Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Socio-economic assessment of Algae-based PUFA production
Voort, Marcel van der; Spruijt, Joanneke ; Potters, Jorieke ; Wolf, Pieter de; Elissen, Hellen - \ 2017
Göttingen : PUFAChain - 84
bioenergy - biobased economy - biofuels - biomass - algae - fatty acids - bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biomassa - algen - vetzuren
Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions : Vision on metropolitan biorefinery concepts in relation to resource-efficient cities
Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. ; Groot, J.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1790) - ISBN 9789463437424 - 18
biomass - bioenergy - residual streams - refining - biofuels - biobased economy - biogas - biomassa - bio-energie - reststromen - raffineren - biobrandstoffen
Expectations are that 80 percent of the global population will reside in urban areas by the year 2050. As urbanisation levels increase so do ecological footprint sizes in these areas, as it is in the cities that income levels are higher, and where higher levels of disposable incomes exist. Whereas the circular economy is gaining ground as a concept for increasing sustainability by the efficient use of available materials and resources, urban areas are often recognised as attractive starting points for making the transition towards a circular economy. The paper “Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions” contains the description of a vision on how biorefinery concepts in current and future metropoles may contribute to the increased efficiency in the use of resources for biomass production. As such this vision forms the interpretation of the principles of the circular economy within the context of biomass value chains and within the geographic boundaries of a metropolitan region. This is also referred to as the circular metropolitan system. With this paper researchers from Wageningen Food & Biobased Research intend to contribute to a scientific basis for increasing resource use efficiency in metropolitan regions through developing appropriate and sustainable biorefinery concepts.
Innovatieve technologie in beheer en oogst van houtige biomassa : eindrapportage
Raa, Rik te; Pfau, S. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Massop, Hans ; Hissink, H.J. - \ 2017
BTG Biomass Technology Group - 57 p.
bio-energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - hout - biomassa productie - bosbeheer - bioenergy - biofuels - wood - biomass production - forest administration
Opiniestuk sustainable development goals : transities realiseren met duurzaam bodem - en landgebruik
Mol, G. ; Cleen, M. de; Molenaar, Co ; Keesstra, S. ; Visser, S. ; Okx, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 7
duurzame energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biogas - overheidsbeleid - klimaat - bio-energie - reststromen - hernieuwbare energie - energiebeleid - sustainable energy - biofuels - government policy - climate - bioenergy - residual streams - renewable energy - energy policy
In 2015 hebben de Verenigde Naties de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen – beter bekend als de Sustainable Development Goals of kortweg SDGs – aangenomen als de weg waarlangs ze de meest urgente problemen op het gebied van armoede, honger, maar ook onderwijs, economie, en milieu en klimaat wil aanpakken. De ambities, geformuleerd in de 17 SDGs, zijn verstrekkend en hoog. In verschillende Nederlandse beleidsdocumenten1234567 wordt daarom aangegeven dat hiervoor serieuze maatschappelijke transities nodig zijn zoals op het gebied van energie en klimaat, voedselvoorziening en circulaire economie, mobiliteit en leefbare steden. Voor veel van deze transities is duurzaam gebruik en beheer van bodem, water en land een essentieel onderdeel. Dit opiniestuk heeft als doel de rol van duurzaam bodem- en landgebruik te benadrukken en de urgentie ervan agenderen voor de maatschappelijke transities waar Nederland voor staat. En laten zien dat de maatschappelijke opgaven te complex zijn voor een sectorale aanpak. Integrale benadering en goede samenwerking tussen alle stakeholders zijn nodig om te komen tot duurzame oplossingen. Het is raadzaam hier voortvarend werk van te maken; de bodem is een traag systeem, dus 2030 – het jaar waarin de SDGs moeten zijn gerealiseerd – is al morgen.
Biodigestion at the Neighbourhood Level : from community participation to waste separation
Hiemstra, J. ; Lie, R. ; Rietveld, M. - \ 2017
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2017)32. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 49 - 51.
bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - reststromen - projecten - co-vergisting - digestaat - hernieuwbare energie - energiebronnen - organisch afval - recycling - bioenergy - biofuels - residual streams - projects - co-fermentation - digestate - renewable energy - energy sources - organic wastes
Urban Agriculture magazine • number 32 • September 2017 49 www.ruaf.org High energy bills and litter on the streets caused a group of residents of the Wildeman neighbourhood in the district of Osdorp in Amsterdam to act. Expecting no solution from the municipality, they decided to take care of it themselves and tackled these two problems with one solution: using the technology of biodigestion to produce energy from municipal food waste - a perfect example of the urban food-waste-energy nexus.
Groene Cirkels : Resultaatrapportage
Steingröver, E.G. ; Vos, C.C. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Groene Cirkels - 15 p.
bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - duurzame energie - indicatoren - biomassa - bioenergy - biofuels - sustainable energy - indicators - biomass
Met de resultaatmeting wil Groene Cirkels inzichtelijk maken wat er bereikt is ten aanzien van het bereiken van onze doelen en ambities. Met deze informatie wil Groene Cirkels effectief sturen op het behalen van de ambities en inzicht geven in de bijdragen en resultaten van de diverse thema-activiteiten en Groene Cirkels
The SEEA EEA carbon account for the Netherlands
Lof, Marjolein ; Schenau, Sjoerd ; Jong, Rixt de; Remme, Roy ; Graveland, Cor ; Hein, Lars - \ 2017
The Hague : Statistics Netherlands - 64
carbon dioxide - netherlands - carbon - economics - environment - biofuels - bioenergy - biogas - emission - kooldioxide - nederland - koolstof - economie - milieu - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - emissie
The carbon account provides a comprehensive overview of all relevant carbon stocks and flows. The carbon account for the Netherlands was developed within the scope of the ‘System of Environmental Economic Accounts – Experimen tal Ecosystem Accounting’ (SEEA EEA) project for the Netherlands (Natuurlijk Kapitaalrekeningen Nederland: NKR_NL), which is currently c arried out jointly by Statistics Netherlands and Wageningen University. Funding and support was provided by the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment. Within the NKR_NL project, a number of accounts are currently under devel opment. The carbon account is described in detail in this report.
Sustainable woodfuel for food security : A smart choice: green, renewable and affordable
Sooyeon, Laura Jln ; Schure, J.M. ; Ingram, V.J. ; Yoo, Byoung Il ; Reeb, Dominique ; Xia, Zuzhang ; Perlis, Andrea ; Nordberg, Mats ; Campbell, Jeffrey ; Muller, Eva - \ 2017
FAO - ISBN 9789251099629 - 35 p.
biobased economy - biofuels - bioenergy - wood - biomass - heat - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - hout - biomassa - warmte
With food insecurity, climate change and deforestation and forest degradation remaining key global issues, this paper highlights the role of sustainable woodfuel in improving food security. Food insecurity and a high dependence on woodfuel as a primary cooking fuel are characteristics common to vulnerable groups of people in developing regions of the world.With adequate policy and legal frameworks in place, woodfuel production and harvesting can be sustainable and a main source of green energy. Moreover, the widespread availability of woodfuel, and the enormous market for it, presents opportunities for employment and for sustainable value chains, providing further rationale for promoting this source of energy. This paper explains how sustainable woodfuel is closely linked to food security and provides insights in how the linkages could be strengthened at all stages of woodfuel production, trade and use.
Effect Molares® op biogas opbrengst bij co-vergisting
Durksz, Durk - \ 2017
Lelystad : ACRRES - Wageningen UR (Rapport / WPR 738) - 25
bio-energie - co-vergisting - biogas - fermentatie - installatieontwerp - voorbehandeling - malen - gasproductie - bioenergy - co-fermentation - fermentation - plant design - pretreatment - grinding - gas production
Lignocellulolytic capacities of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans: towards consolidated bioprocessing
Daas, Martinus J.A. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): John van der Oost; Richard van Kranenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431644 - 180
lactic acid - thermophiles - geobacillus - processing - bioenergy - melkzuur - thermofielen - verwerking - bio-energie

The growing demand for consumables and energy, combined with increasing consciousness over environmental issues like global warming, faces us with the challenge to find alternatives for fossil resources. Alternative production methods for energy, like windmills, solar panels and hydroelectricity plants, are far developed and have become economically competitive to fossil resourcebased production processes. However, the production of many (bulk) chemicals and products is still dominated by the petroleum industry. One such chemical is lactic acid, a fermentation product of many bacteria and a compound that is gaining interest as a building block for poly lactic acid (PLA). PLA is a polymer used to produce bioplastics, and thereby provides an alternative to petroleumbased plastic production. As described in Chapter 1, economically feasible production of lactic acid is envisioned through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). In a CBP process, pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars and those sugars are subsequently fermented to desired product in one reaction vessel. The organism of choice for this hydrolyzation and fermentation is preferentially a thermophile, capable of enzyme production and lactic acid fermentation. Species from the genus Geobacillus have many of the desired characteristics, and in Chapter 2 we have enriched and isolated facultative anaerobic (hemi)cellulolytic Geobacillus strains from compost samples. By selecting for growth on both cellulose and xylan, 94 strains were isolated. Subsequent screening for lactic acid production was carried out from C6 and C5 sugar fermentations and a selection of the best lactic acid producers was made. The denitrifying Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was selected for further research and was rendered genetically accessible with a transformation efficiency of 1.7×105 CFU/µg of plasmid DNA. In fermentations on a mixture of glucose and xylose, a total of 20.3 g of lactic acid was produced with a yield of 0.94 g product/g sugar consumed. In addition, we demonstrated that strain T12 is capable of direct conversion of beechwood xylan to mainly lactic acid in minimal media. Chapter 3 describes the genome sequencing and several features of G. thermodenitrificans T12. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3.64 Mb chromosome and two plasmids of 59 kb and 56 kb. It has a total of 3.676 genes with an average genomic GC content of 48.7%. The T12 genome encodes a denitrification pathway, allowing for anaerobic respiration. The identity and localization of the responsible genes is similar to those of the denitrification pathways found in strain NG80-2. The host-defence systems present comprise a Type II and a Type III restriction-modification system, as well as a CRISPR-Cas Type II system that could potentially be exploited as a genome editing tool for thermophiles. Furthermore, the hemicellulose utilisation (HUS) locus of strain T12 appeared to have orthologues for all the genes that are present in strain T-6 except for the arabinan degradation cluster. Instead, the HUS locus of strain T12 contains genes for both an inositol and a pectate degradation pathway. The HUS-locus associated gene, GtxynA1, encodes an extracellular endoxylanase of strain T12, and belongs to the family 10 glycoside hydrolases (GH10). In Chapter 4, we describe the cloning, expression and characterization of GtXynA1. The recombinant endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity and showed activity between 40°C and 80°C, with an optimum activity at 60°C, while being active between pH 3.0 to 9.0 with an optimum at pH 6.0. Its thermal stability was high and GtXynA1 showed 85% residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Highest activity was demonstrated towards wheat arabinoxylan (WAX), beechwood xylan (BeWX) and birchwood xylan (BiWX). GtXynA1 can degrade WAX and BeWX producing mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. To determine its mode of action, we compared the hydrolysis products generated by GtXynA1 with those from the well-characterized GH10 endoxylanase produced from Aspergillus awamori (AaXynA). The main difference in the mode of action between GtXynA1 and AaXynA on WAX is that GtXynA1 is less hindered by arabinosyl substituents and can therefore release shorter oligosaccharides. The extensive hydrolysis of branched xylans makes this enzyme particularly suited for the conversion of a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.

The enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose requires the synergistic action of three types of enzymes: exoglucanases, endoglucanases and β-glucosidases. The thermophilic, hemicellulolytic Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was shown to be a potential candidate for CBP but lacks the desired endo and exoglucanases needed for the conversion of cellulose. In Chapter 5 we report the heterologous expression of endoglucanases and exoglucanases by G. thermodenitrificans T12, in an attempt to complement the enzymatic machinery of this strain and its suitability for consolidated bioprocessing. A metagenome screen was performed on the metagenome of 73 G. thermodenitrificans strains using HMM profiles of all known CAZy families that contain endo and/or exoglucanases. Two putative endoglucanases, GE39 and GE40, belonging to glucoside hydrolase family 5 were isolated and expressed in both E. coli and G. thermodenitrificans T12. Structure modeling of GE39 revealed a folding similar to a GH5 exo-1,3-βglucanase from S. cerevisiae. However, we determined GE39 to be a β-xylosidase having most activity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-dxylopyranoside. Structure modelling of GE40 revealed a protein architecture similar to a GH5 endoglucanase from B. halodurans, and its endoglucanase activity was confirmed by enzymatic analysis against 2-HE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and barley β-glucan. In addition, we successfully expressed the earlier characterized Geobacillus sp. 70PC53 endoglucanase celA and the C. thermocellum exoglucanase celK in strain G. thermodenitrificans T12. The native hemicellulolytic activity and the heterologous cellulolytic activity described in this research provide a good basis for the further development of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 as a host for consolidated bioprocessing. In Chapter 6, we provided more insight in the genetic variation of the hemicellulolytic utilization cluster of G. thermodenitrificans. This variation is far greater than described before and gives ample opportunities for the further development of Geobacillus spp. for hemicellulose degradation. The production of cellulases in Geobacillus species is demonstrated to be successful, and we have expanded on that knowledge with the expression of both endo and exoglucanases from C. thermocellum. However, in line with previous studies, direct cellulose fermentation by geobacilli is not yet achieved, most likely due to insufficient cellulase production and/or secretion. With a rapidly expanding genetic toolbox for thermophiles, now including a thermostable Cas9, we expect that the successful development of Geobacillus spp. for consolidated bioprocessing is just a matter of time.

Publishable version of Compendium on research results on agro and forest-biomass side-streams : Deliverable 1.1. EU-Horizon2020 project AGRIFORFALOR, Project ID: 696394
Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Lambrecht, E. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Gellynck, X. ; Welck, H. - \ 2016
European Commission - 25 p.
biomass - bioenergy - sustainability - biobased economy - residual streams - wood - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - chemical industry - projects - biomassa - bio-energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - reststromen - hout - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - chemische industrie - projecten
AGRIFORVALOR aims to close the research and innovation divide by connecting practitioners from agriculture and forestry to research and academia as well as with associations and clusters, bio-industry, policy makers; business support organisations, innovation agencies and technology transfer intermediaries in multi-actor innovation partnership networks. The focus of the project is on the transfer of know-how and information to enable and support farmers and foresters to exploit existing research results and facilitate the capture of grass root ideas for bio-industry development.
In the project, practitioners in the field of biomass side-streams are united in three Biomass Innovation Design Hubs, piloted in Spain (Andalucía), Hungary and Ireland. In each of these hubs, existing research results and good practices on valorisation of biomass side-streams from agro and forest will be shared and matched with the specific needs and potentials; new grass-roots ideas collected and developed; and dedicated innovation support applied to further deploy selected topics which are dealt with by multi-actor innovation partnership groups.
The assessment of advanced pre-treatment chains. TO2 Advanced pre-treatment of biomass; Task A3
Meesters, K.P.H. ; Annevelink, E. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789462577213 - 23 p.
value chain analysis - supply chain management - biomass - biobased materials - biobased economy - bioenergy - biorefinery - modeling - pretreatment - waardeketenanalyse - ketenmanagement - biomassa - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bio-energie - bioraffinage - modelleren - voorbehandeling
The overall objective of the TO2 project ‘Advanced pre-treatment of biomass’ was to design optimal energy-driven refinery chains for the susta inable valorization of non-woody biomass to biobased commodities. Therefore optimal combination s need to be found of upstream biorefining and the production of high-quality (sol id) energy carriers from a broad spectrum of non-woody biomass streams. Task A3. within this TO2 project focused on modelling chains and performing an economic evaluation of these chains. Three cases of biomass chains were modelled and evaluated in this report.
How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains : Vision paper
Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, Paul ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, Jim ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 24 p.
biobased economy - resource utilization - value chain analysis - bioenergy - biomass - recycling - sustainable development - economic development - food production - hulpbronnengebruik - waardeketenanalyse - bio-energie - biomassa - duurzame ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - voedselproductie
This publication contains a vision, formulated by research experts in food and biobased production, on how to achieve increased efficient and effective use of available resources during the production and (re)processing of biomass for food and biobased products, feed and energy. This paper briefly elaborates on the transition to a sustainable bio-economy (see graph 1), focusing on the needs and requirements from a value chain perspective.
Biomassa voor de energievoorziening van tuinbouwclusters
Zwart, H.F. de; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Visser, H.J.M. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1393) - 34 p.
bio-energie - glastuinbouw - haalbaarheidsstudies - economische haalbaarheid - warmte - kooldioxide - elektriciteit - biomassa - biobased economy - biochar - verbranding - opwekking van elektriciteit - warmteproductie - bioenergy - greenhouse horticulture - feasibility studies - economic viability - heat - carbon dioxide - electricity - biomass - combustion - electricity generation - heat production
Biomass combustion in combination with a cluster of greenhouses to provide heat, CO2 and electricity can provide a partly solution to the sustainability of the horticultural sector. A biomass gasification plant could also provide valuable biochar, the result of partial combustion of biocarbon. This was shown to have attractive characteristics to be used in high quality potting soil. Despite the high value of the biochar (contributing for 16% of the income from the plant), the economic feasibility of a biomass combustion plant depends heavily on governmental subsidies (SDE +). When the developed technology is used on a practical scale, a biomass plant of 8 MW thermal power and 1.4 MW of electrical power is a sound size. Such a plant fits well with a horticultural cluster of 15 hectares, consisting of 6 ha Tomato, 6 ha Pepper and 3 hectares of Chrysanthemum. The biomass plant produces over 91% of the heating and 95% of the CO2 requirement and 67% of the electricity counsumed. However during winter a lot of electricity will have to be bought, which is compensated with selling to the public grid in summer. The biomass combustion plant will mainly run on biomass is supplied from elsewhere. The biomass from the local cluster covers only 0.3% of the combusted amount. If all available biomass from Netherlands territory would be used to heat greenhouses about 20% of greenhouse industry could make use of system like described in this report.
Thermococcus kodakarensis : the key to affordable biohydrogen production
Spaans, S.K. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): John van der Oost, co-promotor(en): Servé Kengen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577725 - 245 p.
thermococcus - thermococcus kodakarensis - hydrogen - bioenergy - canonical analysis - biosynthesis - nadph - archaea - microbiology - waterstof - bio-energie - canonische analyse - biosynthese - microbiologie
Electricity from wetlands : technology assessment of the tubular Plant Microbial Fuel Cell with an integrated biocathode
Wetser, K. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): David Strik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576964 - 153 p.
electricity generation - wetlands - fuel cells - bioenergy - salt marshes - spartina anglica - phragmites australis - electrodes - opwekking van elektriciteit - brandstofcellen - bio-energie - zoutmoerassen - elektrodes

Sustainable electricity generation by the plant microbial fuel cell

Fossil fuels are currently the main source of electricity production. Combustion of fossil fuels causes air pollution severely affecting human health and nature. This results in an increasing demand for renewable electricity sources. One of the emerging renewable electricity technologies is the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) as explained in chapter 1. PMFC generates electricity from the rhizodeposits of living plants. Naturally occurring electrochemically active microorganisms oxidize the rhizodeposits producing electrons at the anode of the PMFC. The electrons flow from the anode, via an external circuit where the electricity is harvested, to the cathode. At the cathode, the electrons reduce oxygen to water. PMFC is based on naturally occurring sustainable and renewable processes without net emissions and competition for arable land or nature. Large scale application of the PMFC is preferred in wetlands because a large waterlogged area is required.

Prior to application, the cathode limitations of the PMFC have to be solved. Oxygen reduction at the cathode is slow, limiting the current and power output of the PMFC. An unsustainable chemical cathode is often used in PMFC research to overcome the cathode limitations. The sustainable oxygen reducing cathode has to be catalyzed when integrated in the PMFC. Most chemical catalyst are expensive and prohibit the commercial use in the PMFC. Oxygen reduction can also be biologically catalyzed by cheap and self-replenishing microorganisms. Next to the biocathode, also a suitable design of the PMFC has to be developed before application in wetlands. A tubular design was previously developed which can be invisibly integrated in wetlands. However, this design still used a chemical cathode and energy intensive pumping. The oxygen reducing biocathode should be integrated in the tubular design and oxygen should be passively supplied in the cathode.

The objective of this thesis is to apply PMFC in wetlands with a sustainable biocathode. First, the biocathode is integrated in a lab scale PMFC. Afterwards, the PMFC is installed in wetlands using an improved tubular design with an integrated biocathode and passive oxygen supply.

Lab scale experiments: integration of the biocathode and electricity localization in the bioanode of the PMFC

In chapter 2, the oxygen reducing biocathode is integrated in a flat plate lab scale PMFC replacing the chemical ferricyanide cathode. The PMFC operated as a completely biocatalyzed system for 151 days. The sustainable PMFC with a biocathode was able to generate more power than the PMFC with a chemical cathode. The long term power generation of the lab scale PMFC improved from 155 mW m-2 plant growth area (PGA) to a record of 240 mW m-2 PGA. This record was reached due to the higher redox potential of oxygen reduction compared to ferricyanide reduction. Oxygen reduction was effectively catalyzed by microorganisms lowering the voltage losses at the cathode. As a result, the PMFC with a biocathode operated at a 127 mV higher cathode potential than a similar PMFC with a chemical ferricyanide cathode. The long term current generation of both PMFCs was 0.4 A m-2 PGA. The current generation was likely limited by the substrate availability in the anode of the PMFC.

In chapter 3, the biocathode is further investigated. This chapter shows that the oxygen reducing biocathode can also catalyze the reversible reaction, water oxidation. Water is the most abundant electron donor available for electrochemical fuel production like the reduction of protons to hydrogen and the reduction of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbons. However, the water oxidation reaction is currently hampering the development of large scale water oxidation technologies. A bioanode containing electrochemically active microorganisms was able to reach a current density of 0.93 A m-2 at 0.7 V overpotential with a 22 % Coulombic efficiency linked to water oxidation. An optimized system could be used to produce fuels on a large scale.

The flat plate PMFC of chapter 2 was also used to localize the electricity generation in the PMFC (chapter 4). In this experiment, the anode was partitioned in 30 separate small anodes at different width and depths. The current generation of each anode was analyzed over time and linked to the plant roots. The results show that after a start-up period of 70 days, significantly higher current was generated at anodes close to the plant roots due to rhizodeposition. Besides rhizodeposition (i.e. electron donors), the plant roots also excrete oxygen which is an electron acceptor lowering the current generation of the PFMC. Also oxygen was measured at the anodes close to the plant roots. This likely resulted in internal currents in the PMFC. Current was likely generated both from living and death roots. The electrons in the PMFC were probably transferred via mediators to locations without roots as mediators were present also at locations without plant roots. These mediators were likely excreted by plants and/or microorganisms in the anode. Electrons were likely not transferred over centimeter distance through conductive microorganism on the plant roots in the PMFC.

Installation of the tubular PMFC with an integrated biocathode in wetlands

After the successful integration of the biocathode in the PMFC, the focus of the research changed to application in wetlands. Two wetlands with an abundant occurrence in the Netherlands were investigated in this research. The first wetland was a Phragmites australis dominated fen peat soil, a large perennial grass. The peat soil in this research was collected in national park Alde Feanen in the north of the Netherlands. The second investigated wetland was a Spartina anglica dominated salt marsh. Spartina anglica is a perennial grass found in coastlines spread over the world. The salt marsh was collected in the Oosterschelde tidal basin in the southwest of the Netherlands.

The first experiment in the wetlands was conducted to investigate the spatial and temporal differences in current and power generation in and between wetlands (chapter 5). PMFCs in the salt marsh were able to generate more than 10 times more power than the same PMFCs in the peat soil (18 vs 1.3 mW m-2 PGA on a long term). The higher power generation is mainly explained by the high ionic conductivity of the salt marsh and the presence of sulfide which is also oxidized next to the rhizodeposits at the anode of the PMFC. The top layer of the salt marsh generated most power due to the presence of the plants and tidal advection. In the peat soil, there was no significant difference in power generation over depth. Even though, in the top layer more living roots were present. Also the dead roots and organics in peat can be oxidized by the PMFC. In chapter 5, also the maximum current and power output of the wetlands was predicted based on rhizodeposition of the investigated plants and microbial processes in these wetlands. The calculations showed that the potential current generation of PMFC in the salt marsh is 0.21-0.48 A m-2 PGA and in peat soil 0.15-0.86 A m-2. In the peat soil, the PMFC is potentially able to generate a power density up to 0.52 W m-2 PGA.

The second experiment in the wetland was the installation of a tubular PMFC with an in situ started oxygen reducing biocathode and passive oxygen supply into the cathode (chapter 6). The anode was the outside of the tube and placed directly between the plant roots. The oxygen reducing biocathode was located inside the tube. A silicone gas diffusion tube was placed in the cathode compartment to passively supply the required oxygen. The tubular PMFC with biocathode was successfully installed and started in the peat soil reaching a maximum daily average power generation of 22 mW m-2 PGA. In the salt marsh, the tubular biocathode PMFC only started while supplying pure oxygen in the gas diffusion tube. Air diffusion did not result in the start-up of the biocathode, likely because the oxygen was directly reduced via internal currents and therefore more oxygen was required. Once started with pure oxygen, the tubular PMFC was able to generate 82 mW m-2 PGA which was again higher than the peat soil. Completely biocatalyzed tubular PMFC were installed in both wetlands with natural occurring microorganisms in the anode and cathode. The power generation can be further increased by improving the PMFC design limiting crossover of oxygen and substrate.

Future outlook: application of the PMFC in wetlands

In chapter 5, the potential power generation of the two investigated wetlands was calculated. In chapter 7, these calculations were extended to a worldwide scale. PMFC applied in all wetlands could generate 0.67 to 1.35 TW and could cover 30 to 60 % of the global electricity consumption. 70 % of all the potential power could be generated in the tropics. Worldwide, 1.1 billion people have insufficient access to electricity from which 88 % lives in the tropics (i.e. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia). PMFC could be used to reach universal access of electricity in these locations and decrease the amount of premature deaths due to air pollution.

PMFC can be applied with passive or active oxygen supply from the outside air into the silicone tube. The used tubular PMFC with passive oxygen supply can have a maximum length of less than one meter. Active supply of oxygen reduces the net power output of the PMFC, but allowing installation of long tubular PMFC. However, in both cases the material costs should be significantly reduced for economically feasible application at large scale. The costs of the material should be decreased to less than 1 % of the current PMFC costs to have a payback time of 50 years in the Dutch electricity market for only the tubular PMFC. Further cost reduction is required when also the current collectors, electricity transmission, production and installation costs are included. Application of PMFC in remote locations increases the economic feasibility of the PMFC as the PMFC could be applied independent from the grid reducing the transmission costs and avoiding the regular electricity network charges.

Application of the PMFC in the total area of Spartina anglica salt marsh in the Oosterschelde, the location were the plants were collected, could produce a total of 11.6 GWh yr-1. The Oosterschelde could produce the electricity consumption of 8,360 persons and as such produce the electricity need of an average village directly located at the tidal basin. The Phragmites australis peat soil in the Alde Feanen national park could produce 2.5 GWh yr-1. The electricity could be directly used for ecotourism purposes, for example for the use of electric boats and a holiday park.

EnAlgae Decision Support Toolset: model validation
Kenny, Philip ; Visser, Chris de; Skarka, Johannes ; Sternberg, Kirstin ; Schipperus, Roelof ; Silkina, Alla ; Ginnever, Naomi - \ 2015
Swansea : Swansea University - 25
biobased economy - bioenergy - biomass - algae culture - algae - bioethanol - biodiesel - methanol - seaweeds - seaweed culture - bio-energie - biomassa - algenteelt - algen - zeewieren - zeewierenteelt
One of the drivers behind the EnAlgae project is recognising and addressing the need for increased availability of information about developments in applications of algae biotechnology for energy, particularly in the NW Europe area, where activity has been less intense than in other areas of the globe. Such information can be of benefit in coordinating research activities, stimulating targeted investment to develop promising technologies and to guide key policy decisions. To make this a reality, EnAlgae has developed a Decision Support Toolset (DST) to enable improved evaluation of state of the art algal biotechnology and to compare alternative routes to utilising algal biomass.
Harvesting, logistics and upgrading of herbaceous biomass from verges and natural areas for use in thermal conversion : TKI BBE Park Cuijk
Elbersen, H.W. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Bakker, R. ; Kamp, R.G.M. op den; Holshof, G. ; Spijker, J.H. ; Ree, R. van; Arkestijn, Karlijn ; Schijndel, Daan van; Haasnoot, Kees ; Remmelink, Bert-Erik ; Bakker, P. ; Massop, Hans ; Quik, Jan - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1552) - ISBN 9789462575110 - 83 p.
biobased economy - biomass - grass clippings - bioenergy - cogeneration - netherlands - sustainability - combustion - biomassa - grasmaaisel - bio-energie - warmtekrachtkoppeling - nederland - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - verbranding
The main goal of this project was to analyse if it is technically possible, environmentally favourable and economically profitable to use herbaceous biomass from verges (roadsides) and natural areas as raw material for combustion in the Cuijk facility of Essent for the production of CHP (combined heat and power).
Vergeet de windmolens, allemaal aan de zeewier-energie
Swam, K. van; Brandenburg, W.A. - \ 2015
RTLZ
zeewieren - zeewierenteelt - bio-energie - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - seaweeds - seaweed culture - bioenergy - new crops - sustainability - fuel crops
Koen van Swam en Willem Brandenburg bij Van Liempt Live over de energie van de toekomst. Vergeet windmolens, we moeten aan de zeewier-stroom, rechtstreeks uit de Noordzee.
Prototype van een Dynamisch Input Advies Systeem voor biogasinstallaties
Timmerman, M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 897) - 58
bio-energie - biogas - gasproductie - co-vergisting - mestvergisting - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - optimalisatie - energieproductie in de landbouw - melkveehouderij - biobased economy - bioenergy - gas production - co-fermentation - manure fermentation - decision support systems - optimization - agricultural energy production - dairy farming
Het Dynamisch Input Advies Systeem (Dynamisch Vergisten) voor biogasinstallaties maakt gebruik van bedrijfsspecifieke procesgegevens voor de dagelijkse bijsturing van de input naar een biogasinstallatie. Het adviessysteem bestaat uit een methodiek die dagelijks de actuele invloed bepaalt van de input op de biogasproductie en een control algoritme die op basis van de relatie tussen de input en de biogasproductie de optimale input bepaalt. Op basis hiervan wordt de input bijgesteld in de richting van de optimale input. Het control algoritme kan worden ingesteld om de input voor de maximaal haalbare biogasproductie te bepalen of om de input te bepalen waarbij het voersaldo (energieopbrengst minus voerkosten) maximaal is. Het doel van het onderzoek was het vaststellen van het “proof of principle” van de methodiek van Dynamisch Vergisten onder praktijkomstandigheden. Het onderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden op een melkveeproefbedrijf en een praktijkbedrijf. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat het principe van Dynamisch Vergisten in staat was om de input zo te sturen dat de biogasproductie toe nam zonder dat het vergistingsproces nadelig werd beïnvloed. De toename in biogasproductie leidde tot hogere voersaldo’s. De methodiek van Dynamisch Vergisten biedt perspectief om het financiële rendement van biogasinstallaties te verbeteren.
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