factor analysis
Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Ethiopia: the role of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System and Farmers' Quality Assessment
Abebe, G.K. ; Bijman, J. ; Pascucci, S. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2013
Agricultural Systems 122 (2013). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 22 - 32.
technology adoption - irrigation technology - developing-countries - uncertainty - dynamics - africa - uganda - attributes - madagascar - networks
Although potato is considered to be one of the strategic crops for ensuring food security in Ethiopia, the adoption of high yielding and disease tolerant improved potato varieties is low. Common explanations include farmers’ attitudes to risk and socio-cultural factors. We develop a system perspective that explores farmers’ decisions about adopting improved varieties (IVs) in relation to (1) their engagement with the agricultural knowledge and innovation system (AKIS) and (2) their preferences for local varieties (LVs). On the basis of original data from 346 ware Ethiopian potato farmers we show that the frequency of use of technical assistance from NGOs and access to credit positively affect the adoption of IVs while the use of the main buyer as a source of advice negatively affects IV adoption. We found that farmers have a preference for LVs because of the perceived easier crop management and better stew quality attributes. Yield, disease resistance, and maturity period are less important attributes. Higher education of the household head and the presence of a radio and/or television also have a positive effect on adoption. As to the scale of adoption, we found that only the percentage of owned land, tuber size (of ware potatoes), access to credit, stew quality, and presence of a mobile phone have an impact on ware potato farmers’ decision on the amount of land to be used for growing IVs. These results imply that improved production-related quality attributes may not be enough to induce ware potato farmers to adopt new varieties. LVs with relatively low scores on production-related criteria continue to be appreciated by farmers due to demands from their customers. We recommend putting more emphasis on market-related quality attributes in new variety development.
Measuring the attractiveness of Dutch landscapes: Identifying national hotspots of highly valued places using Google Maps
Vries, S. de; Buijs, A.E. ; Langers, F. ; Farjon, F. ; Hinsberg, A. van; Sijtsma, F.J. - \ 2013
Applied Geography 45 (2013). - ISSN 0143-6228 - p. 220 - 229.
management - attributes - biodiversity - preferences - responses
In a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), determining the value that the general public attaches to a landscape is often problematic. To aid the inclusion of this social value in such analyses, a Google Maps-based tool, called the HotSpotMonitor (HSM), was developed. The HSM determines which natural places are highly attractive by having people mark such places on a map. The definition of attractiveness remains open to avoid having marker placement being influenced by preconceived thoughts. The number of markers an area receives is considered to indicate its social value. Six regions were selected, and from these, stratified samples were drawn (total n = 3293). Participants placed markers at three spatial levels: local, regional and national. This paper focuses on the markers at the national level. The first research question is whether the HSM can produce an accurate map of highly attractive places at a national level. The results indicated that while in principle HSM can produce such a map, the spatial representativeness of the sample is important. The region of origin of the participants influenced where they placed their markers, an effect previously termed spatial discounting. The second research question considers which qualities the participants associate with the marked places. These qualities were very similar at all three spatial levels: green, natural, presence of water and quiet were often selected out of the fourteen suggested qualities. The third, and more exploratory, research question concerns which characteristics of an area predict its attractiveness. Natural and forest areas had higher marker densities than water surfaces or all other types of land use combined. The discussion evaluates the potential of the HSM to generate input on social landscape values for CBAs and EIAs.
Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopy and geostatistics
Mulder, V.L. ; Bruin, S. de; Weyermann, J. ; Kokaly, R.F. ; Schaepman, M.E. - \ 2013
Remote Sensing of Environment 139 (2013). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 415 - 429.
spatial prediction - usgs tetracorder - regression - vegetation - carbon - model - area - attributes - variograms - variables
This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We tested whether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was done with Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the medium and long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial variability of soil and environmental properties at regional scale.
Data Envelopment Analysis of sustainability indicators of European agricultural systems at regional level
Lemmen-Gerdessen, J.C. van; Pascucci, S. - \ 2013
Agricultural Systems 118 (2013). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 78 - 90.
resource-management - farm-level - efficiency - attributes - outputs - models - inputs
Assessing the sustainability of a regional agricultural system is complex, because in different decision-making contexts stakeholders can use different criteria and methodologies, thus arriving at different and contrasting judgments. One way of dealing with the complexity of measuring the concept of sustainability is to adopt a multidimensional perspective, which recognizes the presence of an economic dimension which requires feasibility, a social dimension which requires acceptability, and an environmental dimension which requires carrying capacity. Many approaches for measuring sustainability face the difficulty to reconcile this multidimensional perspective with the necessity to come up with a "synthetic" and one-dimensional assessment measure that could be used for both policy-making and methodological purposes. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the development of a methodological approach that can simplify the assessment procedure of sustainability of agricultural systems, while considering the multidimensional perspective. We used the three dimensions of sustainability to define two economic indicators, two social indicators, and four environmental indicators of sustainability. Then we used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to partition 252 European agricultural regions into a subset of DEA-efficient regions and a subset of non-efficient regions under five scenarios. The scenarios reflect preferences with respect to the importance of the three dimensions of sustainability. Impact of model choices such as constant versus variable returns to scale, input versus output orientation, and balancing constraints is shown. The combination of multidimensional perspective and DEA allowed to operationalize the complex and sophisticated concept of sustainability. Applying DEA at the EU regional level enabled analysis of the heterogeneity of performances within each EU Member State and among them. This heterogeneity is a fundamental research topic in the domain of assessment of sustainability of agricultural systems. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors
Elzerman, J.E. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Luning, P.A. - \ 2013
British Food Journal 115 (2013)5. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 700 - 710.
food - attributes - taste - soy
Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the use of meat substitutes in meals. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 46 consumers took part in seven focus group discussions. These discussions consisted of three steps, starting with a general discussion on meat substitutes, followed by a discussion on the appropriateness of the use of meat substitutes as ingredients (minced, in pieces or slices) by using photographs of six different dishes (soup, pasta, rice, wrap, meal salad, and pizza). The discussions were concluded with a taste session of two dishes with meat substitutes. Findings – Consumers in this study regarded health aspects and easy preparation as positive aspects of meat substitutes. Lack of information on the package, and high price were reported as negative. Sensory aspects such as neutral taste or tastiness, crispiness, chicken-like texture, or granular texture were seen as positive attributes. Negative sensory aspects that were mentioned were uniform taste, compactness, dryness and softness. Most consumers found the use of meat substitutes appropriate in the dishes we presented. Originality/value – The paper's findings can, together with quantitative consumer and sensory research, be a start towards consumer-oriented product development of environmentally more sustainable meat substitutes. The central role of meal context and appropriateness is an aspect that has not yet received much attention in food science.
Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data
Mulder, V.L. ; Bruin, S. de; Schaepman, M.E. - \ 2013
International Journal of applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 21 (2013). - ISSN 0303-2434 - p. 301 - 310.
design-based estimation - spatial prediction - classification tree - optimization - landscape - attributes - strategies - variables - desert - model
This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are assumed to represent the variability of the target variables. The optimization also accounts for specific constraints and costs expressing the field sampling effort. The approach is demonstrated using a case study in Morocco, where a small but representative sample record had to be collected over a 15,000 km2 area within 2 weeks. The covariate space of the Latin Hypercube consisted of the first three principal components of ASTER imagery as well as elevation. Comparison of soil properties taken from the topsoil with the existing soil map, a geological map and lithological data showed that the sampling approach was successful in representing major soil variability. The cLHS sample failed to express spatial correlation; constraining the LHS by a distance criterion favoured large spatial variability within a short distances resulting in an overestimation of the variograms nugget and short distance variability. However, the exhaustive covariate data appeared to be spatially correlated which supports our premise that once the relation between spatially explicit remote sensing data and soil properties has been modelled, the latter can be spatially predicted based on the densely sampled remotely sensed data. Therefore, the LHS approach is considered as time and cost efficient for regional scale surveys that rely on remote sensing-based prediction of soil properties.
Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): 1. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements at laboratory scale
Kapper, C. ; Klont, R.E. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Urlings, H.A.P. - \ 2012
Meat Science 91 (2012)3. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 294 - 299.
water-holding capacity - early post-mortem - reflectance spectroscopy - intramuscular fat - drip loss - meat - spectra - beef - attributes - carcass
The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L*, a*, b* and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with R2 > 0.70 and residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 1.9 were considered as applicable to predict pork quality. For drip loss% the prediction equation was developed (R2 0.73, RPD 1.9) and 76% of those grouped superior and inferior samples were predicted within the groups. For colour L*, test-set samples were predicted with R2 0.75, RPD 2.0, colour a* R2 0.51, RPD 1.4, colour b* R2 0.55, RPD 1.5 and pHu R2 0.36, RPD 1.3. It is concluded that NIRS prediction equations could be developed to predict drip loss% and L*, of pork samples. NIRS equations for colour a*, b* and pHu were not applicable for the prediction of pork quality on commercially slaughtered pigs.
Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 2. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements under production plant conditions
Kapper, C. ; Klont, R.E. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Williams, P.C. ; Urlings, H.A.P. - \ 2012
Meat Science 91 (2012)3. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 300 - 305.
water-holding capacity - early post-mortem - reflectance spectroscopy - intramuscular fat - drip loss - meat - spectra - beef - attributes - carcass
Longissimus dorsi samples (685) collected at four processing plants were used to develop prediction equations for meat quality with near infrared spectroscopy. Equations with R2 > 0.70 and residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 2.0 were considered as applicable for screening. One production plant showed R2 0.76 and RPD 2.05, other plants showed R2 <0.70 and RPD <2.0 for drip loss %. RPD values were = 2.05 for drip loss%, for colour L* = 1.82 and pH ultimate (pHu) = 1.57. Samples were grouped for drip loss%; superior (<2.0%), moderate (2–4%), inferior (> 4.0%). 64% from the superior group and 56% from the inferior group were predicted correctly. One equation could be used for screening drip loss %. Best prediction equation for L* did not meet the requirements (R2 0.70 and RPD 1.82). pHu equation could not be used. Results suggest that prediction equations can be used for screening drip loss %.
Oral movements and the perception of semi-solid foods
Wijk, R.A. de; Janssen, A.M. ; Prinz, J.F. - \ 2011
Physiology and Behavior 104 (2011)3. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 423 - 428.
custard desserts - texture - mastication - attributes - breakdown - flavor - varies - meals
Here we review the role of oral movements in the perception of food attributes, particularly for semi-solid and liquid foods ingested almost in ready-to-swallow form. An overview of a series of instrumental and sensory studies suggests clear links between the type of sensation and the time point of processing in the mouth. Some commonly-reported sensations, such as thickness, are relatively immediate and reflect the bulk properties of food bolus when the food is relatively intact. Others, such as fattiness and melting, reflect both bulk and surface properties and follow considerable oral processing when the food is relatively degraded. Yet others, such as fatty after-feel, are only fully developed after swallowing is complete. In addition, oral processing also plays an important role in the generation of aroma and taste sensations. Most of these in prior vivo studies have now been confirmed by in vitro work using a modified rheometer, dubbed the Structure Breakdown Cell (SBC), wherein the mechanical and enzymatic break-down of food can be monitored directly and related to sensory profiles generated by trained panelists.
Identification of new food alternatives: how do consumers categorize meat and meat substitutes?
Hoek, A.C. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Voordouw, J. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2011
Food Quality and Preference 22 (2011)4. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 371 - 383.
product categorization - cross-classification - childrens concepts - real-world - attributes - choice - representations - sustainability - determinants - expectations
New meat substitutes need to be recognized as alternatives to meat. We therefore investigated which category representations consumers have of meat and meat substitutes. Thirty-four non-vegetarian participants performed a free sorting task with 17 meat products and 19 commercially available meat substitutes, followed by similarity and typicality ratings. Results indicated that categorization was largely influenced by the taxonomic classification of meat, so by categories that refer to the animal source like ‘pork’, ‘beef’ etc. Hence, meat substitutes were grouped separately from non-processed meat products. However, there were categories (e.g. ‘pieces’ and ‘sausages’) that contained both meat substitutes and processed meat products, as these products were perceived to be very similar. New meat substitutes should have a certain resemblance to meat in order to replace meat on the plate. This can be achieved by either similarity in appearance or by referring to shared scripts/goals, such as a similar application in meals.
Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche, and human use
Castro-Diëz, P. ; Langendoen, T. ; Poorter, L. ; Saldaña-Lopez, A. - \ 2011
Biodiversity and Conservation 20 (2011)12. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 2729 - 2743.
alien plant invasions - mediterranean islands - species traits - global-scale - invaders - attributes - management - dispersal - patterns - consequences
Australian Acacia species have been widely planted worldwide for different purposes. Some of them have spread and altered the native ecosystem functions to the extent of being considered economic and ecologic threats. Understanding factors that allow these species to become invasive is an important step for mitigating or preventing the damaging effects of invasive species. We aimed to test the importance of native niche climatic width and average, plant functional traits (plant height, leaf area, seed mass and length of flowering season) and anthropogenic factors (number of uses, time since introduction) for predicting invasive success, in terms of abundance and range, of 16 Australian Acacia species in South Africa. By using multiple regression analysis, we constructed one different model for each type of predicting factors. When more than two predicting variables were available in a category, they were reduced to a maximum of two predictors by means of principal component analysis. Acacia spp. abundance and range in South Africa were highly correlated. The anthropogenic model (using number of human uses as predictor) was the best to explain both abundance and range of acacias in South Africa. This may be attributed to the importance of humans as dispersal vectors and to the relatively recent introduction of these species (circa 150 years). The functional traits model was the next best model explaining Acacia range, but not abundance, acacias with higher height and leaf area being more widespread in South Africa. Taller plants may disperse their seeds more efficiently by attracting dispersal agents, such as birds. The climatic affinities model was the following in the ranking explaining both range and abundance, acacias coming from moister, cooler and less seasonal regions in Australia being more successful in South Africa. This pattern may be attributed to the fast growth genotype generally selected for under low climatic stress conditions. Acacias with wide climatic niche in the native region were also more widespread and abundant in South Africa, probably because the same traits that allow them to be widespread in Australia, also contribute to overcome the climatic filters to establish throughout South Africa. This study provides managers with tools to identify those exotic Acacia ssp. having more chances to become successful invaders in South Africa.
A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda
Kikulwe, E.M. ; Birol, E. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Falck-Zepeda, J. - \ 2011
Agricultural Economics 42 (2011)5. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 547 - 560.
heterogeneous preferences - gm food - choice - models - attributes - resources - cattle - logit - crop
This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important staple crops. A choice experiment is used to investigate consumer preferences for various attributes related to the banana (such as bunch size, technology, producer benefit, and price) and examine their opinions on GM foodstuff. Choice data come from 421 banana-consuming households randomly selected from three regions of Uganda. A latent class model is used to investigate the heterogeneity in consumers’ preferences for selected attributes related to the banana and to profile consumers who are more or less likely to accept GM bananas. Our results reveal that there is significant heterogeneity in consumer preferences across our sample. GM bananas are valued the most by poorer households located in the rural areas of the Eastern region. These food-insecure households would experience the highest benefits (i.e., welfare gains) from the commercial release of GM bananas. In contrast, urban consumers are less accepting of GM bananas, and they would experience significant welfare losses if GM banana is released. According to our welfare estimates, both the total welfare benefits acquired by the gainers and the total welfare losses borne by the losers of this technology are significant and large. These results suggest the need for further investigation of the overall welfare effects of the introduction of GM bananas on the Ugandan society as a whole
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