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Perceived risk and personality traits explaining heterogeneity in Dutch dairy farmers’ beliefs about vaccination against Bluetongue
Sok, J. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Risk Research 21 (2018)5. - ISSN 1366-9877 - p. 562 - 578.
beliefs - Bluetongue - perceived risk - personality traits - reasoned action approach - vaccination
When designing effective voluntary vaccination strategies against animal disease epidemics, policy-makers need to take into account that different groups of farmers base their participation decisions on different considerations. Using the past Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic of 2006–2009 in Europe as an example, this paper uses the Reasoned Action Approach to identify a set of attitudinal beliefs being the major drivers behind the intended decision to participate in voluntary vaccination. The results show that there is heterogeneity among farmers in these beliefs. In particular, perceived risk, which was captured by a risk attitude and a risk perception of the farmer, and personality traits are associated with variability in beliefs about vaccination against Bluetongue. The patterns found between perceived risk, personality traits and other farm and farmer characteristics were discussed in relation to the governance of animal health.
Student perceptions of assessment and student self-efficacy in competence-based education
Dinther, M. van; Dochy, F. ; Segers, M. ; Braeken, J. - \ 2014
Educational Studies 40 (2014)3. - ISSN 0305-5698 - p. 330 - 351.
beliefs - performance - framework - feedback - power
The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the interplay between student perceptions of competence-based assessment and student self-efficacy, and how this influences student learning outcomes. Results reveal that student perceptions of the form authenticity aspect and the quality feedback aspect of assessment do predict student self-efficacy, confirming the role of mastery experiences and social persuasions in enhancing student self-efficacy as stated by social cognitive theory. Findings do not confirm mastery experiences as being a stronger source of self-efficacy information than social persuasions. Study results confirm the predictive role of students' self-efficacy on their competence outcomes. Mediation analysis results indicate that student's perceptions of assessment have an indirect effect on student's competence evaluation outcomes through student's self-efficacy. Study findings highlight which assessment characteristics, positively influencing students' learning, contribute to the effectiveness of competence-based education. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are indicated.
Overly ambitious: contributions and current status of Q methodology
Kampen, J.K. ; Tamas, P.A. - \ 2014
Quality and quantity: international journal of methodology 48 (2014)6. - ISSN 0033-5177 - p. 3109 - 3126.
priorities - beliefs - women
This essay offers a small description of recent contributions and status of Q methodology by means of a review of suggested best practices, a systematic review of practice, and a methodological audit. Both theoretical and empirical study suggest that Q methodology neither delivers its promised insight into human subjectivity nor accounts adequately for threats to the validity of the claims it can legitimately make. These concerns in turn, render the method inappropriate for its declared purpose, the scientific study of subjectivity, and suspect for the full range of ontological perspectives, from (neo) positivist to constructivist.
Dialoog bevorderen tussen samenleving en wetenschap
Molder, H.F.M. te - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR
communicatie - wetenschap - kennis - overtuigingen - communication - science - knowledge - beliefs
Mensen kunnen ergens van overtuigd zijn zonder dat daar wetenschappelijk bewijs voor is. Hoogleraar Hedwig te Molder zegt daarover tegen wetenschappers: Luister naar de ideeën van deze mensen, neem ze serieus en ga de dialoog aan.
Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions
Vries, J.R. de - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Raoul Beunen; Anne Marike Lokhorst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571013 - 152
overtuigingen - governance - longitudinaal onderzoek - natuurbeleid - samenwerking - ruimtelijke ordening - overheid - groepen - contracten - organisatie - beliefs - longitudinal studies - nature conservation policy - cooperation - physical planning - public authorities - groups - contracts - organization
Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public policies. These governance approaches focus more and more on network governance and on organising more horizontal interactions. In these contexts, trust is seen as a means to control and manage relations. It is therefore surprising that empirical studies on trust are lacking. Consequently, little is known about how trust emerges and develops in governance processes. This thesis addresses this gap and focuses on the question: How does trust emerge and develop in governance interactions? In answering this question, I take a dynamic perspective on trust. Here, trust is seen as a positive expectation about an actor’s ways of doing. This perspective in particular takes into account the dynamics of governance interactions. In this thesis, I focus on the field of spatial planning, as one of the fields of governance. In planning processes, four aspects are important. First, planning processes consist of a series of interactions that are organised in a certain way and have specific characteristics. Second, in these interactions, various policy instruments are used to guide the process and work towards a collective objective. Third, these interactions take place between groups and their members. These groups have their own identity and related roles and rules that influence the planning process. Fourth, in these interactions, people express trust and distrust to support their ideas, collaboration, or preferred choice. In studying trust dynamics, I focus in the subsequent chapters on these four aspects and how they influence and are influenced by trust dynamics.
'A pond with crocodiles never dries up'. A frame analysis of human –crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin
Kpera, G.N. ; Aarts, N. ; Tossou, R.C. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Saïdou, A. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Sinsin, A.B. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 316 - 333.
conservation - beliefs - conversations - restoration - indicators - management
Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they use formal and informal institutions to deal with them. Respondents framed the presence of the crocodiles as problematic because of their negative effects on local livelihoods and people's tranquillity. Both causes and solutions are, however, framed differently in the three communities. Whereas in Nikki and Sakabansi, respondents seek solutions in changing the ecological environment, requiring others (the council, fishermen, and crocodiles) to change their behaviour, Fombawi respondents seek to adapt their own behaviour by respecting and applying traditional and practical rules for sharing their dam. Damage per crocodile is the highest in Nikki and the lowest in Fombawi, suggesting that the crocodiles in Nikki behave more aggressively than those in Fombawi. Further investigation is merited to determine whether or not crocodiles behave less aggressively when dealt with according to specific institutions. Intensive communication among stakeholders in the three villages is recommended to exchange experiences and ideas that may support a peaceful human–crocodile relationship inspired by existing institutional solutions.
Role of culturally protected forests in biodiversity conservation in Southeast China
Gao, H. ; Ouyang, Z.Y. ; Chen, S.B. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2013
Biodiversity and Conservation 22 (2013)2. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 531 - 544.
southwest china - plant diversity - sacred groves - traditional knowledge - management - xishuangbanna - landscapes - beliefs - future - sites
Culturally protected forests (CPFs), preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional practices and beliefs, have both social and ecological functions. We investigated plant species richness and diversity within the tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer in three types of CPFs (community forests, ancestral temple forests, cemetery forests) as well as nearby forests without cultural protection (NCPFs) in Southeast China. A total of 325 species belonging to 85 families and 187 genera were recorded in CPFs, including 17 protected species in China Species Red List and IUCN Red List, which accounted for 17 % of counties' endangered species. Compared with NCPFs, the tree layer of CPFs had larger DBH and lower species density, especially in the cemetery forests. CPFs had higher alpha diversity values generally, particularly in the tree layer. The differences in tree layer were substantial, and CPFs covered nearly 85.4 % of the tree species in the surveyed sites. The similarities between CPFs and NCPFs were higher in the herb and shrub layers than in the tree layer. These differences of species diversity may be attributed to differences in resource use and management between CPFs and NCPFs. Our field investigation results suggested that local CPFs harbor many plant species, high biodiversity, and contribute to the conservation of a substantial proportion of the local species pool.
Public Perceptions of Environmental Risk in China
Zhang, L. ; He, G. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Lu, Y. - \ 2013
Journal of Risk Research 16 (2013)2. - ISSN 1366-9877 - p. 195 - 209.
ecological risk - information disclosure - beliefs - hazards - values
China, as a ‘double risk’ society, is in urgent need for effective environmental risk management systems. Compared with other risks, man-made environmental risks have not been given due weight. Public awareness and perceptions of environmental risks are crucial in all phases of effective risk management. However, little is known about public perceptions of environmental risks in China. To contribute to better understanding of public perception of environmental risk, a questionnaire survey was conducted among university students in Beijing, who represent a group with high level of education and a generally high sensitivity to new information. The results show that even this group has limited knowledge about environmental risks and current risk management systems. Further studies are needed to understand the social construction of environmental risks in China and to seek ways to involve the Chinese public in emergency response and risk management.
Working both ways : the interplay of trust and interaction in collaborations
Oortmerssen, L.A. van - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Noelle Aarts. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737229 - 143
samenwerking - multi-stakeholder processen - communicatie - communicatievaardigheden - sociale interactie - overtuigingen - governance - organisaties - conferenties - cooperation - multi-stakeholder processes - communication - communication skills - social interaction - beliefs - organizations - conferences
This PhD thesis makes trust developments in collaborations more tangible by revealing how these are reflected in conversation patterns. The results of this study indicate that, during meetings, an increase in trust is not only reflected in more openness and responsiveness among the partners, but also in a changing rhythm in their conversations. The different partners speak more often and briefer. If trust is high, the conversation can show moments of interaction flow. This implies an – in the interaction pattern visible – acceleration of the conversation that often results in a creative solution or decision. A chairperson can foster the conditions for such moments of flow by skilful balancing among different key concerns, among which are interventions that nurture trust.
Maatschappelijk vertrouwen in de varkenshouderij: Deel 1: managementsamenvatting en conclusies
Termeer, K. ; Dagevos, H. ; Breeman, G.E. ; Hoes, A.C. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 98
varkenshouderij - houding van consumenten - overtuigingen - maatschappelijk draagvlak - dierenwelzijn - pig farming - consumer attitudes - beliefs - public support - animal welfare
De aanleiding voor het project met de ‘officiële’ titel ‘Maatschappelijk vertrouwen in de veehouderij, in het bijzonder in de varkenshouderij’ is het topsectordocument Agro & Food: De Nederlandse groeidiamant (2011). Hierin wordt gesteld dat maatschappelijk draagvlak van wezenlijk belang is voor de Agro & Foodsector. Het idee is dat technische oplossingen, zoals nieuwe stalsystemen, kunnen bijdragen aan het creëren van een positief beeld van de sector, maar waarschijnlijk niet voldoende zijn voor het herstel van maatschappelijk vertrouwen in de Agro & Foodsector in het algemeen en de varkenshouderij in het bijzonder. Maatschappelijk ver- en wantrouwen in voedsel en voedselproductie is vandaag de dag onverminderd actueel. De paardenvleesaffaire en de doorgaande stroom van berichten in de media dat er met voedsel wordt gefraudeerd, illustreren dit. Dat de Onderzoekraad voor Veiligheid momenteel onderzoek doet naar voedselveiligheidrisico’s in de vleesverwerkende industrie is eveneens tekenend. Maar het vraagstuk van maatschappelijk vertrouwen is niet nieuw. Het is een issue dat al langere tijd speelt. Mede met het oog hierop is veel geïnvesteerd in betere stalsystemen en regelgeving en zijn er diverse commissies en dialogen geweest. Toch is en blijft maatschappelijk vertrouwen en draagvlak delicaat en gebrekkig. Dit wordt door de sector als problematisch ervaren. Aan Wageningen UR is gevraagd een onderzoek te doen naar het maatschappelijk vertrouwen van de veehouderij, met de toespitsing op de varkenshouderij. Het onderzoek is tweeledig van karakter. Enerzijds gaat het om diagnose die tot doel heeft meer te begrijpen van maatschappelijk vertrouwen en van de mechanismen die tot wantouwen of tot vertrouwen leiden. Op basis hiervan heeft dit onderzoek, anderzijds, tot doel voorstellen te doen over (het ontwikkelen van) interventies die bijdragen aan verbetering van maatschappelijk vertrouwen.
Acceptability of Lethal Control of Wildlife that Damage Agriculture in the Netherlands
Sijtsma, M.T.J. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Jacobs, M.H. - \ 2012
Society & Natural Resources 25 (2012)12. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 1308 - 1323.
management actions - value orientations - united-states - canada geese - deer - attitudes - beliefs
The use of lethal control of wildlife is controversial. We examined the acceptability of using lethal control to minimize the impacts of geese and deer on agricultural crops in the Netherlands. Two sets of predictors were examined: wildlife value orientations (WVOs) and demographics. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the United States. Demographic variables included age, gender, education, and current residence. We used data from a mailed survey (n = 353) sent to randomly selected individuals in the Netherlands. We examined six separate logistic regression models. As predicted, only the value orientations were statistically significant, accounting for 39% (geese) and 37% (deer) of the variance. Of the two WVOs, domination was a better predictor of acceptability ratings than mutualism. Results suggest that WVOs have predictive validity outside the United States.
Understanding people's ideas on natural resource management : research on social representations of nature
Buijs, A.E. ; Hovardas, T. ; Figari, H. ; Castro, P. ; Devine-Wright, P. ; Fischer, A. ; Mouro, C. ; Selge, S. - \ 2012
Society & Natural Resources 25 (2012)11. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 1167 - 1181.
value orientations - science - psychology - knowledge - environment - landscape - attitudes - beliefs - wolf
Ongoing fragmentation between social groups on the appropriate targets and relevant actors for nature conservation signals the need for further advancements in theorizing about the human–nature interaction. Through a focus on the complexity of social thought and confrontations between social groups, the theory of social representations may provide a useful addition to conventional approaches. However, environmental issues have so far not been among the primary topics studied by social representation scholars. This article sets out to fill this gap. After an introduction to the theory, we report on three case studies that illustrate the use of this theory in the context of natural resource management. These studies show how groups negotiate meanings, intentions, and action related to complex issues such as wolf management, invasive species, and conflicts over protected forests, landscapes, and national parks. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of the approach and suggest future challenges and opportunities
Team learning: building shared mental models
Bossche, P. van den; Gijselaers, W. ; Segers, M. ; Woltjer, G.B. ; Kirschner, P. - \ 2011
Instructional Science 39 (2011)3. - ISSN 0020-4277 - p. 283 - 301.
knowledge convergence - performance - mediation - conflict - diversity - framework - cognition - beliefs - task
To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were performed on student-teams engaged in a business simulation game. The measurement of shared mental models was based on cognitive mapping techniques. The results indicate that a team learning perspective provides insight in how people share knowledge. Particularly the team learning behaviors identified as co-construction and constructive conflict are related to the development of shared mental models. In addition, a shared mental model of the task environment in a team leads to improved performance. This underscores the importance of developing shared cognition in teamwork
Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands
Vaske, J.J. ; Jacobs, M.H. ; Sijtsma, M.T.J. - \ 2011
European Journal of Wildlife Research 57 (2011)6. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 1179 - 1187.
environmental concern - empirical-evidence - united-states - management - beliefs - publics - gender - model
This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife should be managed for human benefit and are more likely to prioritize human well-being over wildlife in their attitudes and behaviors. Individuals with a mutualism orientation view wildlife as part of an extended family, deserving of rights and care. Data were obtained from a mailed survey (n¿=¿353) sent to randomly selected individuals in the Dutch population. K-means cluster analysis was used to segment respondents into three groups based on their responses to the 19 items used to measure their wildlife value orientations. As predicted by the literature, those with a domination wildlife value orientation were statistically older (M¿=¿55.2) than mutualism oriented individuals (M¿=¿51.5). Females (61%) and those living in an urban area (48%) tended to be more mutualism-oriented. There were no significant differences among the clusters in education level. Overall, this article provides information about wildlife value orientations and public demographic characteristics that can help wildlife managers to (1) understand the diversity of value orientations that exist and (2) gauge support for or opposition to management policies
Perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption among Russian consumers
Dijk, H. van; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Honkanen, P. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2011
Appetite 56 (2011)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 227 - 234.
food-related hazards - n-3 fatty-acids - comparative optimism - information-seeking - european countries - heart-disease - beliefs - involvement - prevention - knowledge
Knowledge about differences in consumer perceptions of health risks and benefits related to fish consumption is important for the development of targeted health interventions associated with dietary choice. The purpose of this study is to identify individual differences in Russian consumers according to their perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption. By application of a cluster analysis on perceptions of personal risks and benefits associated with the consumption of fish, four groups of Russian consumers were classified as: very positive; positive; moderately positive; and ‘high risk–high benefit’ about the healthiness of fish consumption. Differences in perceptions of personal risks and benefits across consumers were related to self-reported fish consumption, optimism about personal risks and benefits, and optimism about personal knowledge about risks and benefits. Implications for the development of targeted health interventions to influence perceptions of risks and benefits associated with fish consumption, and ultimately fish consumption, are discussed. It is concluded that optimism regarding perceptions and knowledge of health risks, and health benefits should be taken into account when developing interventions aimed at consumer health.
Parental child-feeding strategies in relation to Dutch children's fruit and vegetable intake
Zeinstra, G.G. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Laan, N. van der; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Public Health Nutrition 13 (2010)6. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 787 - 796.
food preferences - consumption - context - family - taste - questionnaire - willingness - information - validity - beliefs
Objective: To identify parental child-feeding strategies that may increase children's fruit or vegetable intake, since the relationship between these strategies and children's intake has never been investigated for fruit and vegetables as two separate food groups. Design: A survey study, where parents provided information about their practices in relation to feeding their children and about their own and their children's fruit and vegetable intake. Children completed a preference questionnaire about fruit and vegetables. To find underlying parental child-feeding strategies, factor analysis was applied to parents' practices in relation to fruit and vegetables separately. Regression analysis was used to predict the effect of these strategies on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The impact of the strategies was further analysed by estimating children's intake based on the frequency of use of specific strategies. Setting: The study was conducted at three primary schools in The Netherlands. Subjects: A total of 259 children between 4 and 12 years old and their parents (n242). Results: Parents used different strategies for fruit as compared with vegetables. The vegetable-eating context was more negative than the fruit-eating context. Parental intake and presenting the children with choice were positive predictors of children's intake of both fruit and vegetables. The intake difference based on frequency of use of the strategy 'Choice' was 40 g/d for vegetables and 72 g/d for fruit (P
A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M.J. ; Velden, P.G. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. ; Zarafshani, K. - \ 2010
Veterinary Microbiology 142 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 108 - 118.
descriptive epidemiology - 2001 foot - farmers - disease - netherlands - perceptions - beliefs - crisis - signs
The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy makers from the veterinary authorities, and representatives of veterinary practitioners and pig farmer unions. Personal interviews with a small group of pig farmers and practitioners were held to check limitations raised and solutions proposed during the focus group sessions. An electronic questionnaire was mailed to pig farmers and practitioners to investigate perceptions and attitudes with respect to clinically suspect situations possibly caused by CSF. After triangulating the responses of veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and farmers, six themes emerged across all groups: (1) lack of knowledge on the early signs of CSF; (2) guilt, shame and prejudice; (3) negative opinion on control measures; (4) dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; (5) lack of trust in government bodies; (6) uncertainty and lack of transparency of reporting procedures. The following solutions to facilitate early detection of CSF were put forward: (a) development of a clinical decision-support system for vets and farmers, in order to get faster diagnosis and detection of CSF; (b) possibility to submit blood samples directly to the reference laboratory to exclude CSF in a clinical situation with non-specific clinical signs, without isolation of the farm and free of charge for the individual farmer; (c) decrease social and economic consequences of reporting CSF, for example by improving the public opinion on first reports; (d) better schooling of veterinary officers to deal with emotions and insecurity of farmers in the process after reporting; (e) better communication of rules and regulations, where to report, what will happen next; (f) up-to-date website with information and visual material of the clinical signs of CSF
Consumers' images regarding genomics as a tomato breeding technology: "maybe it can provide a more tasty tomato"
Heuvel, T. van den; Renes, R.J. ; Gremmen, H.G.J. ; Woerkum, C.M.J. van; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2008
Euphytica 159 (2008)1-2. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 207 - 216.
genetically-modified foods - biotechnology - acceptance - model - perspective - consumption - information - attitudes - products - beliefs
Methods of production are becoming more important to consumers in their decisions about whether or not to buy or consume a certain product. This decision making process is influenced, among other things, by the images consumers have with regard to the product and its method of production. In this research, consumer images regarding plant breeding technologies were ascertained by means of focus group discussions. Thirty-five respondents, divided into four homogenous groups, were given descriptions of three plant breeding techniques and challenged to provide and discuss their images of these technologies. The discussions resulted in images about genetic modification, genomics, and conventional breeding. It was interesting to see that elaboration of the descriptions changed the consumers¿ images, especially regarding the positioning of genomics in relation to the other two technologies. Whereas initially consumers¿ images placed genomics close to genetic modification, further discussion and clarification resulted in a re-positioning of genomics closer to conventional breeding.
Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes
Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Huirne, R.B.M. - \ 2007
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54 (2007)3. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 293 - 312.
varkensvlees - vleesproductie - consumentengedrag - consumentenonderzoeken - betalingsbereidheid - marktsegmentatie - consumentenvoorkeuren - pigmeat - meat production - consumer behaviour - consumer surveys - willingness to pay - market segmentation - consumer preferences - conjoint-analysis - pig production - behavior - attitude - beliefs - choice - model
Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and unpronounced consumers (20%). Typically all segments prefer pork originating from the Netherlands and a zero risk of Salmonella. Discriminating items between segments include issues of pig breeding, housing, farm-level handling of pigs, safety aspects such as residue levels and irradiation of pork, and taste and price. Segments were furthermore found to differ on issues such as willingness to pay for pork production improvements and pork label perception. From our findings we recommend decision-makers in pork supply chains to no longer market pork as a bulk product as there are distinct requirements for pork and the way it is produced. Also, there seems to be sufficient financial room to invest in each of these segments. At the same time, however, it should be noticed that consumers have difficulties with distinguishing between different labels and that they generally have limited knowledge about basic pork production and safety issues
Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study
Kleef, E. van; Frewer, L.J. ; Chryssochoidis, G.M. ; Houghton, J.R. ; Korzen-Bohr, S. ; Krystallis, T. ; Lassen, J. ; Pfenning, U. ; Rowe, G. - \ 2006
Appetite 47 (2006)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 46 - 63.
risk/benefit perception - public-participation - social trust - attitudes - expert - consumption - benefits - beliefs - hazards - safety
In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes to, food risk management practices held by consumers and experts with an interest in food safety. Focus groups were conducted in five European countries chosen for their (hypothesised) cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: Denmark, Germany, Greece, Slovenia and the UK. Content analysis was carried out on the resulting texts and (sub) categories were identified within the analysis framework to facilitate the capture of emerging themes. Five key themes were identified as common to the perceptions of both consumers and experts, although these are not represented in the same way by both groups. These key themes are: (1) efforts made by the responsible authorities to manage food risks; (2) responsibility for prevention and management of food risks; (3) how priorities are established within regulatory systems; (4) scientific progress and its implications for food risk management; and (5) media attention and food safety incidents. Although some similarities emerged between the groups, differences were also identified. For example, experts appeared to be highly negative about media influences, whereas consumers appeared more indifferent about media influences and motives. These different perspectives need to be addressed in order to reduce the perceptual distance between key stakeholders, and in particular, to enhance consumer confidence in the food risk management system. Based on the study findings, recommendations for food risk management policies are outlined.