Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A research challenge vision regarding management of agricultural waste in a circular bio-based economy
Gontard, Nathalie ; Sonesson, Ulf ; Birkved, Morten ; Majone, Mauro ; Bolzonella, David ; Celli, Annamaria ; Angellier-Coussy, Hélène ; Jang, Guang Way ; Verniquet, Anne ; Broeze, Jan ; Schaer, Burkhard ; Batista, Ana Paula ; Sebok, András - \ 2018
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology (2018). - ISSN 1064-3389
Agriculture - bio-based materials - biogas - circular economy - eco-design - waste

Agricultural waste is a huge pool of untapped biomass resources that may even represent economic and environmental burdens. They can be converted into bioenergy and bio-based products by cascading conversion processes, within circular economy, and should be considered residual resources. Major challenges are discussed from a transdisciplinary perspective, focused on Europe situation. Environmental and economic consequences of agricultural residue management chains are difficult to assess due to their complexity, seasonality and regionality. Designing multi-criteria decision support tools, applicable at an early-stage of research, is discussed. Improvement of Anaerobic Digestion (AD), one of the most mature conversion technologies, is discussed from a technological point of view and waste feedstock geographical and seasonal variations. Using agricultural residual resources for producing high-value chemicals is a considerable challenge analysed here, taking into account innovative eco-efficient and cost-effective cascading conversion processes (bio-refinery concept). Moreover, the promotion of agricultural residues-based business is discussed through industrial ecology, to promote synergy, on a local basis, between different agricultural and industrial value chains. Finally, to facilitate a holistic approach and optimise materials and knowledge flows management, the connection of stakeholders is discussed to promote cross-sectorial collaboration and resource exchange at appropriate geographic scales.

Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions : Vision on metropolitan biorefinery concepts in relation to resource-efficient cities
Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. ; Groot, J.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1790) - ISBN 9789463437424 - 18
biomass - bioenergy - residual streams - refining - biofuels - biobased economy - biogas - biomassa - bio-energie - reststromen - raffineren - biobrandstoffen
Expectations are that 80 percent of the global population will reside in urban areas by the year 2050. As urbanisation levels increase so do ecological footprint sizes in these areas, as it is in the cities that income levels are higher, and where higher levels of disposable incomes exist. Whereas the circular economy is gaining ground as a concept for increasing sustainability by the efficient use of available materials and resources, urban areas are often recognised as attractive starting points for making the transition towards a circular economy. The paper “Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions” contains the description of a vision on how biorefinery concepts in current and future metropoles may contribute to the increased efficiency in the use of resources for biomass production. As such this vision forms the interpretation of the principles of the circular economy within the context of biomass value chains and within the geographic boundaries of a metropolitan region. This is also referred to as the circular metropolitan system. With this paper researchers from Wageningen Food & Biobased Research intend to contribute to a scientific basis for increasing resource use efficiency in metropolitan regions through developing appropriate and sustainable biorefinery concepts.
Opiniestuk sustainable development goals : transities realiseren met duurzaam bodem - en landgebruik
Mol, G. ; Cleen, M. de; Molenaar, Co ; Keesstra, S. ; Visser, S. ; Okx, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research - 7
duurzame energie - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biogas - overheidsbeleid - klimaat - bio-energie - reststromen - hernieuwbare energie - energiebeleid - sustainable energy - biofuels - government policy - climate - bioenergy - residual streams - renewable energy - energy policy
In 2015 hebben de Verenigde Naties de Duurzame Ontwikkelingsdoelen – beter bekend als de Sustainable Development Goals of kortweg SDGs – aangenomen als de weg waarlangs ze de meest urgente problemen op het gebied van armoede, honger, maar ook onderwijs, economie, en milieu en klimaat wil aanpakken. De ambities, geformuleerd in de 17 SDGs, zijn verstrekkend en hoog. In verschillende Nederlandse beleidsdocumenten1234567 wordt daarom aangegeven dat hiervoor serieuze maatschappelijke transities nodig zijn zoals op het gebied van energie en klimaat, voedselvoorziening en circulaire economie, mobiliteit en leefbare steden. Voor veel van deze transities is duurzaam gebruik en beheer van bodem, water en land een essentieel onderdeel. Dit opiniestuk heeft als doel de rol van duurzaam bodem- en landgebruik te benadrukken en de urgentie ervan agenderen voor de maatschappelijke transities waar Nederland voor staat. En laten zien dat de maatschappelijke opgaven te complex zijn voor een sectorale aanpak. Integrale benadering en goede samenwerking tussen alle stakeholders zijn nodig om te komen tot duurzame oplossingen. Het is raadzaam hier voortvarend werk van te maken; de bodem is een traag systeem, dus 2030 – het jaar waarin de SDGs moeten zijn gerealiseerd – is al morgen.
The SEEA EEA carbon account for the Netherlands
Lof, Marjolein ; Schenau, Sjoerd ; Jong, Rixt de; Remme, Roy ; Graveland, Cor ; Hein, Lars - \ 2017
The Hague : Statistics Netherlands - 64
carbon dioxide - netherlands - carbon - economics - environment - biofuels - bioenergy - biogas - emission - kooldioxide - nederland - koolstof - economie - milieu - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - emissie
The carbon account provides a comprehensive overview of all relevant carbon stocks and flows. The carbon account for the Netherlands was developed within the scope of the ‘System of Environmental Economic Accounts – Experimen tal Ecosystem Accounting’ (SEEA EEA) project for the Netherlands (Natuurlijk Kapitaalrekeningen Nederland: NKR_NL), which is currently c arried out jointly by Statistics Netherlands and Wageningen University. Funding and support was provided by the Ministries of Economic Affairs and Infrastructure and the Environment. Within the NKR_NL project, a number of accounts are currently under devel opment. The carbon account is described in detail in this report.
Effect Molares® op biogas opbrengst bij co-vergisting
Durksz, Durk - \ 2017
Lelystad : ACRRES - Wageningen UR (Rapport / WPR 738) - 25
bio-energie - co-vergisting - biogas - fermentatie - installatieontwerp - voorbehandeling - malen - gasproductie - bioenergy - co-fermentation - fermentation - plant design - pretreatment - grinding - gas production
Optimal use of biogas from waste streams : an assessment of the potential of biogas from digestion in the EU beyond 2020
Kampman, Bettina ; Leguijt, Cor ; Scholten, Thijs ; Tallat-Kelpsaite, Jurga ; Brückmann, Robert ; Maroulis, Georgios ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Meesters, Koen ; Sikirica, Natasa ; Elbersen, Berien - \ 2017
Luxembourg : European Commission - 158
biogas - gas production - fermentation - assessment - production possibilities - residual streams - european union - biobased economy - gasproductie - fermentatie - beoordeling - productiemogelijkheden - reststromen - europese unie
As the European Commission is working on the further development and concretisation of the post-2020 climate and energy policies, this study was commissioned to zoom in on the potential role, cost and benefits of biogas, and to assess the key barriers and drivers of biogas deployment in the EU. An important question to address was what policies at both EU and Member State level can best contribute to the effective and efficient growth of biogas deployment in the EU. The study focussed on biogas production by digestion processes of local waste streams, i.e. on biogas production from sewage sludge, landfill gas and from suitable organic waste streams from agriculture, the food industry and households.
Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues : deliverable nº: 6.2.1
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 39 p.
renewable energy - anaerobic digestion - biogas - crop residues - agricultural wastes - sustainable energy - electricity supplies - innovations - biobased economy - fermentation - digestate - hernieuwbare energie - anaërobe afbraak - oogstresten - agrarische afvalstoffen - duurzame energie - elektriciteitsvoorzieningen - innovaties - fermentatie - digestaat
The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of renewable gas. In task 6.2 of the HYSOL project research into the possibilities of sustainable biogas production from agricultural residues by anaerobic digestion has been performed. In this report results are described of part of this research focussing on potential biogas production and digestate production and utilisation from animal manure and crop residues.
Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
Anaerobic digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the presence of humic acids
Azman, Samet - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579613 - 189
humic acids - hydrolysis - anaerobic digestion - cellulose - hemicelluloses - biomass - renewable energy - energy recovery - biogas - fermentation - bioprocess engineering - humuszuren - hydrolyse - anaërobe afbraak - hemicellulosen - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - energieterugwinning - fermentatie - bioproceskunde

Research on the hydrolysis step of the AD became more important with the increased use of recalcitrant waste products such as manure, sewage sludge and agricultural biomass for biogas production. Hydrolysis is often the rate limiting step of the overall AD. Hydrolysis enhancement is one of the required steps to optimise biogas production. Despite the progress to overcome the limitations of hydrolysis, inhibition of hydrolysis is still poorly researched. Humic acid-like molecules (HA) are one of the inhibitors of the anaerobic hydrolysis and their effect on the overall AD process is generally overlooked.

In this thesis, the HA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of cellulosic material and mitigation strategies, using cation and enzyme addition, to overcome the inhibition were investigated. In addition, the microbial community dynamics during AD in the presence and absence of HA were examined. In this scope, in Chapter 2, we reviewed the literature and pinpointed the urgent need for comprehensive studies on the role of hydrolytic microorganisms and environmental factors that effects their abundance within biogas plants. Consequently, the hydrolysis mechanism and involved hydrolytic enzymes were discussed. The overall discussion showed that a holistic approach, including microbiological and engineering studies should be chosen to disclose the role of hydrolytic microbes within biogas reactors. In Chapter 3 and, Chapter 4 the effect of HA on anaerobic cellulose hydrolysis and methanogenesis, in batch wise incubations is reported, respectively. Our results showed that pulse addition of 5 g L-1 HA caused a 50 % decrease in hydrolysis rate of anaerobic cellulose degradation (Chapter 3). Moreover, VFA accumulation was observed in the presence of HA during the anaerobic cellulose degradation, which indicated the possible inhibition of HA on methanogenesis. Based on the results of Chapter 3, pure cultures of methanogens and a mixed culture were tested to study the vulnerability of methanogenesis to HA inhibition. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in pure cultures was inhibited by more than 75% in the presence of 1 g L-1 HA whereas, acetoclastic methanogenesis by Methanosaeta concilii was only slightly affected by HA up to 3 g L-1. When methanogenic granular sludge was incubated with HA, the specific methanogenic activity tests showed less inhibition, when compared to the pure cultures of methanogens. HA inhibition was also observed during long-term CSTR operation at an HRT of 20 days, 35°C and a mixture of cellulose and xylan as a subtrate (Chapter 6). 8 g L-1 HA inhibited the hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulose and xylan digestion by 40 % and concomitantly reduced the methane yields.

Mitigation of the HA inhibition is required to increase the hydrolysis efficiency and methane yields of cellulosic biomass digestion. Therefore, two different strategies were tested for their potential use as mitigation agents, viz. addition of cations such as, calcium magnesium and iron (Chapter 3 and Chapter 6) and addition of hydrolytic enzymes (Chapter 6). Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts mitigated the HA inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75, 65 and 72%, respectively, compared to the control groups in the batch wise incubations (Chapter 3). However, in long term CSTR operations, calcium addition did not show a positive effect on hydrolysis inhibition. On the other hand, enzyme addition helped to reverse the negative effect of HA.

The microbial communities involved in AD were also studied. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 dealt with microbial community analyses with 16S rRNA next generation sequencing. In Chapter 5, five replicate reactors were monitored during the start-up period. Transient feeding strategy was used to acclimatise anaerobic sludge to efficient cellulose and xylan degradation. During the experiment, Bacteriodales, Clostridiales and Anaerolineales became dominant bacterial populations while, Methanobacteriaceae and Methanospirillaceae were the dominant archaeal populations within the reactors. In Chapter 6, the microbial population dynamics in the presence and absence of HA were monitored. Microbiological analyses showed that the abundance of hydrolytic/fermentative bacterial groups such as Clostridiales, Bacteroidales and Anaerolineales was significantly lowered by the presence of HA. HA also affected the archaeal populations. Mostly hydrogenotrophic methanogens were negatively affected by HA.

In conclusion, this thesis confirms that HA inhibit the hydrolysis and methanogenesis within both batch incubations and CSTR systems. Microbial populations were also affected by HA. Therefore, hydrolytic enzyme addition can be an option to mitigate HA inhibition and enhance hydrolysis and methanogenesis during conversion of biomass to biogas.

Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 70) - 158
biogas - co-vergisting - arsenicum - residuen - zware metalen - verontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - biociden - mestbeleid - landbouwbeleid - organische verontreinigende stoffen - risicoschatting - co-fermentation - arsenic - residues - heavy metals - pollutants - pesticides - biocides - manure policy - agricultural policy - organic pollutants - risk assessment
A number of wastes and by-products were reviewed for their suitability as substrates for co-digestion with animalmanure to produce biogas and a digestate for use as a fertiliser. The review included 21 substances proposed byLTO Noord (Dutch Farmers Union – Northern Netherlands) and Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO, the Dutch BiogasIndustry Association) for inclusion in Annex Aa of the Fertiliser Act. At the request of the Ministry of EconomicAffairs a further 6 substances were added (21+6). In addition, 119 substances were re-reviewed in connection witha change to the reference composition for animal manure. The review focused on the possible adverseenvironmental effects of using the digestate as a fertiliser and followed the protocol for assessing the value andrisks of waste used as a fertiliser, version 2.1. The risk assessment included the inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Cu,Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As) and organic contaminants (dioxine, PCBs, PAHs, mineral oil, residues of crop protectionproducts) as required by the Fertiliser Act. For all the wastes and by-products, data on composition were collectedfrom the literature and from analyses provided by stakeholders. Expert judgment was used where data were notavailable or were insufficient to conduct a risk assessment as prescribed by the protocol. Criteria for expertjudgment were developed for such situations. Two alternative risk assessment methods were developed for theresidues of pesticides and biocides, based partly on expert judgement. These methods were compared with themethod prescribed by the protocol. These three methods reflect different policy judgements; the protection level setby policymakers will determine which method should be used. The 21+6 substances were evaluated in accordancewith the protocol and using the three methods for evaluating the residues of pesticides and biocides. The resultswere compared with registered co-digestion materials in Flanders, Denmark and Germany. Recommendations aregiven to support policy decisions on the choice of alternative risk assessment method to be used to permit the codigestionof wastes and by-products in biogas production that produce an agronomically and environmentallyacceptable digestate for fertiliser use
Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power
Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
In: Procedia Computer Science. - Elsevier - p. 1126 - 1133.
agricultural residues - biogas - biomethane - GHG emission - HCSP - non-renewable energy use - soil organic matter

This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to biomethane and injection into the gas grid for transport and storage. Using biogas from agricultural residues results in efficient reduction of non-renewable energy use and especially GHG emission, due to the avoidance of methane emission from manure storage. The net biomethane production from agricultural residues in EU-27 can potentially reach approximately 29,000 Mm3, sufficient to supply 320 CSP plants with a capacity of 100 MWe with HYSOL technology, producing 55% of the electricity from gas. The uncertainties concerning the production potential are large.

Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions
Roman, P. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Albert Janssen, co-promotor(en): Martijn Bijmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577336 - 193 p.
desulfurization - biogas - bioreactors - methane - sulfides - oxidation - ontzwaveling - bioreactoren - methaan - sulfiden - oxidatie

Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions

Paweł Roman

Abstract

Biological removal of H2S from sour gas streams became popular in recent years because of high process efficiency and low operational costs. To expand the scope of these processes to gas streams containing volatile organosulfur compounds, like thiols, it is necessary to provide new insights into their impact on overall biodesulfurization process. In the current thesis multidisciplinary investigations are performed, such as investigations of inhibitory effects of organic sulfur compounds on sulfide-oxidizing biomass by biochemical and enzyme studies; modelling of the process performance and biological pathways; preparation of analytical tools for measuring unstable sulfur compounds under the process conditions; following the microbial dynamics. The research described in this thesis increases the understanding of the underlying processes occurring in biological gas desulfurization systems when organosulfur compounds are present in the feed gas and provides solutions how to cope with these compounds in full-scale gas biodesulfurization installations.

Purifying manure effluents with duckweed
Timmerman, M. ; Hoving, I.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 942) - 27 p.
animal manures - effluents - lemna - aquatic weeds - feeds - nutrients - ingredients - animal feeding - animal nutrition - waste water - biogas - biomass production - cultivation - biobased economy - dierlijke meststoffen - afvoerwater - schadelijke waterplanten - voer - voedingsstoffen - ingrediënten - diervoedering - diervoeding - afvalwater - biomassa productie - teelt
The objective of this study was to perform a short literature survey to provide information about purifying manure effluents with duckweed with regard to varieties, cultivation, harvesting methods, utilization and valorisation of duckweed. The results of the study show that duckweed can be used to recuperate nutrients from manure effluents and that the concerning duckweed can be utilized as a source of feed, energy and ingredients
Meer doen met mest
Didde, R. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Andeweg, K. ; Teenstra, E.D. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
mestverwerking - ontwikkelingslanden - mestvergisting - biogas - bemesting - kringlopen - vietnam - landbouwontwikkeling - manure treatment - developing countries - manure fermentation - fertilizer application - cycling - agricultural development
Wageningen UR probeert boeren in ontwikkelingslanden ervan te overtuigen meer te doen met de mest van hun vee. Dat kan bijdragen aan de energievoorziening, de conditie van de bodem en vermindering van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen. In Vietnam worden de eerste resultaten geboekt.
Goede verwerking van natuurgras bij oogst en bewaren essentieel voor succes : : themanummer groene grondstoffen
Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)118. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 28 - 30.
mestvergisting - mest - biogas - co-vergisting - grasmaaisel - maaien - graslandbeheer - biomassa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - graskuilvoer - manure fermentation - manures - co-fermentation - grass clippings - mowing - grassland management - biomass - natural resources - grass silage
Natuurgras kan uitstekend dienst doen als co-vergister in mestvergisters. Maar dan moeten de oogst en de opslag wel goed gebeuren.
Prototype van een Dynamisch Input Advies Systeem voor biogasinstallaties
Timmerman, M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 897) - 58
bio-energie - biogas - gasproductie - co-vergisting - mestvergisting - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - optimalisatie - energieproductie in de landbouw - melkveehouderij - biobased economy - bioenergy - gas production - co-fermentation - manure fermentation - decision support systems - optimization - agricultural energy production - dairy farming
Het Dynamisch Input Advies Systeem (Dynamisch Vergisten) voor biogasinstallaties maakt gebruik van bedrijfsspecifieke procesgegevens voor de dagelijkse bijsturing van de input naar een biogasinstallatie. Het adviessysteem bestaat uit een methodiek die dagelijks de actuele invloed bepaalt van de input op de biogasproductie en een control algoritme die op basis van de relatie tussen de input en de biogasproductie de optimale input bepaalt. Op basis hiervan wordt de input bijgesteld in de richting van de optimale input. Het control algoritme kan worden ingesteld om de input voor de maximaal haalbare biogasproductie te bepalen of om de input te bepalen waarbij het voersaldo (energieopbrengst minus voerkosten) maximaal is. Het doel van het onderzoek was het vaststellen van het “proof of principle” van de methodiek van Dynamisch Vergisten onder praktijkomstandigheden. Het onderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden op een melkveeproefbedrijf en een praktijkbedrijf. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat het principe van Dynamisch Vergisten in staat was om de input zo te sturen dat de biogasproductie toe nam zonder dat het vergistingsproces nadelig werd beïnvloed. De toename in biogasproductie leidde tot hogere voersaldo’s. De methodiek van Dynamisch Vergisten biedt perspectief om het financiële rendement van biogasinstallaties te verbeteren.
Energie uit bloembolresten
Dijk, W. van; Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
BloembollenVisie (2015)295. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 26 - 26.
bloembollen - agrarische afvalstoffen - afvalhergebruik - brandstoffen - biogas - energie - proeven - gasproductie - biobased economy - bio-energie - ornamental bulbs - agricultural wastes - waste utilization - fuels - energy - trials - gas production - bioenergy
Bloembolresten zijn een goede aanvulling in het rantsoen van een vergister. De gasproductie liep uiteen van 100 m3 per ton vers voor lelieresten tot 250 m3 per ton vers voor tulpenresten. Dit blijkt uit proeven die zijn uitgevoerd met de vergister van ACRRES in Lelystad.
Droge vergisting van berm- en natuurgras
Zwart, K.B. ; Boer, D. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2661)
wegbermen - natuurgebieden - grasmaaisel - biomassa - compostering - co-vergisting - biogas - biobased economy - roadsides - natural areas - grass clippings - biomass - composting - co-fermentation
Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van de proef met droge vergisting van bermgras en natuurgras. Daarbij wordt niet alleen aandacht besteed aan de hoeveelheid biogas die geproduceerd kan worden, maar ook aan de kwaliteit van de geproduceerde compost en aan de duurzaamheid van deze vorm van verwerking. Of vergisting economisch aantrekkelijker is dan compostering valt op dit moment nog niet te zeggen.
Mestvergisting Fermtech systems en Ecobag
Kasper, G.J. ; Kemperman, A.J.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 874) - 45
mestvergisting - melkveehouderij - biogas - voedingsstoffen - dierlijke meststoffen - systeeminnovatie - bioraffinage - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fermentatie - biobased economy - manure fermentation - dairy farming - nutrients - animal manures - system innovation - biorefinery - sustainability - fermentation
Een deel van de veehouders wil de energetische waarde van mest benutten om in hun energieverbruik te voorzien. Vergisting is een methode om energie uit mest te halen. Doel is het vergisten van alle soorten dierlijke mest met systemen die een rendabele business case realiseren in de keten ‘(verse) mest tot en met verwaarden van digestaat of mineralenterugwinning m.b.v. mestraffinage’. Hiertoe zijn twee innovatieve technieken van vergisten onderzocht, die op pilotschaal zijn getest. Daarna zal bij opschaling het innovatieve vergistingsproces van grote betekenis kunnen zijn voor het mede oplossen van het Nederlandse mestprobleem. Het doel van dit project in engere zin beperkt zich tot het monitoren van alleen de innovatieve vergistingstechnieken van twee systemen met melkveemest op boerderijschaal.
Modeling studies of biological gas desulfurization under haloalkaline conditions
Klok, J.B.M. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Albert Janssen, co-promotor(en): Karel Keesman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572980 - 158
biogas - aardgas - ontzwaveling - sulfiden - oxidatie - bioreactoren - wiskundige modellen - simulatiemodellen - natural gas - desulfurization - sulfides - oxidation - bioreactors - mathematical models - simulation models

Abstract

Biogas, synthesis and natural gas streams often require treatment because of the presence of gaseous hydrogen sulphide (H2S). About 25 years ago, a biotechnological gas treatment process was developed as an alternative to the conventionally applied technologies. This process is known as the Thiopaq process and offers a number of advantages compared to the existing physical-chemical processes. Depending on the process conditions, H2S is oxidized to elemental bio-sulfur (90-94 mol%) and sulphate (6-10 mol%). In order to enable cost effective large scale applications, the selectivity for sulfur production should be increased to more than 97 mol%. Hence, a better understanding of the combined effect of abiotic and biological reaction kinetics and the relation to hydrodynamic characteristics is required.

The first part of this PhD study focuses on biological reaction kinetics and biological pathways for sulphide oxidation that occur in the process at haloalkaline conditions. It was found that two different sulfide oxidizing enzyme systems are present in haloalkaline sulfide oxidizing bacteria. It has been hypothesized that the different enzymatic routes are determined by the process conditions. Both enzyme systems were taken into account to propose and validate a new physiological mathematical model that can handle multi-substrates and multi-products.

In the second part of the thesis, this model was evaluated via a normalized sensitivity method and it was demonstrated that certain key parameters affect the activity of the biomass at different substrate levels. Furthermore, from CSTR simulations it has been demonstrated that non-linear effects are of importance when scaling up from lab-scale to full-scale industrial units.

Finally, the developed kinetic models have been incorporated in a full-scale biodesulfurization model that includes the effects of turbulent flow regimes and mass transfer of oxygen. This enables us to better understand the overall process. Moreover, the model can also be used as a tool to design model-based control strategies which will lead to better overall process performance, i.e. maximize sulfur production and minimize chemical consumption rates.

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