Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Biological control of an invasive pest eases pressures on global commodity markets
Wyckhuys, K.A.G. ; Zhang, W. ; Prager, S.D. ; Kramer, D.B. ; Delaquis, E. ; Gonzalez, C.E. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
biological control - ecosystem services - invasion biology - social-ecological systems - sustainable intensification - tele-coupling

In an increasingly globalized world, invasive species cause major human, financial, and environmental costs. A cosmopolitan pest of great concern is the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which invaded Asia in 2008. Following its arrival, P. manihoti inflicted measurable yield losses and a 27% drop in aggregate cassava production in Thailand. As Thailand is a vital exporter of cassava-derived commodities to China and supplies 36% of the world's internationally-traded starch, yield shocks triggered price surges and structural changes in global starch trade. In 2009 a biological control agent was introduced in Asia-the host-specific parasitoid, Anagyrus lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). This parasitoid had previously controlled the cassava mealybug in Africa, and its introduction in Asia restored yield levels at a continent-wide scale. Trade network and price time-series analyses reveal how both mealybug-induced production loss and subsequent parasitoid-mediated yield recovery coincided with price fluctuations in futures and spot markets, with important cascading effects on globe-spanning trade networks of (cassava) starch and commodity substitutes. While our analyses may not imply causality, especially given the concurrent 2007-2011 food crises, our results do illuminate the important interconnections among subcomponents of the global commodity system. Our work underlines how ecologically-based tactics support resilience and safeguard primary productivity in (tropical) agro-ecosystems, which in turn help stabilize commodity markets in a similar way as pesticide-centered approaches. Yet, more importantly, (judiciously-implemented) biological control can deliver ample 'hidden' environmental and human-health benefits that are not captured by the prices of globally-traded commodities.

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; DeClerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Zhang, W. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2018
agroecology - biological control - natural enemies - pest control - pest - ecosystem services - landscape
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Uncovering the economic value of natural enemies and true costs of chemical insecticides to cotton farmers in China
Huang, Jikun ; Zhou, Ke ; Zhang, Wei ; Deng, Xiangzheng ; Der Werf, Wopke van; Lu, Yanhui ; Wu, Kongming ; Rosegrant, Mark W. - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
biological control - economic value - insecticides - natural enemies - smallholder farming

Little empirical evidence on the economic value of biological control of pests at farm level is available to improve economic decision-making by farmers and policy makers. Using insect sampling and household survey in an integrated bio-economic analysis framework, this paper studies farmers' crop management practices in cotton in the North China Plain, and estimates the marginal value of natural enemies and costs of chemical insecticides to farmers. Ladybeetles (mainly Harmonia axyridis, Propylea japonica, and Coccinella septempunctata), the dominant natural enemy group that controls the primary pest (aphid) in cotton in our study area, provide a significant economic benefit that is unknown to the farmers. Even at the current high levels of insecticide use, an additional ladybeetle provides an economic benefit of 0.05 CNY (almost USD 0.01) to farmers. The use of broad-spectrum insecticides by farmers is alarmingly excessive, not only undermining farmers' cotton profitability but also inducing social costs as well as disruption of the natural pest suppression system. Doubling current ladybeetle density in cotton field could gain an estimated USD 300 million for cotton farmers in China, providing a strong economic case for policies to move the pest control system towards a more ecologically-based regime, with positive consequences for farm income and environmental health. With rising use of biological control service provided by natural enemies such as ladybeetles in cotton fields, significant falls in farmers' insecticide use would be expected, which could raise the value of ladybeetles and other natural enemies even further. The results indicate that there is an urgent need to rationalize inputs and move forward to improved agro-ecosystem management in smallholder farming system. Raising knowledge and awareness on the costs and value of biological pest control versus insecticides among farmers and policy makers and having effective extension service, are priorities towards achieving a more ecologically-based approach to crop protection on smallholder farms.

Kleine lieveheersbeestjes bieden perspectief tegen luizenprobleem: nuttig bij preventie van grote luisuitbraken
Messelink, Gerben - \ 2017
biological control - biological control agents - natural enemies - aphididae - greenhouse horticulture - sweet peppers - organic farming - propylea quatuordecimpunctata
Mothers in the woods: multitrophic interactions and oviposition preference in the bronze big Thaumastocoris pergrinus, a pest of Eucalyptus
Martínez, Gonzalo - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Marcel Dicke. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436786 - 172
eucalyptus - forest plantations - forest pests - multitrophic interactions - biological control - hemiptera - oviposition - host plants - uruguay - insect plant relations - bosplantages - bosplagen - multitrofe interacties - biologische bestrijding - ovipositie - waardplanten - insect-plant relaties

The bronze bug is an important pest of Eucalyptus trees. Originally restricted to Australia, it has become an important pest of Eucalyptus plantations, colonizing in 15 years the major production areas worldwide. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the oviposition behavior of the bronze bug within a multitrophic system comprised of its host plant (Eucalyptus spp.), a common co-occurring sap-feeder (Glycaspis brimblecombei) and a specialist egg parasitoid (Cleruchoides noackae). I assessed the life parameters of this species in a newly developed rearing. Based on the preference-performance hypothesis, I tested the effects of host-plant quality, conspecifics, or the infestation by a potential competitor on preference-performance correlations of the bronze bug. The egg parasitoid (C. noackae) was introduced, reared, and released. Finally, I assessed host-selection behavior of the parasitoid, testing its responses towards different contact cues. The findings of this investigation provided new insights on the oviposition behavior by true bugs, and towards the development of management strategies for T. peregrinus.

Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Gebregiorgis, Firehun Yirefu - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Egbert Lantinga; Taye Tessema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430562 - 174
eichhornia crassipes - biological control agents - biological control - neochetina - curculionidae - mycoherbicides - ethiopia - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - biologische bestrijding - mycoherbiciden - ethiopië

This thesis presents a study on management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using insects and fungal pathogens as bioagents. The main goal was to develop an effective biocontrol strategy for water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To this end, a field survey was conducted to assess the agro-ecological distribution of water hyacinth and of native fungal pathogens found in association with water hyacinth. We also performed laboratory and lath house experiments on (i) pathogenicity and host specificity of the fungal pathogens; (ii) adaptability, life table, efficacy and host specificity of the two Neochetina weevils; and (iii) the synergetic effects of integrated use of Neochetina weevils and fungal pathogen as bioagents. Survey results indicated that the weed is distributed in the Rift Valley water bodies located in low, mid and high altitude. The survey results also identified 25 fungal species found in association with water hyacinth that belonged to nine genera. Among the isolates, Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, and Alternaria spp. hold promise as possible bioagents of water hyacinth.

Laboratory study on life cycle and development of Neochetina weevils indicated the two weevils took shorter generation time in Ethiopia than in Argentina but relatively similar to Kenya and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the two weevils produced four generations per year indicating their successful establishment. Feeding by adult weevils and tunneling by larvae significantly impacted the vigour and reproduction of water hyacinth plants. A herbivory loads of three pairs of N. bruchi and two pairs of N. eichhorniae showed the highest level of leaf damage and defoliated petioles. The study also reinforced that the two weevils are sufficiently host-specific. Finally, a study on integrated use of Neochetina weevils and an indigenous plant pathogen revealed that the two Neochetina weevils and the fungus A. alternata were together able to reduce the vegetative growth and fresh weight of water hyacinth plants considerably.

This study recommends integrated use of fungal species and the two weevils to control water hyacinth. Implications of the findings are also discussed in the context of integrated water hyacinth management using the native fungal pathogens and the two weevils.

Fusarium is toenemend probleem in teelt van amaryllis : drie ziekteverwekkers en doorelkaar lopende symptomen
Kromwijk, Arca - \ 2016
fusarium - plant diseases - plant disease control - plant pathogens - plant protection - greenhouse horticulture - amaryllis - biological control
Geïntegreerde bestrijding van plagen in de sierteelt onder glas : een systeembenadering met preventieve biologische bestrijding als basis
Messelink, G.J. ; Leman, A. ; Ghasemzadeh Dizaji, Somaiyeh ; Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Holstein, R. van; Vijverberg, Roland ; Muñoz-Cárdenos, Karen - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : WageningenUR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1420) - 98 p.
siergewassen - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - rozen - chrysanten - alstroemeria - biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - geïntegreerde bestrijding - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - thrips - neoseiulus cucumeris - trialeurodes vaporariorum - aleyrodes - bemisia tabaci - amblyseius swirskii - euseius - iphiseius - roofmijten - orius - cryptolaemus montrouzieri - anagyrus pseudococci - planococcus citri - ornamental crops - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - roses - chrysanthemums - biological control - biological control agents - integrated control - integrated pest management - predatory mites
The control of greenhouse pests in ornamental crops is getting more difficult because of the decreasing number of available pesticides. Alternative methods of pest control, based on biopesticides and natural enemies is promising, but not yet robust and reliable enough. In this project we developed and evaluated several methods to enhance the biological control of western flower thrips, Echinothrips americanus, whiteflies and mealybugs. Most studies were focused on preventive control measures that promote the establishment and efficacy of natural enemies by using top layers, alternative food, artificial domatia and a banker plant system. Furthermore we studied the interaction between parasitoids and predatory beetles for curative control of mealybugs. Finally, a number of (bio)pesticides was evaluated for their potential use as a correction tool against western flower thrips.
Van chemie naar ecologie: niet straks maar nu!
Vet, Emely de - \ 2016
plant protection - pesticides - biological control - golf - agriculture - agri-environment schemes - ecosystems - biodiversity
'Van chemie naar ecologie. Niet straks maar nú!'
Vet, Emely de - \ 2016
golf - pesticides - agri-environment schemes - biological control - agriculture - plant protection - sports grounds - golf green soils - ecosystems - biodiversity - golf courses
Youtube registratie van de presentatie 'Van chemie naar ecologie. Niet straks maar nú!'
A study to identify alternatives for the use of chemical amenities in turfgrass systems
Struik, Paul - \ 2016
sports grounds - golf courses - golf - grass sward - chemical control - biological control - integrated pest management - ecosystems
Biologische bestrijding trips snijbloemen een stap dichterbij : Roofmijten bijvoeren met stuifmeel helpt bij totaalaanpak trips
Messelink, Gerben ; Leman, Ada - \ 2016
predatory mites - plant protection - biological control - cut flowers - greenhouse horticulture - pollen - pest control - integrated pest management
Nog geen zicht op biologische bestrijding van Rhizoctonia in radijs : resultaten onderzoek alternatieve bestrijdingsmethoden
Weerheim, Kees ; Streminska, Marta - \ 2016
biological control - radishes - rhizoctonia - moulds - research - scientific research
Gebruik van groene middelen : Inventarisatie laanboomkwekerij
Sluis, B.J. van der; Kuik, A.J. van; Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 22 p.
bos- en haagplantsoen - straatbomen - aantrekkelijke bomen - gelderland - gewasbescherming - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - natuurlijke producten - bladvoeding - natuurlijke vijanden - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - woody nursery stock - street trees - amenity trees - plant protection - integrated pest management - biological control - natural products - foliar nutrition - natural enemies - biological control agents
In de laanboomteelt in de regio Opheusden wordt al jarenlang gewerkt aan verduurzaming van de teeltmethoden. Het verantwoord toepassen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen is daarvan een belangrijk onderdeel. Door strengere regelgeving wordt het chemische middelenpakket steeds verder beperkt en komen boomkwekers in toenemende mate voor knelpunten te staan. Uit oriënterende gesprekken in de regio blijkt dat een deel van de boomkwekerijbedrijven zich inmiddels toelegt op het gebruik van groene middelen om zo de afhankelijkheid van chemische middelen te verkleinen. Volgens de definitie van het Ctgb zijn dit gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (planten, dieren, microorganismen) met een laag risico voor mens, dier, milieu en niet-doelorganismen. In dit project wordt geïnventariseerd wat de mate van gebruik is van groene middelen door laanboomkwekers in de regio Rivierenland én wat hun ervaringen zijn met deze middelen. De uitkomst kan de sector in de regio benutten om de kennisuitwisseling voor duurzaam telen te bevorderen, zowel tussen kwekers als naar de burgers.
Alternatieven voor neonicotinoïden in de sierteelt onder glas : bestrijding van tabakswittevlieg en bladluis in kuipplanten en perkgoed
Messelink, Gerben ; Vijverberg, Roland ; Bloemhard, Chantal ; Leman, Ada - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1418) - 42
tuinplanten - containerplanten - insectenplagen - bemisia tabaci - aphididae - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - biologische bestrijding - insecticiden - lecanicillium muscarium - entomopathogene schimmels - roofinsecten - bedding plants - container grown plants - insect pests - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - biological control - insecticides - entomogenous fungi - predatory insects
The control of phloem feeding insects such as aphids, whiteflies, cicadas, mealybugs, scales and plant feeding bugs in greenhouse crops still largely depends on the use of neonicotinoids. However, the increased found negative effects on the environment will soon results in a total ban on the use of these pesticides. In this project we summarized the possible alternative control measures with pesticides and biological control agents. Furthermore, a number of preventive and curative control measures was evaluated for the control of aphids in bedding plants and the tobacco whitefly in container plants, with Calibrachoa and Mandevilla as model plants. An endophytic application of an isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium gave a clear trend of 25% reduced population growth of aphids on Calibrachoa. Curative control of aphids with lacewings was not effective. Mullein plants enhanced tobacco whitefly control by the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus in Mandevilla and increased predator survival and reproduction. Among the tested alternative control measures, we found 5 products that controlled tobacco whiteflies effectively in Mandevilla.
Volatile-mediated interactions in the rhizosphere
Cordovez da Cunha, Viviane - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Francine Govers; Jos Raaijmakers, co-promotor(en): V.J. Carrion. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579019 - 219
rhizosphere bacteria - rhizosphere fungi - microbial interactions - volatile compounds - suppressive soils - actinobacteria - streptomyces - microbacterium - thanatephorus cucumeris - growth stimulators - biological control - defence mechanisms - genomics - transcriptomics - rizosfeerbacteriën - rizosfeerschimmels - microbiële interacties - vluchtige verbindingen - ziektewerende gronden - groeistimulatoren - biologische bestrijding - verdedigingsmechanismen - genomica - transcriptomica

Plants and microorganisms are constantly engaged in highly dynamic interactions both above- and belowground. Several of these interactions are mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), small carbon-based compounds with high vapor pressure at ambient temperature. In the rhizosphere, VOCs have an advantage in intra- and interorganismal signaling since they can diffuse through soil pores over longer distances than other metabolites and are not dependent on water availability. The research described in this PhD thesis explored how beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms that live in the rhizosphere and endosphere modulate plant growth, development and resistance via the production of VOCs. In vitro and in vivo bioassays as well as different ‘omic’ approaches, such as volatomics, transcriptomics and genomics, were employed to investigate underlying mechanisms of VOC-mediated microbe-microbe and microbe-plant interactions.

To investigate the diversity and functions of microbial VOCs, a disease-suppressive soil was used as the source of the VOC-producing microorganisms. Previous metagenomics studies reported Actinobacteria, in particular Streptomyces and Microbacterium species, as the most abundant bacterial genera found in a soil naturally suppressive to the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. VOCs of several Streptomyces isolates inhibited hyphal growth of R. solani and in addition, promoted plant growth. Coupling the Streptomyces VOC profiles with their effects on fungal growth pinpointed methyl 2-methylpentanoate and 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxy benzene as antifungal VOCs. Also Microbacterium isolates showed VOC-mediated antifungal activity and plant growth promotion. VOC profiling of Microbacterium sp. EC8 revealed several sulfur-containing compounds and ketones such as dimethyl disulfide, trimethyl trisulfide and 3,3,6-trimethylhepta-1,5-dien-4-one (also known as Artemisia ketone). Genome analysis of strain EC8 revealed genes involved in sulfur metabolism. Resolving the role of the identified compounds and genes in VOC-mediated plant growth promotion and induced resistance will be subject of future studies. VOC-mediated chemical warfare underground has been proposed as a key mechanism of natural disease-suppressive soils. The results presented in this thesis indeed point in that direction. However, to more conclusively determine the role of the identified Actinobacterial VOCs in soil suppressiveness to R. solani, it will be important to demonstrate that the fungicidal VOCs are actually produced in situ at the right place and at sufficient concentrations to suppress plant infection by the pathogenic fungus.

In agriculture, VOCs and VOC-producing microorganisms provide a potential alternative to the use of pesticides to protect plants and to improve crop production. In the past decades, several in vitro studies have described the effects of microbial VOCs on other (micro)organisms. However, little is still known on the potential of VOCs in large-scale agriculture and horticulture. The results described in this thesis show that VOCs from Microbacterium sp. EC8 stimulate the growth of Arabidopsis, lettuce and tomato, but do not control damping-off disease of lettuce caused by R. solani. Significant biomass increases were also observed for plants exposed only shortly to the bacterial VOCs prior to transplantation of the seedlings to soil. These results indicate that VOCs from strain EC8 can prime plants for growth promotion without direct contact and prolonged colonization. Furthermore, the induction of the plant growth-promoting effects appeared to be plant tissue specific. Root exposure to the bacterial VOCs led to a significant increase in plant biomass whereas shoot exposure did not result in significant biomass increase of lettuce and tomato seedlings. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to VOCs from this bacterium showed an up-regulation of genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism and in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. These results suggest that the blend of VOCs of strain EC8 favors, in part, the plant’s assimilation of sulfate and nitrogen, essential nutrients for plant growth, development and also resistance.

Similar to beneficial microorganisms, plant pathogenic microorganisms have also evolved strategies to modulate growth and defense of their hosts. For instance, compounds secreted by pathogens may suppress or interfere with plant defense. In this thesis I show that R. solani produces an array of VOCs that promote growth, accelerate development, change VOC emission and reduce insect resistance of plants. Plant growth-promoting effects induced by the fungal VOCs were not transgenerational. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis seedlings revealed that exposure to fungal VOCs caused up-regulation of genes involved in auxin signaling, but down-regulation of genes involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling. These findings suggest that this soil-borne pathogen uses VOCs to predispose plants for infection by stimulating lateral root formation and enhancing root biomass while suppressing defense mechanisms. Alternatively, upon perception of VOCs from soil-borne pathogens, plants may invest in root biomass while minimizing investments in defense, a trade-off that helps them to speed up growth and reproduction and to survive pathogen attack.

In conclusion, the research presented in this thesis shows that both plants and microorganisms engage via VOCs in long-distance interactions and that beneficial and pathogenic soil microorganisms can alter plant physiology in different ways. Here, I provided a first step in identifying microbial genes involved in the regulation of biologically active VOCs as well as candidate plant genes involved in VOC perception and signal transduction. How plants sense and differentiate among VOCs from beneficial and pathogenic soil microorganisms will be an intriguing subject for future studies.

Hoe wetenschap kan bijdragen aan duurzaam turfgrass management
Regensburg, Taco - \ 2016
plant protection - golf courses - weed control - biological control - agricultural research - pest control - plant disease control
Biologische bestrijding van Echinothrips americanus
Messelink, G.J. ; Gasemzadeh, Somayyeh ; Ada, Leman ; Leman, A. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 1 p.
greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - gerbera - sweet peppers - biological control - predator augmentation - thrips - predatory mites - greenhouse experiments - pollen - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - paprika's - biologische bestrijding - plaagbestrijding met predatoren - roofmijten - kasproeven - stuifmeel
Poster van het PlantgezondheidEvent 2016. Het doel van dit onderzoek was te bepalen welke roofmijten het meest geschikt zijn voor de bestrijding van Echinothrips en wat de invloed van stuifmeel op deze bestrijding is. In het laboratorium is nauwkeurig bekeken welke stadia vatbaar zijn voor roofmijten en hoeveel individuen van welk stadium per dag worden gegeten. Dit is getest voor de roofmijten Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, Euseius ovalis en Euseius gallicus. Vervolgens zijn kasproeven uitgevoerd op paprika en gerbera om de bestrijding en invloed van stuifmeel te beoordelen.
Ziekteweerbaarheid verhogen tegen wortelknobbelaaltjes (Meloidogyne spp.)
Kolk, J.P. van der; Voogt, W. ; Streminska, M.A. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der - \ 2016
- 1 p.
tuinbouw - gewasbescherming - plagenbestrijding - meloidogyne - glastuinbouw - biologische bestrijding - compost - bodemvruchtbaarheid - tomaten - conferenties - biologische landbouw - plaagbestrijding met predatoren - vruchtgroenten - meloidogyne incognita - meloidogyne javanica - aaltjesdodende eigenschappen - plantenparasitaire nematoden - bodemweerbaarheid - horticulture - plant protection - pest control - greenhouse horticulture - biological control - composts - soil fertility - tomatoes - conferences - organic farming - predator augmentation - fruit vegetables - nematicidal properties - plant parasitic nematodes - soil suppressiveness
In de biologische glastuinbouw zijn bodem gebonden ziektes een groot knelpunt. Wortelknobbelaaltjes (Meloidogyne incognita en M. javanica) zijn belangrijke pathogenen die in de vruchtgroententeelt voor problemen zorgen.
Conservation of predaceous Coccinellidae species in greenhouse ecosystems
Papanikolaou, N.E. ; Milonas, P.G. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse 7) - 2 p.
organic farming - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant health - natural enemies - habitats - coccinellidae - agroecosystems - biological control - pesticides - biologische landbouw - tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - plantgezondheid - natuurlijke vijanden - agro-ecosystemen - biologische bestrijding - pesticiden
Conservation of natural enemies is an important component of pest management, which can improve their efficacy against target pests. Conserving predaceous Coccinelidae species in agricultural ecosystems is used to enhance their biocontrol contribution. Favourable conditions in these habitats can contribute to a more efficient population regulation of several pests. Conservation efforts focus on discouraging emigration from a crop system and enhance retention time of coccinelids in periods with low prey availability. Thus, the management of agroecosystems should focus on providing resources in such temporal and spatial scale that may prevent their emigration or attract them in habitats. In addition, in a greenhouse ecosystem, another conservation action is to reduce mortality and sublethal effects caused by insecticides.
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