Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation
Shao, Qianqian - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Maarten Punt; Dusan Drabik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430500 - 200
agricultural trade - genetically engineered foods - food biotechnology - political economy - food products - agricultural production - agricultural products - food technology - food policy - food security - agrarische handel - genetisch gemanipuleerde voedingsmiddelen - voedselbiotechnologie - politieke economie - voedselproducten - landbouwproductie - landbouwproducten - voedseltechnologie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid

Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (GM) food crops, and forest conservation policy.

The relationship between GM food technology and food supply is a dilemma for policymakers in many countries. Theoretical and empirical studies show that GM food technology helps increase crop yields, reduces pesticide and fertilizer use, and generates economic, environmental, and health benefits. However, many consumers are concerned about the potential risks from using the technology and treat GM and non-GM food products as different products. The differences in public attitude towards GM food technology influence GM food policy-making. Many scientists believe that the public attitude is not purely based on scientific evidence, but is influenced by different interest groups. The two major interest groups involved in the GM food policy debate can be clustered into the GM food-supporting and non-GM food-supporting groups, depending on their attitude towards the GM food technology.

The GM food group points to the high yields, environmental benefits, and potential for sustainable agricultural production. The non-GM food group, however, emphasizes the unconfirmed potential risks of genetic modification to human health and the environment. There are two major GM food policy regimes: the EU Member States have very strict GM food regulations, whereas the US has relatively lenient GM food policy regulations with respect to cultivation and imports. A stricter GM food policy would generate high welfare costs to countries that face food security issues, and possibly reduce a country's food self-sufficiency. Also, different GM food policy regulations give rise to different national standards, differentiate agricultural trade markets, and result in trade disputes.

Environmental policy regulates economic activity. To balance economic interests and environmental benefits, conservation policy is often needed for the protection of natural resources. Forests as a renewable resource provide both economic and environmental benefits. Forest conservation policy often requires governments to settle the trade-off between interests of the timber industry and the environmental benefit of maintaining parts of the forests. Political conflicts may exist between a profit-maximizing timber industry lobby and an environmental lobby. An industry-biased conservation policy could cause faster exploitation of this domestic resource, while a stricter protection of the resource could result in profit reduction for the timber industry, but increase environmental benefits.

I discuss the relationships between food security and GM food policy regulations in Chapter 2. I develop a standard political economy model of GM food policy regulations and model GM food policy as the outcome of a GM-versus-non-GM food lobbying game. I find that stricter GM food policy has negative effects on three aspects of food security: availability, access, and utilization. Politically determined GM food policy has a negative effect on the food security situation if lobbying is costly. I also discuss the situation in which the policymaker weighs the GM food and non-GM food lobbies’ contributions differently, depending on whether the food security target has been reached or not. The GM food lobby becomes more efficient in the political game than the non-GM food group when the country commits itself to improving its food security. If the non-GM food lobby is large and strong, it will make high lobbying contributions for stricter GM food policy, even when the country is food-insecure.

Chapter 3 studies the relationship between politically determined GM food policy and domestic food self-sufficiency. I first develop a theoretical model of a small-open economy and investigate the GM food policy. The government maximizes its own payoff, which is the weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. I take maize production in South Africa as an example for illustrating the politically influenced self-sufficiency rate. I find that the food self-sufficiency rate will decrease with an increase in GM food policy regulation cost. I also specify the mechanism of policy change in this small open economy case. I include changes in the lobby groups' sizes in the model, and assess the effect on food self-sufficiency. In the case of a large non-GM food group, the government payoff does not monotonically decrease when the government weighs social welfare at a low level in the political process. The GM food policy can be strict in this case. In addition, the food self-sufficiency rate can be high when a large non-GM food group is present and the government places a low weight on social welfare. Most importantly, this case demonstrates that the food self-sufficiency rate is not always a good indicator of food availability. In some cases, the food self-sufficiency rate can increase, while food availability may decrease.

In Chapter 4, given the two different GM food policy regimes and in light of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, I discuss a bilateral negotiation regarding GM food trade policies. Two countries pursue an increase in trade volume for both GM and non-GM food products. With a high GM food non-tariff barrier (NTB) on the foreign GM food imports and a relatively high non-GM food NTB in the foreign country, I find that the Nash bargaining solution lies between the two countries’ optimal unilateral stances for a successful negotiation. Simulation results show that the foreign country would not like to reduce much of its non-GM food NTB in the negotiation. The level of the non-GM food NTB only influences the absolute payoffs of the domestic and foreign governments, but not the negotiation results. The outcome of the negotiation only depends on the level of GM food NTB reduction in the domestic country.

In Chapter 5, I discuss the effects of international trade on forest conservation and welfare in a two-country model with an industry-biased policymaker and Cournot-competing firms. I find that opening to trade increases the harvest taxes compared to the taxes under autarky. The tax increase is large enough to decrease the production levels, which increases the conservation level. In addition, the numerical simulation illustrates that the industry bias parameter monotonically decreases the output and increases the welfare gains from trade. As a result, industry-biased policymaking does not necessarily have to increase the environmental costs when opening to trade.

Three main conclusions can be drawn from this thesis. First, strict biotechnology regulations decrease the level of global food security, especially in developing countries. Second, in the GM food trade negotiations, the country that has high trade barriers has to make concessions for a successful trade agreement. Third, second-best conservation policies can still protect the environment in an open economy. This thesis does not provide solutions to either the GM-versus-non-GM or the environmental-versus-trade debates. It does, however, offer some insights into the politically determined GM food and conservation policy-making and the impact of lobbying.

Een circulair voedselsysteem is méér dan sluiten van kringlopen
Dagevos, H. - \ 2016
Voeding blog Wageningen University & Research
beleid inzake voedsel - economische ontwikkeling - voedselproductie - kringlopen - hulpbronnenbeheer - duurzame ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - food policy - economic development - food production - cycling - resource management - sustainable development - agro-industrial chains
Een circulaire economie draait, kortweg, om het sluiten van kringlopen, en kent vooral milieutechnologische en logistieke benaderingen als kennispijlers. Maar een circulaire economie heeft evenzeer een sociaaleconomische invulling nodig. Hoe populair het tegenwoordig ook is in de beleids- en onderzoekswereld om voorstander te zijn van de circulaire economie, de vorming ervan vereist een fundamentele omslag. Attentie mag er daarom zijn om de animo waarmee vandaag de dag de noodzaak van een circulair voedselsysteem wordt bepleit te verbinden aan de animo waarmee werk wordt gemaakt van de condities waaronder deze transitie kan gedijen.
Putting food on the table : the European Union governance of the wicked problem of food security
Candel, J.J.L. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Gerard Breeman; Robbert Biesbroek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576841 - 280 p.
food security - european union - governance - agricultural policy - agricultural development - food policy - policy - policy evaluation - voedselzekerheid - europese unie - landbouwbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - beleid inzake voedsel - beleid - beleidsevaluatie
Potential impacts on sub-Saharan Africa of reducing food loss and waste in the European Union : A focus on food prices and price transmission effects
Rutten, M.M. ; Mhlanga, Nomathemba - \ 2015
FAO - ISBN 9789251090282 - 64 p.
food consumption - food policy - food wastes - food prices - africa - europe - european union - voedselconsumptie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselafval - voedselprijzen - afrika - europa - europese unie
This paper investigates, by means of scenario analyses, how reductions in food loss and waste in the European Union (EU) could influence prices in sub-Saharan Africa – as a source and destination of traded agricultural and food products. Four 50 percent reduction scenarios are enacted, using the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), in addition to a baseline “business as usual” (BaU) scenario. The analysis provides insights on potential impacts in terms of medium- to long-term global and local price changes in sub-Saharan Africa and the mechanisms behind them (changes in production, consumption and trade patterns). It also provides insights in terms of potential welfare impacts.
Developing the Rotterdam City Region Food System: acting and thinking at the same time
Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2015)29. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 14 - 17.
regional food chains - food supply - urban development - rotterdam - urban agriculture - supply chain management - food policy - regionale voedselketens - voedselvoorziening - stadsontwikkeling - stadslandbouw - ketenmanagement - beleid inzake voedsel
The city region of Rotterdam is located in the western part of the Netherlands, bordering the North Sea. It contains the municipality of Rotterdam and several neighbouring municipalities, with about 1.2 million inhabitants. Rotterdam hosts Europe’s largest sea port as well as a large (inland-oriented) river port. Shipped through the ports into Europe (by barge, rail or lorry) are goods including food (e.g., exotic fruits and vegetables, juices, rapeseed and palm oil) and feed products (soybeans, grains, tapioca).
Food for thought : BOGO-ondersteuning CoE Food – Voeding en gezondheid
Dagevos, H. ; Bakker, H.C.M. de - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 27
onderwijs - beleid inzake voedsel - lesmaterialen - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bedrijfsvoering - voeding en gezondheid - voedsel - education - food policy - teaching materials - corporate social responsibility - management - nutrition and health - food
Het Centre of Expertise Food uit verschillende kennisbehoeften in de projectaanvraag 2015 die is gedaan in het kader van kennisverspreiding BOonderzoek (DLO) - groen onderwijs (BOGO). Het onderstaande gaat in op een tweetal van deze kennisbehoeften. De eerste betreft de brede behoefte in het hoger onderwijs om de actualiteit van het WRR-rapport Naar een voedselbeleid in te bedden in lesmateriaal. Deel 1 focust op de visie op voedsel zoals die vanuit de WRR is gepresenteerd. De concentratie ligt op waar het de WRR om te doen is. De tweede betreft de kennisbehoefte op het gebied van sociaal ondernemen. Modern ondernemerschap, ook in het agrocomplex, vraagt behalve om aandacht voor de P van profit ook om de P’s van people en planet. Dit betekent dat niet alleen het eigen bedrijfsbelang belangrijk wordt gevonden, maar ook dat de belangen van de sociale en natuurlijke omgeving bij de bedrijfsvoering worden betrokken en erdoor gediend worden. De uitwerking die hieronder aan beide delen is gegeven, bedoelt een basis te leggen voor verdere afstemming met kennisvragers over hun behoeften en wensen betreffende verdere doorwerking ten behoeve van het onderwijs.
Quick scan voedselfraude in Nederland; Wie verzamelt welke data? Welk onderzoek is er? Wat zijn de cijfers? Wat zijn mogelijke kennislacunes?
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Benninga, J. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI VR14-126) - 32
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselinspectie - voedselproducten - gegevens verzamelen - inventarisaties - nederland - beleid inzake voedsel - food safety - food quality - food inspection - food products - data collection - inventories - netherlands - food policy
In Nederland is er geen database gevonden, die specifiek is ontwikkeld voor incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland. De NVWA en het bedrijfsleven vielen buiten de scope van dit onderzoek. Onderzoeken naar voedselfraude betreffen voornamelijk de ontwikkeling van een specifieke (analytische) detectiemethode voor specifieke producten. Incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland opgenomen in het Europese Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of beschreven in dagbladen en vaktijdschriften betreffen vooral vlees(producten), vis(producten), veevoer en eieren. De fraude betreft toevoeging, verdunning of vervanging met goedkoop vreemd productmateriaal, of frauduleuze declaratie van het productie (management) systeem of van het productie proces. Geïdentificeerde lacunes in kennis betreffen risicofactoren voor voedselfraude, geschiktheid van (analytische) methoden voor de detectie van verschillende typen voedselfraude bij verschillende product(groep)en, het juridisch handhavingskader, en een risico-gebaseerd controlesysteem specifiek gericht op voedselfraude.
Voedsel- en diervoederveiligheid van algenproducten : Verkenning van wet- en regelgeving voor voedselveilige productie van algen
Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 631) - 17
algenteelt - humane voeding - veevoeder - wetgeving - iso - erkende regelingen - voedselveiligheid - certificering - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voederveiligheid - algae culture - human feeding - fodder - legislation - approval schemes - food safety - certification - food policy - food industry - food legislation - nutrition labeling - novel foods - feed safety
Het telen van algen als voedsel of diervoeder brengt, net als bij andere voedselproducten, eisen voor voedselveiligheid met zich mee.
Impact of context on food safety management systems in fresh produce chains
Kirezieva, K.K. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning; L. Jacxsens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572591 - 244
voedselveiligheid - klimaatverandering - effecten - beleid inzake voedsel - ketenmanagement - verse producten - food safety - climatic change - effects - food policy - supply chain management - fresh products


Background and aim

This research was a part of a project of the European Commission called VEG-i-TRADE, aimed at identifying possible impacts of climate change and globalisation on safety of fresh produce. VEG-i-TRADE formed a multidisciplinary team of scientists from different disciplines, representatives from the food industry and other stakeholders from the European Union and third party countries. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of context on status of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the fresh produce chain. Under context, we aimed to study the broad context in which companies operate, including food safety policy, supply chain, and climate that may directly and indirectly influence the actual set-up and operation of FSMS. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach was employed to link concepts from different fields, and to provide scientific evidence about the possible role of the systems in the broad context in setting and operating FSMS in companies. The scientific challenge was to employ an interdisciplinary approach and bridge the gap between disciplines such as food technology, quality management, political economy, and supply chain management. The approach that was used could also be defined as transdisciplinary, as it was problem-oriented and involved companies, sector organisations and academia, thus, relating stakeholders/problem owners and scientists.


Chapters 2 and 3 of this thesis describe the development of a diagnostic tool to assess the status of FSMS and riskiness of their company specific context. The tool allows assessment of the FSMS activities, FSMS output and context factors that affect decision-making in the FSMS (so called, FSMS context). The latter include product, production, organisation, and chain characteristics. The tool allows assessment that is independent from implemented legislation, guidelines, or standards. Moreover, the tool provides for mapping of FSMS and their context over supply chains, different countries, and sectors.

The diagnostic tool was applied in three case studies of leafy greens production regions in Belgium, Norway, and Spain (chapter 4). Moreover, a theoretical framework was developed to explore the broad context in which companies operate. The latter was defined as including the sub-systems of: food safety governance, agro-climatic, market and public policy environments. The companies operating in favourable broad context, including favourable climate, big companies in integrated market, and stringent standards as a result of market self-regulation, have demonstrated advanced FSMS, good information about the output and supporting organisational characteristics. The FSMS of the companies that were operating in less favourable broad context, either in fragmented market with small companies or in less favourable climate, have demonstrated less mature FSMS. As a conclusion, we postulate that the FSMS output is a function of the broad context in a country and sector, the FSMS context in a company, and implemented food safety management system.

Market and supply chain governance were further investigated in chapter 5, with a special focus on cooperatives. Case studies were performed in four cooperatives, with different supply chain governance of transactions. Results suggested that high vertical integration has a positive influence on FSMS. However, when cooperatives become too large and complex, horizontal collaboration decreases and may negatively influence FSMS.

Chapter 6 dove into the factors determining differences between companies operating under the European Union laws, and companies in emerging and developing countries exporting to the EU. Data analysis revealed that the main factor that was determining the differences between companies was not their location, but the availability of information, expertise, and collaboration within the supply chain, which was linked to the increased integration of supply chains triggered by the stringent requirements of private standards. Another important factor was linked to the support by sector organisations and NGOs for small and medium companies, in cases when supply chains are less integrated and only national standards or GlobalGAP are followed. The companies with lowest scores of their FSMS were linked to lack of support in supply chain or country, and no standards or guidelines implemented. These companies were only small ones located in developing and emerging countries.

The pressures of climate change on safety management in fresh produce farms were explored in a Delphi study (chapter 7). The experts were from countries in the global North - with industrialized food systems, and in the global South - with structured and traditional food systems. The identified pressures were linked to contamination of water resources and production environment with microorganisms, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and heavy metals. Response strategies were defined for each pressure, including coping strategies immediately after a pressure occurs, and adaptation strategies to increase adaptive capacity. The insights from the study revealed that a first response to climate change will be realised by the FSMS activities implemented in companies. The experts stressed the need to strengthen some of the activities, and validate their effectiveness for the changed circumstances. Likelihood of the most pressures was assessed as higher for the countries from the global south, which was explained by existing adaptations in the global north. It was proposed that the adaptive and coping capacities of companies, regions and sectors are determined by the currently available adaptation and coping strategies.

The role of the broad context for the food safety management research and practice is discussed in chapter 8. It is highlighted that systemic risks can occur at the junction between different social, political and natural systems, and they need to be taken into account in the overall food safety governance. Systems thinking approaches are advocated to explain the relationships between systems and their synergic effects.


The research described in this thesis demonstrated that FSMS are influenced not only by the narrow FSMS context of a company, with its product, production, organisation, and chain, but also by the broad context in a country and sector. The broad context involves the agro-climatic, market and public policy environments that can affect the overall food safety governance. Food safety governance includes different public, private or hybrid organisations aimed at enforcing standards and guidelines into companies’ specific FSMS.

Market and particularly supply chain integration play an important role for capacity building and maturation of the FSMS. The highest degrees of integration are driven by private interests imposed by private (brand) standards, and result in advanced FSMS. Baseline standards putting minimum requirements from a public health perspective result in basic FSMS, not adapted, and tested for own production circumstances. Vertical integration in the supply chain is particularly important in developing and emerging economies, where institutional environments are sometimes weaker – struggling with the set-up and enforcement of legislation, lacking produce, and sector organisations to support farmers. In developed economies in the European Union, cooperatives play an important role to support farmers. However, their vertical expansion may have negative impact on FSMS possibly related to loss of social capital and members’ motivation.

Last but not least, FSMS need to continuously evolve and adapt to new pressures like the ones triggered by climate change. However, this is not always within the capabilities of a single farm or company, and the adaptive capacity dependents on the other systems in the broad context of the countries and sectors.

Global Food Security Governance: Civil Society Engagement in the Reformed Committee on World Food Security
Duncan, J.A.B. - \ 2015
Abingdon, Oxon : Earthscan (Routledge Studies in Food, Society and the Environment ) - ISBN 9781138802520 - 246
food security - international cooperation - food policy - food and agriculture organization - un - voedselzekerheid - internationale samenwerking - beleid inzake voedsel - voedsel- en landbouworganisatie - vn
In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a series of reforms with the aim of becoming the foremost international, inclusive and intergovernmental platform for food security. Central to the reform was the inclusion of participants (including civil society and the private sector) across all activities of the Committee. Drawing on data collected from policy documents, interviews and participant observation, this book examines the re-organization and functioning of a UN Committee that is coming to be known as a best practice in global governance. Framed by key challenges that plague global governance, the impact and implication of increased civil society engagement are examined by tracing policy negotiations within the CFS, in particular, policy roundtables on smallholder sensitive investment and food price volatility and negotiations on the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security, and the Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition. The author shows that through their participation in the Committee, civil society actors are influencing policy outcomes. Yet analysis also reveals that the CFS is being undermined by other actors seeking to gain and maintain influence at the global level. By way of this analysis, this book provides empirically-informed insights into increased participation in global governance processes.
Effective stakeholder involvement in agri-food governance and policy development
Wentholt, M.T.A. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Lynn Frewer, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer; G. Rowe. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461731234 - 196
beleid inzake voedsel - landbouwbeleid - voedsel - governance - beleid - risico - stakeholders - deskundigen - landbouw - delphimethode - food policy - agricultural policy - food - policy - risk - experts - agriculture - delphi method
The aim of this thesis is to develop insight into optimal expert involvement practice within the agri-food governance and policy making domain. Following a systematic review of the published literature, it was determined that Delphi methodology appeared to be appropriate to elicit expert opinion and gather evidence in the complex policy domain associated with risk, food and agriculture. To this end, three Delphi studies in agri-food policy development were conducted.
Een wijde blik verruimt het denken : duurzaam voedsel produceren en consumeren in een breed kader
Dagevos, H. ; Schans, J.W. van der; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Smits, M.J.W. ; Broek, E.M.F. van den - \ 2014
LEI Wageningen UR - 75
voedsel - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselproductie - leerplan - didactiek - leren - lerarenopleiding - food - food policy - food production - curriculum - didactics - learning - teacher training
Het uitgangspunt voor dit document is de doelgroep docenten, die deze materie wil introduceren aan met name derdejaars studenten van alle deelopleidingen (dierlijk, plantaardig, food en landschap). Het overkoepelende leerdoel is om de door studenten zelf ontwikkelde verwachtingen en denkkaders op te rekken en te verruimen. De opleidingen willen, gezien de complexiteit en dynamiek van het voedselsysteem, studenten uitdagen hun denkkaders te verbreden, kennis te nemen van alternatieve zienswijzen, zonder die meteen aan de kant te zetten of te veroordelen. Het doel is niet de spanningen tussen de verschillende denkkaders te onderschatten of weg te redeneren, maar veeleer die spanningen te zien als uitdaging, als bron van creativiteit.
Regionaal voedsel in Arnhem : naar meer regionaal voedsel in Arnhem
Schans, J.W. van der; Klein Gebbink, S.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 303) - ISBN 9789461738745 - 62
voedselvoorziening - regionale voedselketens - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselproductie - gelderland - streekgebonden producten - stedelijke gebieden - food supply - regional food chains - food policy - food production - regional specialty products - urban areas
In dit rapport staat de vraag centraal hoe de voedselvoorziening van Arnhem en omgeving momenteel georganiseerd is en hoe het aandeel regionaal voedsel kan worden vergroot. Wat is het huidige gebruik van regionaal voedsel, hoe kunnen we dat veranderen en waarom eigenlijk?
EU-beleid voor landbouw, voedsel en groen : van politiek naar praktijk, 4e herz. dr.
Meester, G. ; Berkhout, P. ; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862306 - 397
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarische planning - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - natuurbescherming - milieubescherming - milieubeleid - milieuwetgeving - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - internationale handel - wereldhandelsorganisatie - europese unie - cap - agricultural policy - agricultural planning - food policy - food security - food legislation - nature conservation - environmental protection - environmental policy - environmental legislation - sustainability - international trade - world trade organization - european union
In de zomer van 2013 werd in de Europese Unie tussen Commissie, Raad en Parlement overeenstemming bereikt over het Meerjarig Financieel Kader, het gemeenschappelijk landbouw- en plattelandsbeleid en het structuur- en cohesiebeleid voor de periode 2014-2020. Dit boek geeft daarvan de meest actuele stand van zaken. Daarnaast is ook het EU-beleid voor voedsel, milieu, natuur, gezondheid van plant en dier, en dierenwelzijn volop in beweging. Tenslotte zijn er in de Europese en internationale samenleving ontwikkelingen gaande die van grote invloed zijn op het EU-beleid voor landbouw, voedsel en groen. Wat zijn daarin de hoofdelementen en hoe hangen deze samen? Wat zijn de overwegingen achter de beleidsmaatregelen en wat de gevolgen? Dit boek behandelt al deze aspecten, met bijzondere aandacht voor de uitwerking en toepassing van het EU-beleid in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Begonnen in de jaren vijftig met 6 lidstaten, telt de Europese Unie met de toetreding van Kroatië 28 lidstaten per 1 juli 2013. Mijlpalen in de integratie zijn, naast de vele toetredingen, de vorming van de interne markt, de introductie van de euro, de regelgeving voor bescherming van natuur en milieu, de algemene levensmiddelenverordening en in 2009 het van kracht worden van het Verdrag van Lissabon. Al deze ontwikkelingen hebben grote invloed, niet alleen op de besluitvorming in Brussel of in de nationale hoofdsteden, maar ook rechtstreeks op de Europese burger. Binnen landbouw, voedsel en groen is de aandacht steeds meer verschoven van het markt- en prijsbeleid naar inkomensbeleid, voedselveiligheid en ecologische duurzaamheid. Daarnaast is er door de veranderende verhoudingen op internationale markten, waaronder de hoge en sterk fluctuerende prijzen op wereldmarkten, veel meer aandacht dan in het verleden voor de externe aspecten van het EU-beleid, en de relatie tussen dit beleid en de wereldvoedselvoorziening. Al deze elementen en verbanden zijn door een groep deskundigen vanuit wetenschap, overheid en bedrijfsleven toegankelijk gemaakt voor een brede kring van belangstellenden. Het boek is bestemd voor studenten in het wetenschappelijk en beroepsonderwijs, maar ook voor medewerkers bij overheid, bedrijfsleven en organisaties die te maken hebben met landbouw, voedsel en groen op Europees niveau.
Rosbief Juridische kanttekeningen bij het paardenvleesschandaal Over de gedaantewisseling van een paard, voedselveiligheid en misleiding van de consument
Meulen, S.M.M. van der; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2013
Tijdschrift voor Agrarisch Recht 9 (2013). - ISSN 1874-9674 - p. 290 - 294.
vee- en vleesindustrie - vlees - vleessamenstelling - rundvlees - paardenvlees - voedselveiligheid - publiciteit - nadelige gevolgen - samenstelling - fair trade - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - beleid inzake voedsel - Nederland - meat and livestock industry - meat - meat composition - beef - horse meat - food safety - publicity - adverse effects - composition - food legislation - food policy - Netherlands
In november 2012 wordt tijdens een smaaktest van hamburgers in het consumentenprogramma Kassa kort aandacht besteed aan de samenstelling van de geteste hamburgers. Consumenten verwachten dat een hamburger in ieder geval grotendeels bestaat uit rundvlees. In een van de geteste burgers wordt naast rundvlees ook paardenvlees aangetroffen.
The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study
Wernaart, B.F.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series ) - ISBN 9789086867912 - 469
mensenrechten - voedselzekerheid - wettelijke rechten - internationaal recht - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - belgië - human rights - food security - legal rights - international law - government policy - food policy - food legislation - comparative research - netherlands - belgium
While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this right to be enjoyed by each individual. Through a legal comparative study, the enforceability of the right to food is compared between the Netherlands and Belgium in light of the current UN Human Rights system. There seems to be a difference between what the countries do, what they say they do, and what they should do on the matter. As it appears, the coincidental constitutional circumstances mainly determine the enforceability of the right to food, rather than the content of the human right in itself. This book includes a thorough analysis of suitable comparative legal methodology and the embedment of the right to food in the UN human right system. Furthermore, for both countries, an in-depth analysis of the case law on the right to food (mostly concerning the status of foreigners), the constitutional context in which the Judiciary operates, and the relevant UN reports and subsequent procedures are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made to both countries and the relevant UN Committees.
The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study
Wernaart, B.F.W. - \ 2013
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737182 - 483
mensenrechten - voedselzekerheid - wettelijke rechten - internationaal recht - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - belgië - human rights - food security - legal rights - international law - government policy - food policy - food legislation - comparative research - netherlands - belgium
While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this right to be enjoyed by each individual. Through a legal comparative study, the enforceability of the right to food is compared between the Netherlands and Belgium in light of the current UN Human Rights system. There seems to be a difference between what the countries do, what they say they do, and what they should do on the matter. As it appears, the coincidental constitutional circumstances mainly determine the enforceability of the right to food, rather than the content of the human right in itself. This book includes a thorough analysis of suitable comparative legal methodology and the embedment of the right to food in the UN human right system. Furthermore, for both countries, an in-depth analysis of the case law on the right to food (mostly concerning the status of foreigners), the constitutional context in which the Judiciary operates, and the relevant UN reports and subsequent procedures are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made to both countries and the relevant UN Committees.
Assessment framework and operational definitions for long-term scenarios
Laborde, D. ; Tokgoz, S. ; Shutes, L.J. ; Valin, H. - \ 2013
The Hague : FOODSECURE (Working paper 14) - 43
voedselzekerheid - beleid inzake voedsel - kwantitatieve analyse - simulatiemodellen - oplossingen - strategisch management - food security - food policy - quantitative analysis - simulation models - solutions - strategic management
To navigate among the long term challenges for global and national food security, policy makers cannot only rely on qualitative analysis. They also need quantitative tools to measure and rank the different issues that they will face and the policy responses that can be designed. FOODSECURE proposes state-of-the art simulation models that will give both researchers and policy makers the capacity to study these issues in a comprehensive framework. This paper is aimed at providing an overview of the different modeling solutions proposed in the FOODSECURE toolbox and defines a strategy for using the different models in a consistent manner. First, the different models are briefly described and compared. Next, we see how these models tackle key food security indicators and drivers and translate different assumptions about the future within their framework. We then discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different models to address different policy questions. Finally, we discuss how to combine these models and which optimal level of model integration should be used for analysis.
Land-use change, food security and climate change in Vietnam; A global-to-local modelling approach
Dijk, M. van; Hilderink, M. ; Rooij, H. van; Rutten, M.M. ; Ashton, R. ; Kartikasari, K. ; Lan, V.C. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156108 - 122
landgebruik - economische groei - economische ontwikkeling - voedselproductie - beleid inzake voedsel - klimaatverandering - voedselzekerheid - landbouw - rijst - vietnam - land use - economic growth - economic development - food production - food policy - climatic change - food security - agriculture - rice
Dutch business opportunities in the Russian agrifood sector; Animal protein sector and Moscow Metropolitan fresh food chain
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Valeeva, N.I. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI memorandum 13-018) - 87
voedselproductie - verse producten - voedselketens - dierlijke eiwitten - beleid inzake voedsel - handel - consumptie - bedrijven - rusland - nederland - kennis - food production - fresh products - food chains - animal proteins - food policy - trade - consumption - businesses - russia - netherlands - knowledge
This report studies the Russian animal protein sector and the Moscow Metropolitan Food Security. It aims at identifying the opportunities for Dutch business to do businesses through exports or via local investments. Public available government policies, papers and interviews with stakeholders are the information sources for this study. Russia has a population of 140m and a robust GDP growth. Doing business indicators indicate several deficiencies in the economic environment in the country, yet the outlook for agricultural development and food consumption patterns show ample business opportunities.
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