Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==biosafety
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Cisgenese : net zo veilig als klassieke veredeling?
Schouten, Henk - \ 2012
cisgenesis - genetic engineering - plant breeding - plant breeding methods - genetic variation - opinions - biosafety - risk assessment
The role of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in the spread of avian influenza: genomics, population genetics, and flyways
Kraus, R.H.S. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Ron Ydenberg, co-promotor(en): Pim van Hooft. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730282 - 143
aviaire influenzavirussen - aviaire influenza - anas platyrhynchos - ziekteoverdracht - vogeltrek - genomica - populatiegenetica - evolutionaire genetica - zoögeografie - bioveiligheid - ziekteoverzichten - epidemiologie - avian influenza viruses - avian influenza - disease transmission - bird migration - genomics - population genetics - evolutionary genetics - zoogeography - biosafety - disease surveys - epidemiology

Birds, in particular poultry and ducks, are a source of many infectious diseases, such as those caused by influenza viruses. These viruses are a threat not only to the birds themselves but also to poultry farming and human health, as forms that can infect humans are known to have evolved. It is believed that migratory birds in general play an important role in the global spread of avian influenza (AI). However, it is still debated how large this role precisely is and whether other modes of spread may be more important. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the world’s most abundant and well-studied waterfowl species. Besides being an important game and agricultural species, it is also a flagship species in wetland conservation and restoration. Waterfowl (Anseriformes: Anatidae) and especially ducks currently are the focal bird group in long distance dispersal of Avian Influenza in the wild, and the mallard has been identified as the most likely species to transport this virus.

In my thesis I report aspects of the biology of this important host species of AI by molecular ecological means. As molecular marker system I established a genome-wide set of more than 100,000 SNPs of which I developed a subset of 384 SNPs into an assay to genotype about 1,000 ducks. This subset was employed to study the evolutionary history and speciation processes in the Anas genus. Further investigations into the world-wide mallard population structure on a species level were based not only on this set of 384 SNPs but also on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Last but not last, I investigated an option of AI sampling and detection from duck faeces by technology that is safe from a biohazard perspective, and solves transportation issues related to cold chains.

The main results of my thesis include the development of a generally applicable improved analysis pipeline to develop genome-wide SNP sets for non-model organisms. Further, my results show that, from a migration system perspective, mallard flyways/populations can hardly be delineated from a biological point of view. Detailed phylogenetic, population genetic and coalescent analyses of a data set of samples spanning the whole northern hemisphere leads me to conclude that the only firm population boundaries that I can draw are between Eurasia and North America, within which panmixia is almost achieved. Mallards’ and other Anas-ducks’ whole continental to global distribution brings them together in sympatry. I can show that a combination of sympatric distribution, conflicting genetically determined and learned mate recognition mechanisms, and genomic compatibility between species helps to explain the long-standing puzzle of waterfowl hybridisation and introgression of genes from one duck species into another. Besides obvious management implications I propose that this fact can be part of the explanation why ducks are so well adaptable and successful, as well as why they show extraordinary abilities to withstand AI infections, or its consequences for health status.

On the introduction of genetically modified bananas in Uganda: social benefits, costs, and consumer preferences
Kikulwe, E.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Justus Wesseler; J.B. Falck-Zepeda. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856108 - 198
bananen - musa - bioveiligheid - genetische modificatie - genetische transformatie - sociale uitkeringen - houding van consumenten - consumenten - consumentenvoorkeuren - kosten - gewassen - uganda - bananas - biosafety - genetic engineering - genetic transformation - social benefits - consumer attitudes - consumers - consumer preferences - costs - crops
Agriculture is the mainstay for the great majority of rural people in most African countries
and is essential for poverty reduction and food security. The role of agriculture towards
poverty reduction, however, has not been realized in Africa, despite advances in development
of technologies such as improved varieties suitable to local conditions and resistant to pests,
diseases and droughts stresses. Plant breeding using modern biotechnology and genetic
modification in particular has the potential of speeding-up crop improvement. However, the
central issue in agricultural biotechnology particularly in Africa is to achieve a functional
biosafety system to ensure that a country has the capacity to assess risks that may be associated
with modern biotechnology. Several countries have designed and implemented policies to address
the safety concerns of consumers and producers, including environment and food safety. One of
the requirements, as proposed in Article 2 of the Cartagena Protocol, is the inclusion of
socioeconomic considerations in the biosafety assessment process. Many developing countries,
including Uganda, have not determined whether and how to include socioeconomic
considerations. Specifically, at what stage of the regulatory process should they be included, the
involved scope, as well as the nature of the decision-making process within the biosafety
regulations. The aim of my thesis is to examine potential social welfare impacts of introducing a
GM banana in order to illustrate the relevance of socioeconomic analyses for supporting
biotechnology decision-making and in particular the importance of consumer perceptions but
also for contributing to the development and implementation of biosafety regulations. I
present a general approach using GM banana as an example, while assuming the GM banana
has passed standard food and biosafety safety assessments, i.e. can be considered to be safe. I
explore the benefit-cost trade-offs of its introduction and the farmers’ and consumers’
willingness to pay for the technology and the end product. In the study I present a framework
for considering concerns about genetically modified crops within a socioeconomic analysis of GM
crops, using real options and choice experiment approaches. The approaches relate the economic
benefits to consumers’ concerns. The results show that the introduction of GM bananas would be
desirable for the Ugandan society as a whole, mainly benefit poor rural households and would
merit policy support. Nevertheless, if such a GM banana is introduced its introduction may
result in strong opposition from the opponent segment of the population, which is composed
of mainly urban consumers with an on average higher education and income. Interestingly
and in contradiction to common wisdom only providing additional information about the
technology and its safety will not result in higher acceptance. Based on this case study
biosafety regulators would need to consider these socioeconomic effects before a decision to
introduce a GM banana is made. However, the decision to consider socioeconomic impacts
for other GM crops elsewhere depends on the crop and the country. The research
methodology in this thesis provides the basis for assessing other GM crops as well.
Risk Assessment of Bioaccumulation Substances. Part II: Description of a Model Framework
Tamis, J.E. ; Vries, P. de; Karman, C.C. - \ 2009
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C107b/09) - 26
risicoschatting - bioveiligheid - ontladingen - voedselketens - ecotoxicologie - bioaccumulatie - ecologische risicoschatting - aquatische ecologie - risk assessment - biosafety - discharges - food chains - ecotoxicology - bioaccumulation - ecological risk assessment - aquatic ecology
This report provides a proposal for a framework for risk assessment of bioaccumulative substances, either from produced water discharges or present as background contamination. The proposed framework is such that it is compatible to the current EIF risk assessment models that are used in the Norwegian offshore oil and gas industry. The risk assessment approach selected for this framework is based on the use of critical body residues (CBR); i.e., body-tissue concentrations above which adverse effects are expected. A three-tiered risk assessment approach is distinguished: tier 1 for worst-case screening purposes; tier 2 based on probabilistic risk assessment using species sensitivity distributions and tier 3 focusing on population modelling for specific species. The latter tier is, because of its specific characteristics, not elaborated in detail. It is proposed to use a food-chain accumulation model to translate species sensitivity thresholds on the basis of CBR into external threshold concentrations, those external thresholds could then be used to either derive an ecosystem PNEC (tier I) or Species Sensitivity Distribution (tier II). This would provide a pragmatic approach to risk assessment of bioaccumulative substances in the context of the EIF modelling framework. Finally, an outline is provided for a research project in which the a risk assessment model for bioaccumulative substances is developed. This model will then be applied to two cases for purposes of demonstration and evaluation. An indication of workload and planning is provided.
Anticipating the future: 'Biotechnology for the poor' as unrealized promise?
Jansen, K. ; Gupta, A. - \ 2009
Futures 41 (2009)7. - ISSN 0016-3287 - p. 436 - 445.
developing-countries - agricultural biotechnology - crop biotechnology - gm crops - governance - revolution - biosafety - poverty - science - world
This article analyses visions of the future articulated by proponents of `biotechnology for the poor¿, those who claim that an embrace of transgenic technology in agriculture is critical to alleviating poverty in developing countries. Specifically, we analyse how such `biotechnology for the poor¿ proponents represent a future with or without transgenic crops. Such representations include visions of a beckoning (promising) future, where much is to be gained from an embrace of transgenic technology in agriculture, and an onrushing (threatening) future, where much will be lost if the technology is not embraced. The article shows that claims about a beckoning or onrushing future by `biotechnology for the poor¿ proponents are based upon unexamined or problematic assumptions about the poor and poverty. As such, poverty becomes merely a moral backdrop against which visions of a future are articulated. Furthermore, `biotechnology for the poor¿ writings do not engage in dialogue with alternative voices in articulating their perspectives on the future, losing a key opportunity to democratize debate about this crucial issue. We conclude by considering the policy consequences (in regulatory and institutional terms) of `biotechnology for the poor¿ depictions of the future, particularly for the global South where such consequences will be felt
Gewas- en teeltbeschrijving van suikerbiet, maïs en aardappel in relatie tot verspreiding van genetisch materiaal. Mate van verspreiding van genetisch materiaal in de landbouwpraktijk naar andere rassen, verwante soorten of naar het milieu
Brink, L. van den; Bus, C.B. ; Groten, J.A.M. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Timmer, R.D. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2008
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO nr. 3250099300) - 52
suikerbieten - aardappelen - maïs - genetische modificatie - transgene planten - teelt - milieubeleid - veiligheid - bioveiligheid - verspreiding - sugarbeet - potatoes - maize - genetic engineering - transgenic plants - cultivation - environmental policy - safety - biosafety - dispersal
Bij een milieuveiligheidsbeoordeling van genetisch gemodificeerde planten (GGP's) moet nagegaan worden of er als gevolg van het gebruik van GGP's schadelijke effecten kunnen optreden voor mens en milieu. Dit gebeurt aan de hand van een risicoanalyse. Hierbij wordt o.a. op basis van de eigenschappen van het gewas en de wijze waarop de teelt in de praktijk wordt uitgevoerd nagegaan in welke mate genetisch materiaal verspreid kan worden. In dit rapport wordt voor de gewassen suierbieten, aardappelen en maïs een beschrijving gegeven van de teelt in relatie tot verspreiding van genetisch materiaal naar andere rassen of verwante soorten. Ook de kans op het zich kunnen ontwikkelen van verwilderde populaties is hierin meegenomen
Outdoor ranging of poultry: a major risk factor for the introduction and development of high pathogenicity Avian Influenza
Koch, G. ; Elbers, A.R.W. - \ 2006
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54 (2006)2. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 179 - 194.
pluimveehouderij - scharrelhouderij - infectieziekten - aviaire influenza A-virussen - wilde vogels - volksgezondheid - migratie - epidemiologie - epidemieën - fylogenie - bioveiligheid - poultry farming - free range husbandry - infectious diseases - avian influenza A viruses - wild birds - public health - migration - epidemiology - epidemics - phylogeny - biosafety - a viruses - british-columbia - sentinel ducks - wild ducks - hemagglutinin - waterfowl - outbreak - h7n7 - surveillance - minnesota
High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) is an extremely infectious viral disease of poultry. Public health concerns were raised when six persons died in Hong Kong in 1997 after exposure to HPAI-infected poultry. Its danger became imminent in the recent HPAI epidemic in South-East Asia when the virus expanded its geographical range via parts of central Asia to Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Wild birds are frequently carriers of influenza A viruses. Nearly all Avian Influenza (AI) viruses isolated from wild birds are low-pathogenic and cause no clinical problems in these birds. Only after low-pathogenicity viruses are introduced in poultry, in particular in chickens and turkeys, high-pathogenicity mutants emerge after a variable length of time. Biosecurity is the first line of defence against an introduction of AI into commercial poultry flocks. Any conceivable contact between possibly contaminated animals, areas around poultry houses contaminated with faecal material from wild birds and contaminated abiotic vectors on the one hand and domestic poultry on the other must be avoided. In this paper we shall discuss the worldwide occurrence of HPAI outbreaks, the existence of AI virus infections in wild birds, and possible strategies to reduce the risk of the introduction of AI viruses into domestic poultry flocks, with special reference to free ranging
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and Domestic Implementation: Comparing Mexico, China and South Africa.
Gupta, A. ; Falkner, R. - \ 2006
London : Chatham House - Royal Institute International Affairs - 16
bioveiligheid - veiligheid - landbouw - genetische modificatie - biotechnologie - milieubeleid - china - mexico - zuid-afrika - agrotechnologie - biosafety - safety - agriculture - genetic engineering - biotechnology - environmental policy - south africa - agrotechnology
Genomics for Biosafety in Plant Biotechnology
Nap, J.P.H. ; Atanassov, A. ; Stiekema, W.J. - \ 2004
Amsterdam : IOS Press (NATO science series : Series I, Life and behavioural sciences vol. 359) - ISBN 1586034324 - 247
planten - biotechnologie - bioveiligheid - genexpressieanalyse - plants - biotechnology - biosafety - genomics
Botanical files 2003 : an exploration of the scientific literature on two aspects of GM crop biosafety: 1) The application of molecular markers to the detection of gene flow between crops and wild relatives 2) The possibilities of the use of gene function knowledge from Arabidopsis to assessing environmental safety of transgenes in GM crops
Wiel, C.C.M. van de - \ 2004
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Note / Plant Research International 292) - 24
arabidopsis - transgene planten - genetische modificatie - bioveiligheid - genenstroom - genetische merkers - moleculaire genetica - biotechnologie - milieueffect - transgenic plants - genetic engineering - biosafety - gene flow - genetic markers - molecular genetics - biotechnology - environmental impact
Rapportage AgroGen: Vergelijking van teelten met en zonder transgene gewassen in relatie tot duurzame landbouw
Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2002
Unknown Publisher (Nota / Plant Research International 199)
transgene planten - genetische modificatie - bioveiligheid - experimenteel veldonderzoek - nederland - transgenic plants - genetic engineering - biosafety - field experimentation - netherlands
The Biosafety Files, a new link in biosafety information
Louwaars, N.P. ; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Wagenaar, J. - \ 2002
Biotechnology and Development Monitor (2002)49. - ISSN 0924-9877 - p. 13 - 14.
transgene planten - bioveiligheid - risicoschatting - milieu - voedingsmiddelen - transgenic plants - biosafety - risk assessment - environment - foods
Risk assessment by a competent authority should precede the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment and food chain. Capacity building to ensure comprehensive risk assessment is a major challenge for governments especially those in developing countries. Access to scientifically verified biosafety information is an obvious field for international cooperation that several online initiatives are seeking to address. The Biosafety Files described here is a new Dutch contribution to risk assessment capacity.
Environmental impact of insect-resistant crop plants expressing a Bt-toxin II. Non-target effects (updated) and Bt-resistance in target insects
Maagd, R.A. de - \ 2002
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 54
bioveiligheid - transgene planten - bacillus thuringiensis - weerstand - insecten - toxinen - biosafety - transgenic plants - resistance - insects - toxins
Biosafety of metabolic engineering in plants : literature study in the framework of Policy Program 347, Biological Safety of Transgenic Plants commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries
Nap, J.L. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Plant Research International - 46
secundaire metabolieten - metabolisme - planten - engineering - bioveiligheid - toxicologie - ecologie - pleiotropie - transgene planten - secondary metabolites - metabolism - plants - biosafety - toxicology - ecology - pleiotropy - transgenic plants
Fitness effects of Alternaria dauci on wild carrot in The Netherlands
Schouten, H.J. ; Tongeren, C.A.M. van; Bulk, R.W. van den - \ 2002
Environmental Biosafety Research 1 (2002). - ISSN 1635-7922 - p. 39 - 47.
biosafety - carrot leaf blight - Daucus carota - fecundity
Biosafety of site-specific recombination-mediated and homing endonuclease-mediated chromosome modifications in plants
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Nap, J.P. - \ 1999
Wageningen : CPRO - 45
genetische modificatie - planten - bioveiligheid - recombinatie - recombinant dna - genetic engineering - plants - biosafety - recombination
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