Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Belichtingsapplicatie; een tussenstand
Gelder, A. de - \ 2014
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - belichting - assimilatie - zonne-instraling - lichtregiem - bedrijfsapplicaties - software-ontwikkeling - behoeftenbepaling - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - illumination - assimilation - insolation - light regime - business software - software engineering - needs assessment
Assimilatiebelichting op basis van stralingsverwachting en behoefte van het gewas maakt de teler meer bewust van de belichtingsstrategie. Het doel van dit project is de bouw van een applicatie voor advies over belichtingsduur afgestemd op de assimilatenvraag van een gewas en besparing op energie vraag van 10 % voor belichting bij gebruik van de applicatie.
Kasklimaatregeling op basis van fotosynthese-metingen: wat zijn de mogelijkheden? : verslag van het eerste werkpakket van het project " Energie besparen door sturing van licht en CO2 op basis van gewasbehoefte"
Dieleman, J.A. ; Pot, S. ; Snel, J.F.H. ; Kromdijk, J. ; Jalink, H. ; Bontsema, J. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1270) - 26
glastuinbouw - klimaatregeling - fotosynthese - gasuitwisseling - fluorescentie - meting - gewasmonitoring - behoeftenbepaling - lichtregiem - kooldioxide - greenhouse horticulture - air conditioning - photosynthesis - gas exchange - fluorescence - measurement - crop monitoring - needs assessment - light regime - carbon dioxide
Het klimaat in een kas wordt ingesteld om een optimale gewasfotosynthese, assimilatenverdeling en plantvorm te realiseren. Om momentaan het kasklimaat aan te kunnen passen aan de behoeftes van de plant is het van groot belang inzicht te hebben in de directe gevolgen van aanpassingen in het klimaat op de plant prestaties, in het bijzonder op de fotosynthese. Dit is te doen met de volgende methodes: 1. Gasuitwisseling van bladeren: nauwkeurige metingen van de fotosynthese van een stukje blad, met draagbare meetapparatuur. 2. Plantivity: een commercieel verkrijgbare meter die de fluorescentie van een stukje blad meet. 3. Kas-in-kas: een niet-geklimatiseerde meetkamer waarin CO 2 opname van een aantal planten gemeten kan worden. 4. Fluorescentie-imaging: fluorescentie metingen op afstand aan een groter oppervlakte gewas. 5. Fotosynthese-monitor: soft-sensor waarmee de CO 2 opname van een kas berekend wordt op basis van ventilatievoud en metingen van de CO 2 concentratie binnen en buiten de kas. Uit twee workshops met telers bleek dat zij fotosynthese als een belangrijk proces beschouwen in de teelt van hun gewas, en dat zij de fotosynthese van hun gewas graag momentaan online zouden willen meten. Het is daarom wenselijk door te gaan met de ontwikkeling van een robuust en betrouwbaar meetsysteem voor de gewasfotosynthese
"Dit kunnen dak- en gevelgroen voor u betekenen"
Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2013
Vitale Groene Stad 2013 (2013)1/1. - p. 22 - 23.
stadsomgeving - groene daken - groene gevels - welzijn - behoeftenbepaling - waterbeheer - kwaliteit van het leven - meting - effecten - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - urban environment - green roofs - green walls - well-being - needs assessment - water management - quality of life - measurement - effects - scientific research
Groene ruimten in de stad zijn een leverancier van diensten als het gaat om het leefbaar houden van de stad. Het traditionele groen op maaiveldniveau speelt hierin de hoofdrol. Maar specifieke stadsproblemen als zomerhitte en wateroverlast na stortbuien doen zich vooral voor in volgebouwde binnensteden. En daar is de ruimte op maaiveldniveau beperkt. Een mogelijke oplossing is dak- en gevelgroen. Werkt dat net zo goed?
Enquete positieflijst : leeuw als huisdier?
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
dierenwelzijn - leeuwen - huisdieren - gezelschapsdieren - behoeftenbepaling - zoogdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - animal welfare - lions - domestic animals - pets - needs assessment - mammals - animal housing - animal behaviour
Leeuwen stellen eisen aan hun omgeving. Zijn leeuwen geschikt als huisdier? Wageningen UR verzamelt in opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I informatie over zoogdieren om te kunnen bepalen of ze gemakkelijk of juist moeilijk als huisdier gehouden kunnen worden. Met die informatie wordt een zogenaamde positieflijst samengesteld. De overheid bepaald mede op basis van die positieflijst welke dieren gehouden mogen worden.
Enquete positieflijst : wrattenzwijn als huisdier?
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
dierenwelzijn - huisdieren - gezelschapsdieren - behoeftenbepaling - zoogdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - phacochoerus aethiopicus - animal welfare - domestic animals - pets - needs assessment - mammals - animal housing - animal behaviour
Wrattenzwijnen stellen eisen aan hun omgeving. Zijn wrattenzwijnen geschikt als huisdier? Wageningen UR verzamelt in opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I informatie over zoogdieren om te kunnen bepalen of ze gemakkelijk of juist moeilijk als huisdier gehouden kunnen worden. Met die informatie wordt een zogenaamde positieflijst samengesteld. De overheid bepaald mede op basis van die positieflijst welke dieren gehouden mogen worden.
Enquete positieflijst : wallabie als huisdier?
Livestock Research, - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research
dierenwelzijn - wallabies - huisdieren - gezelschapsdieren - behoeftenbepaling - zoogdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - animal welfare - domestic animals - pets - needs assessment - mammals - animal housing - animal behaviour
Wallabies stellen eisen aan hun omgeving. Zijn wallabies geschikt als huisdier? Wageningen UR verzamelt in opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I informatie over zoogdieren om te kunnen bepalen of ze gemakkelijk of juist moeilijk als huisdier gehouden kunnen worden. Met die informatie wordt een zogenaamde positieflijst samengesteld. De overheid bepaald mede op basis van die positieflijst welke dieren gehouden mogen worden.
Advisering voor vervolg positieflijst zoogdieren
Ipema, A.H. ; Koene, P. ; Mol, R.M. de - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 408) - 27
zoogdieren - diergedrag - behoeftenbepaling - dierenwelzijn - wetgeving - inventarisaties - Nederland - mammals - animal behaviour - needs assessment - animal welfare - legislation - inventories - Netherlands
This report describes a quick scan of the most important behavioral requirements of 100 mammal species, as a first step in the assessment procedure for admittance of this species to a list of species that are allowed to be kept legally.
De Groene Trekker: wensen van burgers voor de multifunctionele landbouw.
Caron-Flinterman, J.F. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Jong, D. de; Eijk, O.N.M. van; Ferwerda, R.T. ; Bremmer, B. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 415) - 34
relaties tussen stad en platteland - multifunctionele landbouw - doelgroepen - houding van consumenten - consumentenvoorkeuren - behoeftenbepaling - ondernemerschap - nevenactiviteiten - minderheden - etnische groepen - rural urban relations - multifunctional agriculture - target groups - consumer attitudes - consumer preferences - needs assessment - entrepreneurship - ancillary enterprises - minorities - ethnic groups
Dit rapport beschrijft de behoeften en wensen van burgers ten aanzien van de (multifunctionele) landbouw. Zowel een paar bestaande doelgroepen als twee potentieel kansrijke nieuwe doelgroepen voor de multifunctionele landbouw zijn benaderd.
De Groene Trekker: wensen van burgers en trekkracht van boeren
Caron-Flinterman, J.F. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Jong, D. de; Eijk, O.N.M. van; Ferwerda, R.T. ; Bremmer, B. - \ 2011
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nevenactiviteiten - multifunctionele landbouw - doelgroepen - houding van consumenten - consumentenvoorkeuren - behoeftenbepaling - minderheden - etnische groepen - farm management - ancillary enterprises - multifunctional agriculture - target groups - consumer attitudes - consumer preferences - needs assessment - minorities - ethnic groups
Het project ‘De Groene Trekker’ heeft als doel om nieuwe doelgroepen met de multifunctionele landbouw te verbinden. In marktverkenningen zijn twee bevolkingsgroepen als kansrijke nieuwe doelgroepen voor de multifunctionele landbouw geïdentificeerd. De groep jonge (20-30 jaar) carrièregerichte werkenden zonder kinderen; een interessante groep met een hoog bestedingspatroon en heldere eigen behoeften, die momenteel nog sterk op stedelijke diensten, producten en activiteiten is gericht. De tweede groep is de oudere allochtone Nederlander. Een in omvang toenemende groep met specifieke behoeften.
De Groene Trekker: Resultaten van de ontwerpfase
Caron-Flinterman, J.F. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Eijk, O.N.M. van; Jong, D. de - \ 2011
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 17
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nevenactiviteiten - ondernemerschap - multifunctionele landbouw - houding van consumenten - consumentenvoorkeuren - behoeftenbepaling - minderheden - etnische groepen - farm management - ancillary enterprises - entrepreneurship - multifunctional agriculture - consumer attitudes - consumer preferences - needs assessment - minorities - ethnic groups
Het project ‘De Groene Trekker’ heeft als doel om nieuwe doelgroepen met de multifunctionele landbouw te verbinden door nieuwe (combinaties van) producten en diensten voor de multifunctionele landbouw te ontwerpen die tegemoet komen aan de wensen en behoeften van die doelgroepen.
Systematiek voor het opstellen van de positieflijst voor zoogdieren
Ipema, A.H. ; Koene, P. ; Mol, R.M. de; Hopster, H. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 345) - 52
dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - risicoschatting - diergedrag - behoeftenbepaling - systeembenadering - zoogdieren - normen - animal husbandry - animal welfare - risk assessment - animal behaviour - needs assessment - systems approach - mammals - standards
Description of system for transparent assessment whether keeping an animal species in a certain normative surrounding is acceptable.
Vimeo De Groene Trekker
Jong, D. de - \ 2010
Wageningen : PPO AGV
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - multifunctionele landbouw - doelgroepen - minderheden - etnische groepen - nevenactiviteiten - behoeftenbepaling - consumentenvoorkeuren - video-opnames - farm management - multifunctional agriculture - target groups - minorities - ethnic groups - ancillary enterprises - needs assessment - consumer preferences - video recordings
De Groene Trekker is een project waarin we op zoek zijn naar nieuwe producten en diensten die de boer kan leveren. We brengen ondernemers en potentiële doelgroepen bij elkaar in ontwerpsessies. Op dit kanaal een impressie van de bijeenkomsten die plaats vinden in dit project. De Groene Trekker is onderdeel van het beleidsondersteunend onderzoeksprogramma 'Landbouw in zijn maatschappelijke omgeving'. Het wordt uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR en gefinancierd door het ministerie van EL&I.
Speelnatuur in de stad. Hoe maak je dat?
Bogaard, J. van den; Lobst, S. ; Schuster, M. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Borgharts, S. ; Custers, M.H.G. ; Haubenhofer, D.K. ; Odink, J. - \ 2009
Utrecht : Uitgeverij Jan van Arkel - ISBN 9789062244980 - 226
stedelijke gebieden - stadsomgeving - recreatiegebieden - speelterreinen - sociaal welzijn - jeugd - behoeftenbepaling - onderzoek - openbaar groen - urban areas - urban environment - amenity and recreation areas - playgrounds - social welfare - youth - needs assessment - research - public green areas
In Nederland verdwijnen groene speelplekken. Deze trend staat in schril contrast met de golf van aandacht die er nu voor is. Deze studie bundelt de kennis van Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum met de inzichten van de GGD Rotterdam-Rijnmond en combineren dit met de praktijk vanuit Natuurspeeltuin de Speeldernis. Het resultaat is een bijdrage om de uiteenvliedende krachten meer in balans te brengen; om groene, natuurlijke speelplaatsen in de stad meer vanzelfsprekend te laten worden
Als je het de koe vraagt... : de 14 behoeften van de lacterende melkkoe
Cornelissen, J.M.R. ; Ursinus, W.W. ; Schepers, F. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van - \ 2009
melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - behoeftenbepaling - dairy farming - dairy cows - animal behaviour - animal welfare - needs assessment
Deze poster is onderdeel van het project Kracht van Koeien en laat zien wat de wensen van de melkkoe zijn; deze zijn gebaseerd op de 14 behoeften van de melkkoe. Hierbij gaat men er vanuit dat het welzijn van de koe gewaarborgd is als in al deze behoeften wordt voorzien
Welzijnsmonitoring van twee groepshuisvestingssystemen voor witvleeskalveren met behulp van de TGI-200
Bokkers, E.A.M. - \ 2005
wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9067549746 - 13
vleeskalveren - huisvesting van kalveren - groepsgrootte - dierenwelzijn - meting - monitoring - behoeftenbepaling - groepshuisvesting - dierenbescherming - veal calves - calf housing - group size - animal welfare - measurement - needs assessment - group housing - animal protection
Denken en doen in dialoog : een methode voor behoeftenarticulatie en ontwikkeling
Heymann, F.V. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; G. van der Laan. - S.l. : [s.n.] - ISBN 9789058080578 - 256
behoeftenbepaling - psychologische behoeften - basisbehoeften - sociaal milieu - menselijk gedrag - ontwikkelingspsychologie - needs assessment - psychological needs - basic needs - social environment - human behaviour - developmental psychology

This thesis is about the articulation of needs and human development.

Need articulation is a concept with double meaning. On the one hand it refers to a specific need-pattern of a person as the result of a developmental psychological process. On the other hand it refers to the way in which a person succeeds - sometimes with the help of professional intervention - in modelling his needs in a new way. The concept of need articulation is a theoretical construction, referring to the intra-psychological as well as to the relationship between the intra-psychological and the social and cultural environment. The concept, in practice, can be found under a series of different denominations, such as orientation, problem clarification, intake or need research. The background for this research were, amongst others, questions, which in practice are described as: 'how to reach target groups more effectively' and 'how to suit services better to the needs of clients'.

The objective of this study is to theoretically clarify the concept of need articulation and to contribute to a methodological framework, which can be used to support the process of need articulation in practice.

The problem definition of this research is subdivided in two questions.

how can one understand the process of need articulation in human change?how can one transform the insights on need articulation into a methodological framework for professionals, including conditions for change?

The process of need articulation is researched from two specific angles:

the influence of the social, historical and cultural relations; individual and collective experiences have great influence;specific value-orientations, which arrive from the above mentioned point; the 'self' and 'the other' (the world) are perceived through different perspectives. These value-orientations influence the possibilities for need articulation.

Because of these viewpoints much attention is given to the specific way the dominant worldview influences this process of need articulation. One can see this influence very clearly in three areas:

the economising of social life and professional practices;the role of modern sciences;the pressure on people to act as 'autonomous subjects'.

The design of this research was open-ended, with much emphasis on case-studies in connection with theoretical analysis.

In the introduction and chapter 1 the problem definition is described, based upon an analysis of both theory and practice.

Chapter 2 will account for the research method and its exploratory character. Gradually this research developed, based on insights from literature and a series of case study results. A variety of qualitative research methods was used, such as (narrative) interviews and participatory observations. Two premises have been playing an important role in this research. The first premise is that experiences of people give insight into their reality. It is only possible to really understand people if one looks at the way they give meaning to their experiences. The second premise is that the perspectives that colour peoples views are important sources of knowledge as well. People always share their world with others. For this reason it is necessary to gain insight into the way in which interactions take place and to understand the significance these interactions have for the participating actors.

Chapters 3, 4 and 5 are the heart of this thesis.

In chapter 3 the problem of need articulation is further examined in the context of modern society and the dominant world view. The first part of this chapter describes an analytical framework, which is then used to clarify the problem. Need articulation is not possible without a dialogue, which in its turn requires active participation of clients. In Habermassian words: dialogue means communicative action. However, this participation is problematic and becomes quite often merely strategic action because of the way the modern world-view influences professionals as well as clients.

The three assumptions of the modern world-view, which have been named above, have consequences for the possibilities of need articulation. In order to demonstrate this, the analysis has been applied to extension and extension science. Both theory and practice are used to show how planning models, target group analysis and different methods are influenced by the assumptions of the dominant world-view.

In the final part of this chapter the outlines of a different approach are sketched. The starting points of the new approach, called a dialogue through deconstruction, are in line with the current critical debate in the social sector. The concept of 'normative professionalism' is the crux of this movement for innovation.

The approach aims to bring forward dialogue. In essence this only can be achieved by deconstructing the assumptions which professionals and clients hold. This means: to abolish the supposed neutrality of professionals; to let go of the idea that processes of change can be completely controlled; and to anchor active participation of clients by systematically exploring the inner- and outer perspectives of all parties involved.

In chapter 4 an additional theoretical analysis for this dialogue through deconstruction follows. In part 1 the attention goes to human development and how need articulation is taking place. Needs are sometimes not modelled, but kept away. Also the phenomenon that need articulation of a person is 'coloured' by the dominant value-patterns of his social environment is described. Human development is the result of the interaction between the public domain and the private domain.

Part two of this chapter will focus on the possibilities and conditions of human change. The concepts of 'zone of nearest development' and 'creative process' are at the core of this focus. The zone of nearest development shows how step-by-step change in need articulation can be understood. The creative process shows how every zone can be modelled in such a way that the process leads, step-by-step, to new need articulation.

In chapter 5 a framework is described to discern, understand, monitor and support processes of need articulation in practice. With the aid of a variety of research material, derived from practical studies, the method is presented. Part 1 provides the general principles and the wide range of possible applications. With this method it becomes possible to reach target groups better and to support professionals to bring their services better in line with the needs of clients. Also, the method can help to improve the participation of target groups and bridge gaps between groups: in other words, the method is also important for inter-cultural communication.

Two general principles are worked out, firstly the iterative and cyclic character of the method and secondly the principle of 'working with continuities'. The iterative character means that the target group analysis is performed through several cycles of analysis ánd experimenting. The second principle lies in working with continuities: the premise that the analysis and experimenting takes for granted the existence of different value-orientations, which can go together. The consequences of these principles are explained through a changed perspective on the concepts of target groups, goals and interventions. In part 2 the design and implementation of programmes are dealt with in more depth. The theory of chapter 4 and the different case-studies form the base-material. Activities are analysed on form and content. Finally, possibilities to improve participation are described.

Part 3 deals with the changed target group analysis. This analysis consists of two parts: an analysis of the needs of the target group and an analysis of the situation. This thesis shows that different methods are required for both parts. For the analysis of target group needs a narrative approach seems promising. For the situation analysis, in which the relationships between parties involved (including the professional) are explored, a network analysis based on deconstruction is suitable.

Chapter 6 shows two case-studies in more detail.

Finally, in chapter 7 , some conclusions are drawn. The essence is that the method of dialogue through deconstruction can help to really bring forward conditions for participation.

However, this is only possible if the professional:

is willing to leave standard solutions;is able to systematically reflect upon his or her own assumptions;is able to give priority to the real opportunities for action of clients;is prepared to intervene through 'positive coercion', which means that every intervention is approved by clients.
"New" seed in "old" China : impact of CIMMYT Collaborative Programme on maize breeding in South-Western China
Song, Y. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; P. Richards. - S.l. : Song - ISBN 9789054859680 - 250
veredelingsprogramma's - voorlichting - boeren - behoeftenbepaling - technologieoverdracht - participatie - inheemse kennis - kennis - systemen - china - breeding programmes - extension - farmers - needs assessment - technology transfer - participation - indigenous knowledge - knowledge - systems
<p>China is the most populated country with the most limited amount of arable land per head of the population in the world. Development and distribution of modern varieties of the three staples, rice, wheat and maize, to insure national food security, have been the core tasks and first priority of its public research and extension systems since the early 1960s. This approach has been very successful resulting from the public effort and the initiatives and incentives of farmers. However, since the beginning of 1980s, China has begun to reform its economic and institutional systems and is experiencing a socio-economic transition period, from a planned economy towards a more market-oriented economy.</p><p>New policies have been introduced and great changes have occurred in the social and economic context over the past 15 years. The changes that directly relate to agricultural innovation and food production are two important ones; rural reform started at the end of 1970s and commercialization of the public research and extension systems in the 1990s. As a result, more subsequent changes are emerging in the agricultural structure, the division of labour in the rural areas, and in the research orientation and incentives of public research and extension institutions. How to ensure food security, at both the national and farmers' household levels, through technology development and diffusion under the current circumstances in China becomes the main concern of this study.</p><p>This book focuses on the impact of agricultural technology and relevant key factors in food security. It uses a social constructivist perspective, not only in assessing the impact of technology, but also in tracing the whole process of technology development and diffusion as a social construction. The Collaborative Programme between CIMMYT and Chinese NARS on Maize Breeding in South-western China which started at the end of 1970s and which paralleled the reforms and experienced the changes, serves as an unique case for conducting a comprehensive assessment and analysis. It is expected that the impact study of the Programme will generate valuable insights into the future options and prospects for China's agricultural research and extension systems and highlight the emerging issues of food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable agricultural development in China.</p><p><strong>The main objectives of the study are:<br/><OL><LI>to evaluate the impact of CIMMYT derived technologies in terms of their adoption by farmers (yield, surface, type of technology adopted). This includes farmers' assessment of the technologies, the way they apply them, their sources of information, their access to inputs, and the market of the produce at the local level.<LI>to study how the technologies were developed, the institutional contexts within which this happened, the objectives and perspectives of the scientists and officials involved. The focus of this part of the study is on the analysis of the principal institutional and organisational factors influencing the design, development and diffusion of the technologies.<LI>to identify the actors in the networks involved in the process of agricultural technology development and diffusion and examine ways for better linkage, integration and interaction between IARCs, NARS and the farmers' informal system, between formal science and indigenous science, and to find ways to tie into farmers' indigenous livelihood processes.</OL></p><p>Multiple perspectives and indicators have been adopted and used in a comprehensive and complementary way to study the impact of CIMMYT-related technology at both the macro and micro-levels, in terms of the general increase in yields and coverage at the provincial levels and the farmers' responses and strategies with respect to the technology at the household level. Subsequently, the institutional context for technology development and distribution, as well as the farmers' indigenous knowledge development practices are analysed and reflected upon from a perspective influenced by the literature on the social construction of technology in order to reveal the processes through which technology and innovation are shaped by social action.</p><p>Empirically the study is designed into three major phases, i.e., exploratory, qualitative and quantitative. After the exploratory study at macro level, two distinct production environments, a relatively favourable area and a resource-poor and unfavourable area, are selected for an in-depth comparative case study using both qualitative and quantitative methods to address the emerging issues at the micro-level. The qualitative study is conducted through an in-depth investigation and participatory observation of farmers' responses and strategies towards the technology in the two contrasting farming systems. The quantitative study is carried out through a formal questionnaire survey of 200 farmers selected randomly from the two distinct case study areas. The research results of the three phases of field research were cross-checked with data and evidence obtained through different research methods.</p><p><strong>The main empirical and theoretical findings of the research are:<br/><UL><LI>The macro-level impact of the Programme in the three South-western provinces, made visible by mainly by government's statistics, As denoted above, generally speaking, is large with respect to the total release of MVs, their wide adoption, and the increment in maize production and productivity in the last 15 years.</UL></p><p>Further in-depth study revealed the large variation between regions and differentiation among farmers, in terms of gender, in adapting to the MVs, which mainly resulted from the changes which emerged after the recent reforms. With a single-minded purpose to increase productivity so as to ensure national food security, and driven by market incentives, most public efforts went into the development and diffusion of uniform high yielding MVs, especially single-cross F1 hybrids. As a result, regional variation and user differentiation, in terms of gender, are largely neglected in the technology design, development and distribution process by the formal knowledge system. This has generated differential impacts among rural people, by environment and by gender, at micro-level.</p><p><UL><LI>Feminisationalization of agriculture has become a common phenomenon in the research area as a result of male-migration. In both favoured and difficult maize farming systems, women are playing a dominant role in food production and are fully responsible for post-harvest operations, seed selection and storage, and food processing activities. In most cases, women are seed selectors and plant breeders. However, women's significant role is not recognised and their specific needs, interests, and expertise are largely neglected in the technology design, development and diffusion process. As a result of productivity driven and gender-biased policies, the women farmers, who are overloaded by their multiple roles, are struggling to sustain the food security of their households and the state in the face of enormous constraints and difficulties. Under such circumstances new technologies have generated costs as well as benefits for rural women, especially these in poor marginal areas.<LI>There exists a large gap between farmers' heterogeneous needs and interests determined by their variable farming systems and livelihoods and the breeders' single minded pursuit of, and interest in, yield. This is especially true for poor farmers, mainly women, cultivating in harsh farming systems in remote marginal areas. However women farmers were making efforts to meet their own needs with their indigenous knowledge and through their own informal system.<LI>The real causes for the failure of the formal breeding programme to address the variation of farming systems and to respond to the heterogeneous needs of farmers in marginal areas are institutional rather than technical. Theoretically, from a constructivist point of view, the research revealed that three major constructions of the knowledge networks can be distinguished with respect to the technology development and distribution efforts of the Programme: Each is shaped by different social forces and contexts in different historical periods and each operates at different levels.</UL></p><p>Confronting the emerging challenges of the new social context, a more flexible institutional framework and comprehensive approach is needed to integrate more complex, varied perspectives in order to manoeuvre among the different policy goals, i.e., productivity, sustainability, equity and stability, based on a more adaptive, rather than a controlling, strategy. Recommendations have been made for the improvement of the Programme in particular and for the public agricultural knowledge system in general.</p><OL><LI>A combination of the present modern technology-oriented approach and participatory approaches to involve farmers, mainly women, and their indigenous knowledge, and traditional farming practices, seems realistic and necessary to deal with the emerging issues. The combination of the approaches leads towards a more flexible, diverse, and sustainable approach, allowing agriculture to take account of the heterogeneous needs of farmers, especially the specific needs and interests of women farmers and the basic dynamics of the agro-ecosystem. Only so could it be possible to change from agricultural management targeted only at productivity to more responsive and adaptive management for sustainable agricultural development.<LI>Decentralisation of the formal systems and involvement of farmers in the technology design and development process is necessary and essential to stimulate collaboration between the two systems. The informal sector needs to know more about the complex ways of biotechnology, while the formal system need to know more about the complexity of poor farmers' farming system and their livelihoods. For instance, the importance of farmers' knowledge of landraces and their understanding of the micro-variations in the environment could become the basis for local level breeding or location-specific breeding. Through farmers' participation and cooperation, breeders can gain new insight in criteria, objectives, or evaluation techniques of farmers and the differentiation between regions and types of farmers (in terms of gender). As a result, appropriate varieties within a wide range of options can be produced to meet the heterogeneous needs resulting from regional variation and user differentiation.</OL>
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