Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Prediction of fruit and vegatable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controntrolled intervantion studies
Souverein, O.W. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R. ; Waltz, B. ; Bub, A. ; Winkels, R.M. ; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)9. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1396 - 1409.
food-frequency questionnaire - beta-carotene - plasma carotenoids - homocysteine concentrations - fractional polynomials - lipid-peroxidation - healthy nonsmokers - serum carotenoids - oxidative stress - controlled-trial
Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose–response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable intake (including and excluding fruit and vegetable juices). The study population in the present individual participant data meta-analysis consisted of 526 men and women. Carotenoid, folate and vitamin C concentrations showed a positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake. Measures of performance for the prediction model were calculated using cross-validation. For the prediction model of fruit, vegetable and juice intake, the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 258·0 g, the correlation between observed and predicted intake was 0·78 and the mean difference between observed and predicted intake was - 1·7 g (limits of agreement: - 466·3, 462·8 g). For the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake (excluding juices), the RMSE was 201·1 g, the correlation was 0·65 and the mean bias was 2·4 g (limits of agreement: - 368·2, 373·0 g). The prediction models which include the biomarkers and subject characteristics may be used to estimate average intake at the group level and to investigate the ranking of individuals with regard to their intake of fruit and vegetables when validating questionnaires that measure intake.
Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas]
Khoury, C.K. ; Heider, B. ; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P. ; Achicanoy, H.A. ; Sosa, C.C. ; Miller, R.E. ; Scotland, R.W. ; Wood, J.R.I. ; Rossel, G. ; Eserman, L.A. ; Jarret, R.L. ; Yencho, G.C. ; Bernau, V. ; Juarez, H. ; Sotelo, S. ; Haan, S. de; Struik, P.C. - \ 2015
Frontiers in Plant Science 6 (2015). - ISSN 1664-462X - 14 p.
species distribution models - phylogenetic-relationships - beta-carotene - convolvulaceae - sequences - diversity - evolution - bias - challenges - tolerance
Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.
Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: A nested case-control study : Plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk
Jeurnink, S.M. ; Ros, M.M. ; Leenders, M. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2015
International Journal of Cancer 136 (2015)6. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. E665 - E676.
alpha-tocopherol - beta-carotene - serum - smoking - cohorts - antioxidants - consumption - calibration - population - metabolism
Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (a- and ß-carotene, lycopene, ß-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), a- and ¿-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma ß-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31–0.88, p for trend¿=¿0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30–0.94, p for trend¿=¿0.06) and a-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39–0.99, p for trend¿=¿0.08. For a- and ß-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and ¿-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of ß-carotene, zeaxanthin and a-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted.
Dynamics of biomass composition and growth during recovery of nitrogen-starved Chromochloris zofingiensis
Mulders, K.J.M. ; Lamers, P.P. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Martens, D.E. - \ 2015
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 99 (2015)4. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 1873 - 1884.
triacylglycerol tag accumulation - alga dunaliella-bardawil - fatty-acid-metabolism - chlorella-zofingiensis - secondary carotenoids - lipid-accumulation - neochloris-oleoabundans - scenedesmus-obliquus - light conditions - beta-carotene
The effect of nitrogen replenishment on the kinetics of secondary carotenoids, triacylglycerol (TAG) and primary cell components was studied in nitrogen-starved Chromochloris zofingiensis (Chlorophyta), an oleaginous and carotenogenic microalga. Nitrogen resupplied after a period of starvation was initially consumed at a more than four times higher rate than in an equivalent nitrogen-replete culture. Simultaneously, chlorophylls, primary carotenoids, polar (membrane) lipids and proteins were rapidly produced. After 2 days, the contents of these primary metabolites, as well as the nitrogen consumption rate and the overall biomass production rate, had returned to values equivalent to those of cells grown under nitrogen-replete conditions, indicating that culture recovery required 2 days. Nitrogen resupply was immediately followed by rapid degradation of TAG and starch, suggesting that these metabolites served as carbon and energy source for the recovery process. Also, the secondary carotenoids canthaxanthin and ketolutein were rapidly degraded upon nitrogen resupply, whereas degradation of astaxanthin, the main secondary carotenoid, started only when the cells were fully recovered 2 days after nitrogen resupply. This is the first time that such culture recovery has been described in detail and, moreover, that astaxanthin was found to be not immediately degraded after nitrogen resupply. The observed rapid recovery of C. zofingiensis and the delay in astaxanthin degradation suggest that a repeated batch cultivation may result in a higher secondary carotenoid productivity than a series of classical single batch cultivations.
Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment
Luterotti, S. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Markovic, K. ; Franko, M. - \ 2015
Food Control 48 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 67 - 74.
maillard reaction-products - beta-carotene - lycopene degradation - antioxidant activity - human health - food - stability - puree - storage - isomerization
This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are additionally heated (e.g., when used in the household) is scarce. In this study, effects of heating and storage on a commercial, double concentrated tomato purée were examined spectrophotometrically. Our results indicate that upon exposing unopened cans with double concentrated tomato purée to thermal treatments between 100 and 135 °C during specific time intervals spectral profile of lycopene remained preserved. Likewise, a slight hypsochromic shift of lycopene peak III did not occur up to 135 °C. However, significant (20%) initial loss of lycopene content was induced by thermal treatment for 20 min at 100 °C. During the more intensive treatments that followed the lycopene content was first leveling off and then slightly increased. After storage of thermally treated samples at -18 °C the content of lycopene was found to increase. All these results suggest simultaneous working of several mechanisms: possible auto-oxidation and isomerization processes of carotenes taking place, in addition to the Maillard reaction and enhanced extractability of carotenes at increased temperatures. Results acquired from hexane solutions of samples treated at temperatures of 120 and 135 °C obtained at different time points, confirmed severe isomerization in organic solvent and/or photo-oxidative degradation of lycopene.
Sensory and health properties of steamed and boiled carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus)
Bongoni, R. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Verkerk, R. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65 (2014)7. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 809 - 815.
beta-carotene - processed vegetables - cooking methods - fruits - texture - quality - bioavailability - pectin - juice - raw
This study examined the influences of domestic processing conditions applied by consumers on firmness, colour and amount of phytochemicals and liking and sensory attributes intensity rating of carrots. The aim was to identify a cooking method and time that yields carrots with higher amount of b-carotene while maintaining consumer liking. Instrumentally measured firmness and colour showed comparable degradation trends between cooking methods. While boiling showed a significant decrease in the amount b-carotene after 20 min (19%), steaming maintained the amount (+40%). Cooking method did not show a significant effect on liking and intensity ratings for the majority of the sensory attributes. Medium firm carrots were liked the most and low firm carrots the least. This study demonstrates that for optimum liking, carrots should be in the range of medium firmness. This can be obtained through either cooking methods but steamed carrots possess a higher amount of b-carotene and maintains liking.
Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions
Bunger, M. ; Quataert, M.C.J. ; Kamps, L.M. ; Versloot, P. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Togtema, K.A. ; Amerongen, A. van; Mensink, M.R. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65 (2014)7. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 903 - 909.
density-lipoprotein cholesterol - macular pigment density - age-related maculopathy - zeaxanthin concentrations - serum concentrations - dietary-cholesterol - optical-density - clinical-trial - beta-carotene - eye disease
Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young subjects participated in this 6-weeks randomized controlled study. Subjects consumed either a “plain” control beverage (n¿=¿26), a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage (n¿=¿25), a dried version of this beverage (n¿=¿25), or a beverage composed of the dried individual components of the drink (n¿=¿24). The fresh and both dried versions of the lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage were able to increase serum lutein levels after 6 weeks of consumption (lutein change: -38¿±¿47¿nmol/L, +304¿±¿113¿nmol/L, +148¿±¿79¿nmol/L and +178¿±¿83¿nmol/L for control, fresh, dried and combined dried group respectively; p¿
Bioaccessibility of vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid from dietary supplements fortified food and infant formula
Brandon, E.F.A. ; Bakker, M.I. ; Kramer, E.H.M. ; Bouwmeester, H. ; Zuidema, T. ; Alewijn, M. - \ 2014
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65 (2014)4. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 426 - 435.
in-vitro digestion - beta-carotene - gastrointestinal model - bioavailability - nutrition
In the Netherlands, vitamin intake occurs mainly via food and for some vitamins also via fortified food. In addition, some people take dietary supplements. Information on the bioavailability of vitamins is important for a good estimation of the actual exposure to vitamins. Furthermore, for a reliable intake estimation, it is important to know the accurateness of the claimed vitamin concentration on the product label. In the current study, the amount of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid in different products and their maximum bioavailability (bioaccessibility) were investigated. In about half of the products, the amount of vitamins significantly deviated from the declared amounts. The vitamin bioaccessibility ranged from
Variation in Broccoli Cultivar Phytochemical Content under Organic and Conventional Management Systems: Implications in Breeding for Nutrition
Renaud, E.N.C. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Myers, J.R. ; Caldas Paulo, M.J. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Zhu, N. ; Juvik, J.A. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16
glucosinolate-myrosinase system - lung-cancer risk - brassica-oleracea - cruciferous vegetables - beta-carotene - ascorbic-acid - vitamin-c - fertilization conditions - selenium fertilization - agricultural practices - organic farming - broccoli - cultivars - phytochemicals - plant breeding - organic foods - biologische landbouw - fytochemicaliën - plantenveredeling - biologische voedingsmiddelen
Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (d-, ¿-, a-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For d- and ¿- tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41–13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.
Functional ingredients from microalgae
Buono, S. ; Langellotti, A.L. ; Martello, A. ; Rinna, F. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2014
Food & Function 5 (2014)8. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 1669 - 1685.
polyunsaturated fatty-acids - induced oxidative stress - chlorella-vulgaris - dunaliella-salina - spirulina-fusiformis - beta-carotene - eicosapentaenoic acid - in-vivo - haematococcus-pluvialis - antioxidant activity
A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed.
Metabolomic engineering for the microbial production of cartenoids and related products with a focus on the rare C50 carotenoids
Heider, S.A.E. ; Peters-Wendisch, P. ; Wendisch, V.F. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2014
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 98 (2014)10. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 4355 - 4368.
alga haematococcus-pluvialis - blue-light photoreception - escherichia-coli - bacterial carotenoids - biosynthetic-pathway - bacillus-subtilis - astaxanthin biosynthesis - functional-analysis - beta-carotene - corynebacterium-glutamicum
Carotenoids, a subfamily of terpenoids, are yellowtored-colored pigments synthesized by plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria. They are ubiquitous in nature and take over crucial roles in many biological processes as for example photosynthesis, vision, and the quenching of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Due to their color and their potential beneficial effects on human health, carotenoids receive increasing attention. Carotenoids can be classified due to the length of their carbon backbone. Most carotenoids have a C40 backbone, but also C30 and C50 carotenoids are known. All carotenoids are derived fromisopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) as a common precursor. Pathways leading to IPP as well as metabolic engineering of IPP synthesis and C40 carotenoid production have been reviewed expertly elsewhere. Since C50 carotenoids are synthesized from the C40 carotenoid lycopene, we will summarize common strategies for optimizing lycopene production and we will focus our review on the characteristics, biosynthesis, glycosylation, and overproduction of C50 carotenoids.
The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables
Palermo, M. ; Pellegrini, N. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2014
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (2014)6. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1057 - 1070.
beans phaseolus-vulgaris - health-promoting compounds - total antioxidant capacity - fleshed sweet-potato - capitata f rubra - l. var. capitata - oryza-sativa l. - beta-carotene - domestic cooking - glucosinolate content
Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scientific journals were considered in order to assess the effect of cooking on different phytochemical classes. Changes in phytochemicals upon cooking may result from two opposite phenomena: (1) thermal degradation, which reduces their concentration, and (2) a matrix softening effect, which increases the extractability of phytochemicals, resulting in a higher concentration with respect to the raw material. The final effect of cooking on phytochemical concentration depends on the processing parameters, the structure of food matrix, and the chemical nature of the specific compound. Looking at the different cooking procedures it can be concluded that steaming will ensure better preservation/extraction yield of phenols and glucosinolates than do other cooking methods: steamed tissues are not in direct contact with the cooking material (water or oil) so leaching of soluble compounds into water is minimised and, at the same time, thermal degradation is limited. Carotenoids showed a different behaviour; a positive effect on extraction and the solubilisation of carotenes were reported after severe processing. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
The use of predefined diet quality scores in the context of CVD risk during urbanization in the South African Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study
Dolman, R.C. ; Wentzel-Viljoen, E. ; Jerling, J.C. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kruger, A. ; Pieters, M. - \ 2014
Public Health Nutrition 17 (2014)8. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1706 - 1716.
cardiovascular-disease - nutrition transition - income countries - blood-pressure - beta-carotene - lung-cancer - population - metaanalysis - mortality - calcium
Objective Urbanization is generally associated with increased CVD risk and accompanying dietary changes. Little is known regarding the association between increased CVD risk and dietary changes using approaches such as diet quality. The relevance of predefined diet quality scores (DQS) in non-Western developing countries has not yet been established. Design The association between dietary intakes and CVD risk factors was investigated using two DQS, adapted to the black South African diet. Dietary intake data were collected using a quantitative FFQ. CVD risk was determined by analysing known CVD risk factors. Setting Urban and rural areas in North West Province, South Africa. Subjects Apparently healthy volunteers from the South African Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study population (n 1710). Results CVD risk factors were significantly increased in the urban participants, especially women. Urban men and women had significantly higher intakes of both macro- and micronutrients with macronutrient intakes well within the recommended CVD guidelines. While micronutrient intakes were generally higher in the urban groups than in the rural groups, intakes of selected micronutrients were low in both groups. Both DQS indicated improved diet quality in the urban groups and good agreement was shown between the scores, although they seemed to measure different aspects of diet quality. Conclusions The apparent paradox between improved diet quality and increased CVD risk in the urban groups can be explained when interpreting the cut-offs used in the scores against the absolute intakes of individual nutrients. Predefined DQS as well as current guidelines for CVD prevention should be interpreted with caution in non-Western developing countries.
The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development
Pasare, S.A. ; Ducreux, L.J.M. ; Morris, W.L. ; Campbell, R. ; Sharma, S.K. ; Roumeliotis, E. ; Kohlen, W. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Bramley, P.M. ; Roberts, A.G. ; Fraser, P.D. ; Taylor, M.A. - \ 2013
New Phytologist 198 (2013)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1108 - 1120.
striga-lutea lour - apical-dominance - strigolactone biosynthesis - pisum-sativum - germination stimulants - plant architecture - acts downstream - auxin transport - bud outgrowth - beta-carotene
Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy.
Induction of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ¿ (PPAR¿)-Mediated Gene Expression by Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Extracts
Gijsbers, L. ; Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Haan, L.H.J. de; Swier, J.M. ; Heijink, N.L. ; Kloet, S.K. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Keijer, J. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. - \ 2013
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013)14. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 3419 - 3427.
improves insulin sensitivity - ppar-gamma - plasma-concentrations - hypertensive patients - blood-pressure - food-products - beta-carotene - cancer cells - fruit - lycopene
Since beneficial effects related to tomato consumption partially overlap with those related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ (PPAR¿) activation, our aim was to test extracts of tomato fruits and tomato components, including polyphenols and isoprenoids, for their capacity to activate PPAR¿ using the PPAR¿2 CALUX reporter cell line. Thirty tomato compounds were tested; seven carotenoids and three polyphenols induced PPAR¿2-mediated luciferase expression. Two extracts of tomato, one containing deglycosylated phenolic compounds and one containing isoprenoids, also induced PPAR¿2-mediated expression at physiologically relevant concentrations. Furthermore, enzymatically hydrolyzed extracts of seven tomato varieties all induced PPAR¿-mediated expression, with a 1.6-fold difference between the least potent and the most potent variety. The two most potent varieties had high flavonoid content, while the two least potent varieties had low flavonoid content. These data indicate that extracts of tomato are able to induce PPAR¿-mediated gene expression in vitro and that some tomato varieties are more potent than others.
Comparison of spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for determination of carotenoids in foods
Luterotti, S. ; Markovic, K. ; Franko, M. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Madzgalj, A. - \ 2013
Food Chemistry 140 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 390 - 397.
beta-carotene - human health - tomato fruits - lycopene - maize - extraction - products
This report is aimed at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained during spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses of lycopene, ß-carotene and total carotenoids in tomato products and yellow maize flours/grits. Extensive statistical analyses are performed in order to identify the main sources of uncertainties which may occur when using: (i) different techniques/methods/approaches in the same/different laboratories, in various food samples, and (ii) to indicate the facts/conditions under which the biases between results may remain unidentified after applying statistical testing. Our data points to the inertness of t-test to detect significance of differences, particularly at low R values: in general, the higher correlation coefficient, the higher is sensitivity of statistical testing, especially of the paired t-test. Therefore, simple deviation of relationship line slope from unity could be used as additional evaluation parameter. This adds to reliable and objective quality assurance of foods in regard to carotenoids.
Growth and pigment accumulation in nutrient-depleted Isochrysis aff. galbana T-ISO
Mulders, K.J.M. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Lamers, P.P. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Martens, D.E. ; Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2013
Journal of Applied Phycology 25 (2013)5. - ISSN 0921-8971 - p. 1421 - 1430.
alga dunaliella-bardawil - secondary carotenoid accumulation - fatty-acid-metabolism - beta-carotene - haematococcus-pluvialis - triacylglycerol accumulation - astaxanthin synthesis - commercial production - nitrogen starvation - green microalga
The effect of three different nutrient depletions (nitrogen, sulphur and magnesium) on the growth and pigment accumulation of the haptophyte Isochrysis aff. galbana (clone T-ISO) has been studied. Pigments were quantified based on RP-UHPLC-PDA-MSn analysis. All nutrient depletions led to reduced maximal biomass concentrations. Besides, all nutrient-depleted cultures accumulated 3-hydroxyechinenone. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 3-hydroxyechinenone has been found in I. aff. galbana T-ISO. Most 3-hydroxyechinenone, as well as the most echinenone and diatoxanthin, were found in the nitrogen-limited culture in which a more severe limitation resulted in higher cellular contents. Similar to accumulation of diatoxanthin, accumulation of 3-hydroxyechinenone and echinenone may be part of a global (stress) response mechanism to oversaturating light conditions.
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Kleinegris, Dorinde - \ 2012
algae - algae culture - beta-carotene - extraction - scientific research - biobased economy
Thermal versus high pressure processing of carrots: A comparative pilot-scale study on equivalent basis
Vervoort, L. ; Plancken, L. Van der; Grauwet, T. ; Verlinde, P. ; Matser, A.M. ; Hendrickx, M. ; Loey, A. van - \ 2012
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 15 (2012). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 1 - 13.
high-hydrostatic-pressure - daucus-carota l - electric-field processes - beta-carotene - antioxidant activity - green beans - mild pasteurization - texture degradation - quality attributes - catalytic-activity
This report describes the first study comparing different high pressure (HP) and thermal treatments at intensities ranging from mild pasteurization to sterilization conditions. To allow a fair comparison, the processing conditions were selected based on the principles of equivalence. Moreover, pilot- and industrial-scale equipment were opted for, supporting conditions close to industrial application. The overall impact on carrot quality was characterized by analyzing a wide range of quality attributes, including specific (micro)nutrients (carotenoids and sugars), process-induced contaminants (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), enzyme activities (pectin methylesterase and peroxidase) and other relevant quality aspects (texture, dry matter content and color). This study demonstrated that the potential benefit of HP over thermal processing of carrots is largely dependent on the processing intensity applied. Thermal sterilization affected carrot quality the most, while mild and severe thermal pasteurization, mild and severe HP pasteurization and HP sterilization resulted in a comparable overall quality. Industrial relevance: The extensive nature of this investigation and the corresponding results can be considered of key importance for further implementation of HP technology in the food industry, since a correct and complete assessment of process-induced changes is of major importance in the context of legislative aspects of novel processing technologies.
Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
Ros, M.M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Kampman, E. ; Aben, K.K. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Jansen, E.H.J.M. ; Gils, C.H. van; Egevad, L. ; Overvad, K. ; Kiemeney, L.A. - \ 2012
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96 (2012). - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 902 - 910.
bladder-cancer - beta-carotene - alpha-tocopherol - vegetable consumption - physicians health - controlled-trial - retinol - serum - fruit - antioxidants
BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (a- and ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum of plasma carotenoids (IRR for the highest compared with the lowest quartile: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.93; P-trend = 0.04). Plasma ß-carotene was inversely associated with aggressive UCC (IRR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.88; P-trend = 0.02). Plasma lutein was inversely associated with risk of nonaggressive UCC (IRR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.98; P-trend = 0.05). No association was observed between plasma vitamin C and risk of UCC. CONCLUSIONS: Although residual confounding by smoking or other factors cannot be excluded, higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids may reduce risk of UCC, in particular aggressive UCC. Plasma lutein may reduce risk of nonaggressive UCC.
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